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78 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
a phagocytic tissue cell of the immune system that may be fixed or freely motile, is derived from a monocyte, functions in the destruction of foreign antigens (as bacteria and viruses), and serves as an antigen-presenting cell
Innate Immunity
defenses hat are present at birth against ANY invader, 1st and 2nd line of defenses. Does not have a memory response
First Line of Defense
Intact skin
Mucus Membranes and their secretions
Normal microbiota
Second Line of Defense
Phagocytic white blood cells
Antimicrobial substances
Specific (adaptive) Immunity
Body's defense against a SPECIFIC invader
Third Line of Defense
Specialized lymphocytes: B Cells and T Cells
Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns:
molecules associated with groups of pathogens, that are recognized by cells of the innate immune system. They are recognized by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and other pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in both plants and animals.
They activate innate immune responses, protecting the host from infection, by identifying some conserved non-self molecules.
Colonization of microbes and cause harm, evades defenses and grows faster than host response
Immunity or resistance
the ability to resist infection
Foreign matter
Average time for the body to learn, recognize and respond to a new antigen
2 weeks
Primary role of 1st line of defense
Doesn't allow penetration
Primary role of the 2nd line of defense
Proteins that regulate the intensity and duration of immune responses. Recruit other macrophages and dendritic cells as well as other defensive cells to isolate and destroy the microbes as part of the inflammatory response
Physical (Anatomical) Barriers
1. Skin
2. Mucus membranes, secretions, cilia
3. Flushing of urinary tract
4. Removal of inhaled particles
Chemical Barriers
1. Lysozyme in tears and other secretions and in phagocytes
2. Antimicrobial factors in saliva (lysozyme, peroxidase, lactofermin)
3. Acid in stomach (low pH)
4. Rapid pH change from stomach to upper intestine
5. fatty acids and sweat on skin
6. pH of vagina
Normal Microbiota (commensals)
1. throat
2. skin
3. intestine
4. vagina
the skin's inner, thicker portion, composed of connective tissue
outer, thinner portion of skin, in direct contact with the external environment. consists of many layers of continuous sheets of tightly packed epithelial cells w/little or no material between the cells
Protective protein on the top layer of the epidermal cells (which are dead)
Mucous Membrane
Consist of epithelial layer and an underlying connective tissue
Protections of intact skin
1. water repellent (due to keratin)
2. continual shedding of dead cells
3. thick, fibrous dermis
4. low pH (3-5) of fungistatic fatty acid in sebum secreted onto skin
5. high salinity - salt residue from persperation
slightly couscous glycoprotein secretion produces by the epithelial layer of a mucous membrane and prevents tracts from drying out
Protections of mucous membranes
1. bathed with sticky mucus
2. Cilliary Escalator
3. Flushing and Peristalsis
4. lysozyme
5. Low pH of gastric juice (1.2-3.0)
6. Transferrins
Protective effects of Normal Microbiota
1. Microbial Antagonism (competitive exclusion)
2. adhering to binding sites on host cells preventing attachment by pathogens
3. making the environment less hospitable to potential pathogens by altering the pH (secreting acids)
4. producing bacteriocins (antimicrobials)
5. stimulating host's immune system
What occurs when the microbial balance is disrupted?
it leaves host vulnerable to overgrowth by Opportunistic Pathogens
Lymphatic System Properties
- anatomically decentralized
- 1 way system, from extremities to venus circulatory system
- cleanses the fluid of potential harm and returns it to the body
Primary lymphoid organs
1. Bone marrow
2. thymus
Secondary Lymphoid organs
1. lymph nodes
2. spleen
Bone Marrow
red (vascular) bone marrow produces stem cells
the proximal end of the long bone in adults retains stem cells
Large in the fetus
atrophies in adults
site of T cell maturation
some areas of concentration
placed so fluid has to pass [inguinal (top of leg), axillary (arm pit), cervical (neck)]
Lymphatic Tissues
embedded with immune cells
Does not contain lymph but has blood, it is where the plasma of blood gets cleansed by lymphocytes and macrophages
Committed Cell
a stem cell is an immature cell which can become many things, when it actually matures into something, it is committed
Hemopoietic Stem Cells
Committed to become a blood cell
Pinched off megakaryocytic, found and stay in the bone
Red Blood Cell
Carry oxygen and carbon dioxide
smallest and most numerous
Eosinophil, Basophil, Neutrophil
Largest of the white blood cells, large nucleus
become a macrophage or dendritic cell
What is the most common Granulocyte
Increased numbers
Decreased numbers
Small, most common, have a slight rim of cytoplasm
Do Red Blood Cells have a nucleus?
No. They are filled with hemoglobin to transport gasses
Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas
1. Neutrophil 60-70%
2. Lymphocyte (not a granulocyte) 25%
3. Monocytes 3-8%
4. Eosiniphils 2-4%
5. Basophil .5-1%
- precursor to macrophage and dendritic cells
- circulate in bloodstream until needed in tissues
-differentiate in the tissues into macrophages
Macrophages (in tissues)
-professional phagocyte; inflammation
-recruits more phagocytes for rapid removal of invader
-can be "activated" to increase killing power
-always present as a "sentry" in certain tissues
- Rapid responder to site of damage
- recruited to tissues during inflammation
- GRANULES: highly phagocytic, effective vs bacteria
- short lived
- Inflammation, allergic response
- GRANULES: produce histamine; vasodilator
- Mast Cells perform the same role in tissues
- Allergic Response
- GRANULES: triggered to release degradation enzymes
- somewhat phagocytic
Protein (chemical) messenger

picked up by other immune cells and triggers response to original stimulus
chemical attractants indecent chemotaxis. Cytokines that draw white blood cells to the damage site (attracts the movement toward the damage
Complement Proteins
Proteins found in plasma of the blood, non- cellular response
Is the Complement System specific
No, it is NOT 1 threat to 1 solution
The movement of bacteria or single cell organisms
What are the three protective outcomes of the Complement System
Enhancement of phagocytosis by coating with C3b (Opsinin)
Esp for bacterial matter, it will attach to the surface, coat the bacteria and draw it into the macrophage
Inflammation (complementary system)
Increase of blood vessel permeability and chemotactic attraction of phagocytes
Loss of cellular contents through transmembrane channel formed by Membrane Attack Complex (MAC - creates donut hole in pathogen, most effective against G- bacteria)
Inflammation (overview - triggers)
- Non specific
- mediated by histamine
- any damage or degranulation of the mast cell triggers inflammation
- draws macrophage and neutrophils to damage site to eliminate the source
- when C3a and C5a combine degranulation of mast cell occurs
4 signs of inflammation
1. Swelling (edema, tumor) - histamines become degranulated, causes vasodilation, leakage of plasma into the tissue
2. Heat (calor) - blood coming from the core is warmer and more blood means more heat. The heat increases rate of healing
3. Redness (rubor, erythema) - esp. when damage is close to the surface, caused by the vasodilation
4. Pain (dolor)
3 Protective outcomes of Inflammation
1. Walls off infection: slows the spread (the role of the clot from the platelets)
2. Destroys pathogens: immune cells attack (nuetrophis, 1st responders)
3. Promotes healing: Macrophages eat the puss created by the neutrophils and bacteria (also detect PAMPS)
1. chemotaxis: phagocytic cells recruited to damage site by chemoattractants
2. Adherence - opsonized invader is recognized
3. Ingestion - microbe enclosed in phagosome by pseudopods
4. digestion: phagosome fuses with lysosome containing digestive enzymes - lysozyme, toxic o2 products, invader digested in under 30 min
5. Exocytosis - ingestible material is expelled
In cell biology, a phagosome is a vacuole formed around a particle absorbed by phagocytosis. The vacuole is formed by the fusion of the cell membrane around the particle. A phagosome is a cellular compartment in which pathogenic microorganisms can be killed and digested.
Increased permeability of blood vessels
- leakage of plasma into tissues brings platelets and clotting factors
*walls off infected area
Migration of Phagocytes; phagocytosis
- phagocytes migrate into tissues
* destroys pathogens
- pus: fluid, cell debris and spent neutrophils
Tissue Repair and Healing
- macrophages clean up microbes and cell debris
* promotes healing
- GRANULOMA: seals of chronic infection with a wall of giant macrophages
Systemic defense, esp against bacterial infection
Fever (process from bacterial infection)
1. increases set point of body's thermostat
2. characterized by abnormally high body temperature
3. Enhances inflammatory repose (increases-everything works faster at a higher heat)
4. Increases interferon and antibody production
Why do we shiver when we have a fever?
Shivering produces heat and the body is trying to reach the new "set point"
The body's thermostat
What bacteria release to increase our set point
Interferon (IFN)
Antiviral proteins
Interferon Properties
- produced in response to viral infection
-diffuse to uninfected neighbor cells
- HOST and CELL specific, NOT viral-specific
- Induce expression of genes for Antiviral enzymes
IFN principal functions
Interfere with viral multiplication
Induce infected cell's deathly apoptosis
Suicidal Cell: host cell dies because it wants to destroy the virus inside
IFN as a chemical Messenger
- the cell that produces IFN is infected and will be destroyed
- sends message to other cells that the virus is spreading
- attaches to healthy cells and causes expression of protective proteins