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185 Cards in this Set

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Actos

Pioglitazone (pye-oh-glitazone)


(antidiabetic/thiazolidinediones)





Lowers blood glucose level by helping your body use insulin more efficiently in type 2 diabetics





Actonel (act-ter-nail)


Atelvia

Risedronate (re-zed-dronate)


(bisphosphonate)



Treats osteoporosis, preventing bone loss and increase normal bone growth

Amaryl

Glimepiride (glye-mep-er-ride)


(Antidiabetix/sulfonylurea)





Lowers blood glucose level by helping your body use insulin more efficiently in type 2 diabetics

Altace (all-tace)

Ramipril (ram-er-pril)


(ACE inhibitor)




Lowers blood pressure and treats congestive heart failure

Ambien

Zolpidem


(Sedative-Hypnotic)




Reduces difficulty falling asleep, waking up too early, or too often during the night

Amoxil

Amoxicillin


(Penicillin)




Treats skin, sinus, respiratory tract, ear, kidney, and other infections

Trimox

Amoxicillin


(Penicillin)




Treats skin, sinus, respiratory tract, ear, kidney, and other infections

Advair


*Long Acting

Salmeterol/Fluticasone


(Bronchodilator/Anti-inflammatory)




Salmeterol is a bronchodilator. Fluticasone is a steroid that prevents the release of substances in the body that cause inflammation.




Together, they can prevent asthma attacks and treat COPD

Atarax

Hydroxyzine


(Antihistamine)




Hydroxyzine reduces activity in the central nervous system. It also acts as an antihistamine that reduces the natural chemical histamine in the body. Hydroxyzine is used as a sedative to treat anxiety and tension. It is also used together with other medications given for anesthesia. Hydroxyzine may also be used to control nausea and vomiting.

Accupril

Quinapril


(ACE-Inhibitor)




Lowers blood pressure and treats congestive heart failure

Abilify

Aripiprazole (AR-i-PIP-ra-zole)


(Antipsychotic)




Stabilizes mood in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders

Allegra

Fexofenadine


(Antihistamine)




Relieves allergic symptoms, sneezing, runny nose, watering and itchy eyes

Ativan

Lorazepam


(Benzodiazepine/ben-zoe-dye-AZE-eh-peens)




Slows down the CNS, relieves anxiety, nervousness, treats panic attacks and insomnia. Avoid using other medicines that make you sleepy. They can add to sleepiness caused by lorazepam.

Boniva (bun-knee-va)

Ibandronate


(Bisphosphonate)




Treats osteoporosis, preventing bone loss and increases normal bone growth

Apresoline

Hydralazine


(Generic only. No brands available)



Hydralazine is a vasodilator. It works by relaxing and dilating (opening) the blood vessels in the body, allowing blood to flow through the vessels more easily and at a lower pressure


This drug is used to treat blood pressure spikes and is usually used prn

Imdur


Monoket


ISMO

Isosorbide Mononitrate

(Nitrates)




Isosorbide mononitrate is used to prevent angina attacks (chest pain) by vessel dilation.Isosorbide mononitrate will not treat an angina attack that has already begun.



Lexapro

Escitalopram


(Antidepressant/Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)




Lexapro is used to treat major depressive disorder in adults and adolescents who are at least 12 years old. Do not use Lexapro if you have taken an MAO inhibitor in the past 14 days. Can cause drowsiness

Cambia (oral powder)


Cataflam (treats menstrual cramps)


Voltaren-XR


Zipsor


Zorvolex


Voltaren

Diclofenac

(NSAID)




Diclofenac is used to treat mild to moderate pain, or signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. The Cataflam brand of this medicine is also used to treat menstrual cramps.

Glucophage


Glucophage XR

Metformin


(anti-diabetic)




Take Glucophage with a meal, unless your doctor tells you otherwise. Do not crush, chew, or break an extended-release metformin tablet (Glucophage XR). Avoid drinking alcohol

Nydrazid (d/c)

Isoniazid




Treating or preventing tuberculosis (TB). If you are using isoniazid to treat TB, it should always be used along with another medicine.Isoniazid is an antibacterial. It works by killing TB organisms. When taken over a long period of time at standard doses, Isoniazid can cause important and even fatal liver injury (hepatitis) in approximately 1 out of every 100 patients

Cyproheptadine (SYE-proe-HEP-ta-deen)

Cyproheptadine


(Antihistamine/generic only)




Treating symptoms of allergic reactions (eg, caused by seasonal allergies, food, blood or plasma). It is also used to treat mild, uncomplicated hives. Sometimes prescribed for its side effect of appetitite stimulation (to increase patient's appetite)

Namenda

Memantine (MEM-an-teen)


(NMDA receptor antagonist)




Memantine is used to treat moderate to severe dementia related to Alzheimer's disease. It does not cure Alzheimer's disease, but it may improve memory, awareness, and the ability to perform daily functions. This medication works by blocking the action of glutamate in brain that is believed to be linked to symptoms of Alzheimer's disease.

Kombiglyze XR

Saxagliptin and Metformin


(Onglyza + Metformin)




(Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV (DPP-IV) Inhibitor/Antidiabetic)




Metformin works by decreasing glucose (sugar) production in the liver and decreasing absorption of glucose by the intestines. Saxagliptin works by regulating the levels of insulin your body produces after eating. Kombiglyze XR is used to treat type 2 diabetes only.

Onglyza

Saxagliptin (SAX-a-GLIP-tin)


(Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV (DPP-IV) Inhibitor/Antidiabetic)




Onglyza (saxagliptin) is an oral diabetes medicine that helps control blood sugar levels. It works by regulating the levels of insulin your body produces after eating. Onglyza is for people with type 2 diabetes only.

Tradjenta

Linagliptin (LIN-a-GLIP-tin)


(Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV (DPP-IV) Inhibitor/Antidiabetic)




Linagliptin is an oral diabetes medicine that helps control blood sugar levels. It works by regulating the levels of insulin your body produces after eating. Type 2 diabetes only.

Januvia

Sitagliptin (SI-ta-glip-tin)


(Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV (DPP-IV) Inhibitor/Antidiabetic)




Sitagliptin is an oral diabetes medicine that helps control blood sugar levels. It works by regulating the levels of insulin your body produces after eating. Type 2 diabetes only.

Jentadueto

Linagliptin and Metformin


(Trajenta + Metformin)


(Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV (DPP-IV) Inhibitor/Antidiabetic)




Metformin works by decreasing glucose (sugar) production in the liver and decreasing absorption of glucose by the intestines. Linagliptin works by regulating the levels of insulin your body produces after eating. Jentadueto is used to treat type 2 diabetes only.

Janumet

Sitagliptin and Metformin


(Januvia + Metformin)


(Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV (DPP-IV) Inhibitor/Antidiabetic)




Metformin works by decreasing glucose (sugar) production in the liver and decreasing absorption of glucose by the intestines. Sitagliptin works by regulating the levels of insulin your body produces after eating. Jentadueto is used to treat type 2 diabetes only.

Ultram


Ultram XR

Tramadol


(Opioid Analgesic/ C-IV)




Tramadol is used to treat moderate to severe pain.The extended-release form of tramadol is for around-the-clock treatment of pain. This form of Tramadol is not for use on an as-needed basis for pain.




MOA: Tramadol and its active metabolite (M1) binds to μ-opiate receptors in the CNS causing inhibition of ascending pain pathways, altering the perception of and response to pain; also inhibits the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin, which are neurotransmitters involved in the descending inhibitory pain pathway responsible for pain relief

Oleptro (Longer-Acting)


Desyrel (dessert-rel)

Trazodone


(Antidepressant/Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor/Antagonist)




Treating depression. It may also be used for relief of an anxiety disorder (eg, sleeplessness, tension), chronic pain.Desyrel is an antidepressant. It is thought to work by increasing the activity of one of the brain chemicals (serotonin), which helps elevate mood. Desyrel may cause drowsiness, dizziness, or blurred vision. Today, there's no branded form of trazodone—you can only get it as a generic—but there is a long-acting version available called Oleptro.

Zyban


Wellbutrin

Bupropion


(Anti-depressant/Smoking Cessation Aid)




Bupropion is an antidepressant medication used to treat major depressive disorder and seasonal affective disorder. The Zyban brand of Bupropion is used to help people stop smoking by reducing cravings and other withdrawal effects. If you take Wellbutrin for depression, do not also take Zyban to quit smoking. If you take Zyban to help you stop smoking, you may continue to smoke for about 1 week after you start the medicine. Set a date to quit smoking during the second week of treatment

Exforge

Amlodipine and Valsartan


(Calcium Channel Blocker + ARB, aka Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers)




Amlodipine is a calcium channel blocker. It works by relaxing the muscles of your heart and blood vessels. Valsartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist. Valsartan keeps blood vessels from narrowing, which lowers blood pressure and improves blood flow.

Prandin

Repaglinide (Re-PAG-li-nide)


(Antidiabetic Agent, Meglitinide Analog)




Prandin (repaglinide) is an oral diabetes medicine that helps control blood sugar levels by causing the pancreas to produce insulin. Prandin is used together with diet and exercise to treat type 2 diabetes only. Daily doses should be divided and given 2-3 times daily with meals


Benicar

Olmesartan


(Antihypertensive/ARB)




Benicar (olmesartan) is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist. Olmesartan keeps blood vessels from narrowing, which lowers blood pressure and improves blood flow. Benicar is used to treat high blood pressure in adults and children who are at least 6 years old. Benicar can cause injury or death to the unborn baby if you take the medicine during your second or third trimester.FDA pregnancy category D

Zyprexa


Zyprexa Zydis (Orally disintegrating Tablet)


Zyprexa Relprevv (Injectable Suspension)

Olanzapine


(Anti-manic Agent (any drug that stabilizes mood by controlling symptoms of mania, the abnormal psychological state of excitement) )




Olanzapine is used to treat the symptoms of psychotic conditions such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (manic depression) in adults and children who are at least 13 years old. Long-term use of olanzapine can cause a serious movement disorder that may not be reversible. Symptoms of this disorder include uncontrollable muscle movements of your lips, tongue, eyes, face, arms, or legs. The longer you take olanzapine, the more likely you are to develop this movement disorder. The risk of this side effect is higher in women and older adults.




(Taking anti-psychotic medication during the last 3 months of pregnancy may cause problems in the newborn)

Romeron

Mirtazapine


(Antidepressant, Alpha-2 Antagonist)




Mirtazapine is an antidepressant. It affects chemicals in the brain that may become unbalanced and cause depression.Mirtazapine is used to treat major depressive disorder. Off label use include insomnia

Trileptal


Oxtellar XR

OXcarbazepine (OX-car-BAZ-e-peen)


(Anticonvulsant)




Oxcarbazepine is an anticonvulsant, or antiepileptic drug. It works by decreasing nerve impulses that cause seizures.Oxcarbazepine is used either alone or with other medicines to treat partial seizures.




The Trileptal brand of oxcarbazepine is used as a single medicine in adults and children who are at least 4 years old. Trileptal is used with other medicines in adults and children who are at least 2 years old.




The Oxtellar XR brand of oxcarbazepine is used with other medicines in adults and children who are at least 6 years old.

Novolog

Insulin Aspart


(Insulin, Rapid-Acting)




NovoLog (insulin aspart) is a fast-acting form of insulin that works by lowering levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood.NovoLog is used to treat type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetesin adults and children who are at least 2 years old. NovoLog is usually given together with another long-acting insulin. NovoLog is a fast-acting insulin that begins to work very quickly. After using it, you should eat a meal within 5 to 10 minutes.Choose a different place in your injection skin area each time you use this medication. Do not inject into the same place two times in a row.

Imodium


Diamode

Loperamide


(Anti-diarrhea)




Treating symptoms or diarrhea (including traveler's diarrhea). It works by slowing the movement of bowel contents.

Lasix

Furosemide


(Diuretic/Antihypertensive)




Furosemide treats fluid retention (edema) in people with congestive heart failure, liver disease, or a kidney disorder such as nephrotic syndrome. This medication is also used to treat high blood pressure. High doses of furosemide may cause irreversible hearing loss


Omnicef

Cefdinir


(Cephalosporin, need to avoid antacid/iron supplements)




Omnicef (cefdinir) is in a group of drugs called cephalosporin (SEF a low spor in) antibiotics. It works by fighting bacteria in your body. You may take Omnicef with or without food. Throw away any unused liquid that is older than 10 days. Avoid using antacids or mineral supplements that contain iron within 2 hours before or after taking Omnicef. Antacids or iron can make it harder for your body to absorb Omnicef.

Cephalosporins


(Antibiotic Class)

First-generation cephalosporins are active predominantly against Gram-positive bacteria, and successive generations have increased activity against Gram-negative bacteria (often with reduced activity against Gram-positive organisms).Cephalosporins are bactericidal and have the same mode of action as other β-lactam antibiotics (such as penicillins), but are less susceptible to β-lactamases. Cephalosporins disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer forming the bacterial cell wall. The peptidoglycan layer is important for cell wall structural integrity. The cephalosporin nucleus can be modified to gain different properties. Cephalosporins are sometimes grouped into "generations" by their antimicrobial properties. The first cephalosporins were designated first-generation cephalosporins, whereas, later, more extended-spectrum cephalosporins were classified as second-generation cephalosporins. Each newer generation has significantly greater Gram-negative antimicrobial properties than the preceding generation, in most cases with decreased activity against Gram-positive organisms. Fourth-generation cephalosporins, however, have true broad-spectrum activity

1st Generation Cephalosporins

Cephalexin (Brand: Keflex)


Cefazolin (Brand: Ancef, Kefzol) *injection only


Cefadroxil (Brand: Duricef)




They work by interfering with the bacteria's cell wall formation. This weakens the cell wall, causing it to rupture, resulting in death of the bacteria. First generation cephalosporins have relatively narrow spectrum of activity focused mainly on the gram-positive cocci. (Compared with Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria are more resistant against antibodies because of their impenetrable cell wall. These bacteria have a wide variety of applications ranging from medical treatment to industrial use and Swiss cheese production)

2nd Generation Cephalosporins

Cefaclor (Brand: Ceclor, Raniclor)


Cefprozil (Brand: Cefzil)


Cefotetan (Brand: Cefotan) *injection only


Cefoxitin (sef-OX-i-tin) (Brand: Mefoxin) *injection only


Cefuroxime (Brand: Ceftin (oral susp.), Zinacef (injectable))




The second generation cephalosporins have a greater gram-negative spectrum while retaining some activity against gram-positive bacteria. They are also more resistant to beta-lactamase





Microzide

Hydrochlorothiazide


(Antihypertensive/Diuretic)

Sterapred



Prednisone


(Systematic Corticosteroid)




Prednisone is a corticosteroid. It prevents the release of substances in the body that cause inflammation. It also suppresses the immune system

Klonopin

Clonazepam


(Benzodiazepine)




Clonazepam is in a group of drugs called benzodiazepines (ben-zoe-dye-AZE-eh-peens). It affects chemicals in the brain that may become unbalanced and cause anxiety.Clonazepam is used to treat seizure disorders or panic disorder. Do not drink alcohol while taking clonazepam. This medication can increase the effects of alcohol. FDA pregnancy category D

Paxil (HCl)


Paxil CR (ER)


Pexeva (Mesylate)

Paroxetine HCl


(Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)




Paroxetine is an antidepressant in a group of drugs called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Paroxetine affects chemicals in the brain that may become unbalanced.Paroxetine is used to treat depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder(PTSD), and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). PEXEVA is bioequivalent to Paxil®, which is composed of paroxetine hydrochloride. The chemical difference between the two products is the inactive salt portion of the active ingredient (PEXEVA's mesylate vs. PAXIL's hydrochloride)

Urso 250


Urso Forte (500mg)


Actigall

Ursodiol


(Gallstone Dissolution Agent, dan-jie-shi)




Ursodiol is a bile acid that decreases the amount of cholesterol produced by the liver and absorbed by the intestines. Ursodiol helps break down cholesterol that has formed into stones in the gallbladder. Ursodiol also increases bile flow in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis.Ursodiol is used to treat primary biliary cirrhosis.Ursodiol capsules are used to treat small gallstones in people who cannot have gallbladder surgery, and to prevent gallstones in overweight patients undergoing rapid weight loss. Ursodiol capsules are not for treating gallstones that are calcified. To treat gallstones, you may have to take ursodiol for several months before your gallstones dissolve. Some antacids can make it harder for your body to absorb ursodiol.

Welchol

Colesevelam (Cole-SEV-er-lam)


(Antilipemic Agent/Bile Acid Sequestrant) * Bile acid sequestrants can increase triglyceride




Welchol, along with diet and exercise, lowers LDL or "bad" cholesterol. Lowering your LDL cholesterol may reduce your risk of hardened arteries, which can lead to heart attacks, stroke, and circulation problems. Welchol, along with diet and exercise, also lowers blood sugar levels in adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus when added to other anti-diabetes medications. Welchol does not appear to affect triglycerides and, in some cases, may actually raise triglycerides if taken for a prolonged amount of time.Welchol should not be used in patients who have very high triglyceride levels

Xarelto (ze-rail-tol)

Rivaroxaban (riv-a-ROX-a-ban)


(Anticoagulant)




Rivaroxaban is an anticoagulant (blood thinner) that prevents the formation of blood clots.Rivaroxaban is used to prevent or treat a type of blood clot called deep vein thrombosis (DVT), which can lead to blood clots in the lungs (pulmonary embolism). A DVT can occur after certain types of surgery.Rivaroxaban is also used in people with atrial fibrillation (a heart rhythm disorder) to lower the risk of stroke caused by a blood clot.

Eliquis

Apixaban (a-PIX-a-ban)


(Anticoagulant)




Eliquis (apixaban) keeps the platelets in your blood from coagulating (clotting).Eliquis is used to lower the risk of stroke caused by a blood clot in people with a heart rhythm disorder called atrial fibrillation.Eliquis is also used after hip or knee replacement surgery to prevent a type of blood clot called deep vein thrombosis(DVT), which can lead to blood clots in the lungs (pulmonary embolism).Eliquis is also used to treat DVT or pulmonary embolism (PE), and to lower your risk of having a repeat DVT or PE.

Colcrys

Colchicine


(Antigout Agent)




The Colcrys brand of colchicine is FDA-approved to treat gout in adults, and to treat a genetic condition called Familial Mediterranean Fever in adults and children who are at least 4 years old.

Avodart

Dutasteride


(5 Alpha-Reductase Inhibitor/Reduce BPH)




Avodart (dutasteride) prevents the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in the body. DHT is involved in the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).Avodart is used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in men with an enlarged prostate. It helps improve urinary flow and may also reduce your need for prostate surgery later on.Avodart is sometimes given with another medication called tamsulosin (Flomax). Be sure to read the medication guide or patient instructions provided with each of your medications.

Proscar (BPH)


Propecia (Male Pattern Baldness)

Finesteride


(5 Alpha-Reductase Inhibitor)




Finasteride (Propecia) is used for the treatment of male pattern hair loss. Finasteride (Proscar) is used to treat symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in men with an enlarged prostate.This medicine is for use in men only.

Oxymetazoline

Oxymetazoline is a vasoconstrictor. It works by narrowing swollen blood vessels




Oxymetazoline ophthalmic (for the eyes) is for temporary relief of minor eye redness or discomfort caused by minor irritants (Visine)


Oxymetazoline nasal (for the nose) is for temporary relief of nasal congestion (stuffy nose) caused by allergies or the common cold (Afrin)

Dramamine

Dimenhydrinate


(Histamine H1 Antagonist)




Dimenhydrinate is used to prevent and treat dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and vertigo associated with motion sickness.

Phenergan


Phenadoz (suppository)

Promethazine


(Antiemetic *against nausea/vomiting; Histamine H1 Antagonist)




Promethazine is used to treat allergy symptoms such as itching, runny nose, sneezing, itchy or watery eyes, hives, and itchy skin rashes. It also prevents motion sickness, and treats nausea and vomiting or pain after surgery. It is also used as a sedative or sleep aid.


Source 2


Promethazine is used to relieve the symptoms of allergic reactions such as allergic rhinitis (runny nose and watery eyes caused by allergy to pollen, mold or dust), allergic conjunctivitis (red, watery eyes caused by allergies), allergic skin reactions, and allergic reactions to blood or plasma products. Promethazine is used with other medications to treat anaphylaxis (sudden, severe allergic reactions) and the symptoms of the common cold such as sneezing, cough, and runny nose


Dextromethorphan (Antitussive/Cough Suppresant)


Guaifenesin (Expectorant/Mucous)

Dextromethorphan is a cough suppressant. It affects the signals in the brain that trigger cough reflex. Dextromethorphan is used to treat a cough (Delsym)


Guaifenesin is an expectorant. It helps loosen congestion in your chest and throat, making it easier to cough out through your mouth. Guaifenesin is used to reduce chest congestion caused by the common cold, infections, or allergies. It does not suppress cough in healthy individuals (Mucinex)

Ephedrine (Alpha/Beta Agonist)


Pseudoephedrine (Alpha/Beta Agonist)


Phenylpropanolamine (d/c)

Limit


3.6 gram per day/consumer AND


9.0 gram per 30 days/consumer



Ephedrine (vasoconstrictor/bronchodilator) is used for temporary relief of shortness of breath, chest tightness, and wheezing due to bronchial asthma (opening up airway). Ephedrine may also be used for other conditions as determined by your doctor. Ephedrine is a decongestant and bronchodilator (not vasodilator!). It works by reducing swelling and constricting blood vessels in the nasal passages and widening the lung airways, allowing you to breathe more easily.


Pseudoephedrine is also a vasoconstrictor, but less efficacy than ephedrine.


Mevacor

Lovastatin


(Antilipemic Agent)




Lovastatin reduces levels of "bad" cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein, or LDL) and triglycerides in the blood, while increasing levels of "good" cholesterol (high-density lipoprotein, or HDL).Lovastatin is used to lower the risk of stroke, heart attack, and other heart complications in people with diabetes, coronary heartdisease, or other risk factors

Livalo (le-vow-lo)

Pitavastatin (pi-TA-va-sta-tin)


(Antilipemic Agent)



Pitavastatin reduces levels of "bad" cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein, or LDL) and triglycerides in the blood, while increasing levels of "good" cholesterol (high-density lipoprotein, or HDL). Pitavastatin is used to treat high cholesterol in adults. Lowering your cholesterol may help prevent heart disease and hardening of the arteries, conditions that can lead to heart attack, stroke, and vascular disease.

Questran



Cholestyramine (koe-LES-teer-a-meen )


(Antilipemic Agent/Bile Acid Sequestrant) *same class as Welchol




Cholestyramine helps reduce cholesterol (fatty acids) in the blood. High cholesterol is associated with an increased risk of heart disease and atherosclerosis (clogged arteries).Cholestyramine is used to lower high levels of cholesterol in the blood, especially low-density lipoprotein (LDL) ("bad" cholesterol).Cholestyramine powder is also used to treat itching caused by a blockage in the bile ducts of the gallbladder.

Adderall

Amphetamine and Dextroamphetamine


(sympathomimetic)




Improves attention span, concentration, emotional control and reduce restless or overactive behavior in patients with ADHD. ADHD symptoms include difficulty staying focused and paying attention, difficulty controlling behavior, and hyperactivity (over-activity)

Restasis

Cyclosporine Ophthalmic (SYE-kloe-spor-een)


(Immunosuppresive Agent)




Restasis (cyclosporine) is an immunosuppressive agent. Cyclosporine may reduce inflammation in the eye(s). Restasis is used to treat chronic dry eye that may be caused by inflammation

Valium

Diazepam(dye-AZ-e-pam)


(Benzodiazepine)




Valium is used to treat anxiety disorders (oral, IV/IM) , alcohol withdrawal symptoms (oral, IV/IM), or muscle spasms (only IV/IM)

Effexor


Effexor XR

Venlafaxine (VEN-la-fax-een)


(Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor/SSNRI)




Effexor is used to treat major depressive disorder, anxiety, and panic disorder. You should not take venlafaxine if you have uncontrolled narrow-angle glaucoma. Taking an SSRI antidepressant during pregnancy may cause serious lung problems or other complications in the baby. (SSRI's are all bad for baby)




Off-Label Use:


1) Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adult patients


2)Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)


3) Hot Flashes

Aleve

Naproxen


(NSAID)




Naproxen works by reducing hormones that cause inflammation and pain in the body. Aleve is used to temporarily relieve minor aches and pains due to arthritis, muscular aches, backache, menstrual cramps, headache, toothache,and the common cold. Aleve is also used to temporarily reduce fever. Taking Aleve during the last 3 months of pregnancy may result in birth defects. Naproxen can pass into breast milk and may harm a nursing baby. Do not use this medication without telling your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby

Elavil

Amitriptyline


(Antidepressant, Tricyclic (Tertiary Amine)




Amitriptyline is a tricyclic antidepressant. It affects chemicals in the brain that may become unbalanced.Amitriptyline is used to treat symptoms of depression.




Off-Label Use:


1) Chronic pain management


2) Diabetic neuropathy


3)Interstitial cystitis (bladder pain syndrome)

Prevacid

Lansoprazole (lan-SOE-pra-zole)


(Proton Pump Inhibitor) *All PPIs decrease amount of gastric acid




Lansoprazole belongs to a group of drugs called proton pump inhibitors. It decreases the amount of acid produced in the stomach.Lansoprazole is used to treat and prevent stomach and intestinal ulcers, erosive esophagitis (damage to the esophagus from stomach acid), and other conditions involving excessive stomach acid such as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Sucralfate can make it harder foryour body to absorb lansoprazole. Lansoprazole is usually taken before eating.

Medrol

Methylprednisolone


(Corticosteroid)




Methylprednisolone is a steroid that prevents the release of substances in the body that cause inflammation. Oral Methylprednisolone is used to treat many different inflammatory conditions such as arthritis, Asthma (severe persistent, long-term control) ulcerative colitis, allergic disorders, gland (endocrine) disorders. It decreases your immune system's response to various diseases to reduce symptoms such as swelling, pain, and allergic-type reactions. This medication is a corticosteroid hormone.




Maintenance medication for Asthma

Vasotec


Epaned (Oral Powder For Reconstitution)



Enalapril


(ACE Inhibitor)




Vasotec (enalapril) is an ACE inhibitor. ACE stands for angiotensin converting enzyme. Vasotec is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension) in adults and children who are at least 1 month old. Vasotec is also used to treat congestive heart failure in adults. Vasotec is also used to treat a disorder of the ventricles (Asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction). This disorder can decrease the heart's ability to pump blood to the body. Do not use Vasotec if you are pregnant.

Protonix

Pantoprazole (pan-TOE-pra-zole)


(PPI)




Pantoprazole is a proton pump inhibitor that decreases the amount of acid produced in the stomach.Pantoprazole is used to treat erosive esophagitis (damage to the esophagus from stomach acid), and other conditions involving excess stomach acid such as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.

Proton Pump Inhibitor

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) treat heartburn and other symptoms caused by gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), usually after lifestyle modifications and histamine blockers such as ranitidine have failed. They work by blocking the "pump" that transports acid into the stomach, thereby decreasing the acidity, and the overall volume, of gastric acid.Proton pump inhibitors are also used to treat stomach ulcers caused by bacteria (Helicobacter pylori) or drugs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, NSAIDs). They are also used to promote healing in erosive esophagitis.


A study published in Digestive Diseases and Sciences found that esomeprazole provided more effective control of GERD than omeprazole at the same doses. According to a study published in World Journal of Gastroenterology,esomeprazole offered faster relief than omeprazole in the first week of use. After one week, symptom relief was similar.

Aricept

Donepezil (doe-NEP-e-zil)


(Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor (Central)




It works by preventing the breakdown of a chemical called acetylcholine (ah SEET il KOE leen). People with dementia usually have lower levels of this chemical, which is important for the processes of memory, thinking, and reasoning. Aricept is used to treat mild to moderate dementia caused by Alzheimer's disease. It can also be used for treating dementia due to Parkinson's Disease and Lewy body dementia.

Lotrimin

Clotrimazole(kloe-TRIM-a-zole)


(Antifungal Agent)




Clotrimazole topical is an antifungal medication that fights infections caused by fungus. Clotrimazole topical (for the skin) is used to treat skin infections such as athlete's foot, jock itch, ringworm, and yeast infections.


Dermatophytosis, cutaneous candidiasis


Vulvovaginal candidiasis (vaginal)

Spectazole


Ecoza (Topical Foam)

Econazole Nitrate


(Antifungal Agent)




Econazole is an antifungal medicine that fights infections caused by fungus. Econazole topical (for the skin) is used to treat athlete's foot (tinea pedis), jock itch (tinea cruris), and ringworm (tinea corporis). Econazole topical is also used to treat tinea versicolor (a fungus that discolors the skin), and yeast infections of the skin.

Bactroban

Mupirocin


(Antibiotic, Topical)



Treating skin infections. It may also be used for other conditions as determined by your doctor. Mupirocin cream is an antibacterial. It works by stopping the production of essential proteins needed by the bacteria to survive.


Mupirocin inhibits isoleucyl tRNA synthase, which stops the replication of bacteria

Elocon

Mometasone


(Corticosteroid, Topical)




Treating itching, redness, and swelling of many skin conditions. Mometasone cream is a topical corticosteroid. It works by reducing inflammatory reactions and modifying immune reactions in the body.


Apply a thin film to affected area once daily

Vanos


Lidex



Fluocinonide


(Corticosteroid, Topical)




Fluocinonide topical (for the skin) is used to treat the inflammation and itching caused by a number of skin conditions such as allergic reactions, eczema, and psoriasis (A condition in which skin cells build up and form scales and itchy, dry patches)

MetroCream


MetroGel


MetroGel-Vaginal

Metronidazole


(Antibiotic, Topical)




Metronidazole is an antibiotic that fights bacteria in the body.




Bacterial vaginosis: Vaginal via applicator


Rosacea: Topical

Desonate (Gel)


Verdeso (Foam)


DesOwen (Cream and Lotion)

Desonide


(Corticosteroid, Topical)




Desonide topical (for the skin) is used to treat the inflammation and itching caused by a number of skin conditions such as allergic reactions, eczema, and psoriasis.

Topical Corticosteroid

Topical corticosteroids are medications used for treating skin conditions such as rash, dermatitis, itching, eczema, and psoriasis. Topical corticosteroids have potent anti-inflammatory actions and also suppress the immune response. Topical corticosteroids are used based on their potency, the area of the body to which they will be applied, and type of skin condition being treated.

Topicort

Desoximetasone (the-suck-xi-MET-a-sone)


(Corticosteroid, Topical)




Desoximetasone topical is used treat to the inflammation and itching caused by a number of skin conditions such as allergic reactions, eczema, and psoriasis.

Provera


Depo-Provera (Basically any drug with Depo means injection)

Medroxyprogesterone


(Progestin)




Orally, Medroxyprogesterone is used to treat conditions such as absent or irregular menstrual periods, or abnormal uterine bleeding. Medroxyprogesterone is also used to decrease the risk of endometrial hyperplasia (a condition that may lead to uterine cancer) while taking estrogens. Medroxyprogesterone is also used to prevent overgrowth in the lining of the uterus in postmenopausal women who are receiving estrogen hormone replacement therapy.




Depo-Provera is a form of progesterone, a female hormone that prevents ovulation (the release of an egg from an ovary). This medication also causes changes in your cervical mucus and uterine lining, making it harder for sperm to reach the uterus and harder for a fertilized egg to attach to the uterus. Depo-Provera Contraceptive injection is used as contraception to prevent pregnancy. It is also used to reduce pain caused by endometriosis.

Pravachol

Pravastatin


(Antilipemic Agent, HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitor)




Pravastatin is used to lower cholesterol and triglycerides (types of fat) in the blood.Pravastatin is also used to lower the risk of stroke, heart attack, and other heart complications in people with diabetes, coronary heart disease, or other risk factors

ProAir HFA


Proventil HFA


Ventolin HFA


*HFA is the propellant in inhaler


*Rapid Acting

Albuterol


(Beta-2 Agonist) *Beta-2 Receptor is found mostly in Lung




Albuterol is a bronchodilator that relaxes muscles in the airways and increases air flow to the lungs.Albuterol inhalation is used to treat or prevent bronchospasm in people with reversible obstructive airway disease. Albuterol is also used to prevent exercise-induced bronchospasm

Spiriva HandiHaler


*Long acting

Tiotropium(ty-oh-TRO-pee-um)


(Anticholinergic Agent, Long-Acting)


*Generic Not Available




Tiotropium is a bronchodilator that relaxes muscles in the airways and increases air flow to the lungs. Tiotropium inhalation is used to prevent bronchospasm (narrowing of the airways in the lungs) in people with COPD, including bronchitis and emphysema.

Atrovent


*Short acting

Ipratropium


(Anticholinergic Agent, Short-Acting)




Ipratropium is a bronchodilator that relaxes muscles in the airways and increases air flow to the lungs. Ipratropium inhalation is used to prevent bronchospasm (narrowing of the airways in the lungs) in people with COPD, including bronchitis and emphysema.

Tudorza Pressair


*Long Acting

Aclidinium


(Anticholinergic Agent, Long-Acting)


*Generic Not Available




Tudorza Pressair is used to prevent bronchospasm in adults with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, or other forms of COPD.Tudorza Pressair will not work fast enough to treat a bronchospasm attack. Use only a fast-acting inhalation medicine for a bronchospasm attack.

Combivent


DuoNeb


*Rapid Acting

Ipratropium and Albuterol


(Short Acting Anticholinergic + Short Acting Beta2 Agonist)




Combivent is a metered-dose inhaler containing a combination of albuterol and ipratropium. Albuterol and ipratropium are bronchodilators that relax muscles in the airways and increase air flow to the lungsCombivent is used as an inhaled medication to prevent bronchospasm in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who are also using other medicines to control their condition.

Symbicort


*Long Acting

Budesonide and Formoterol


(Beta2-Adrenergic Agonist, Long-Acting and Corticosteroid)




Budesonide is a steroid that reduces inflammation in the body. Formoterol is a bronchodilator that relaxes muscles in the airways to improve breathing. Symbicort is for use only if asthma is severe or is not well-controlled on other long-term asthma medicines.Do not use Symbicort to treat an asthma attack that has already begun.




For asthma control, long-acting beta2-agonists (LABAs) should be used in combination with inhaled corticosteroids and not as monotherapy

Flovent HFA


*For Maintenance

Fluticasone


(Corticosteroid, Inhalant (Oral) *Not nasal *Maintenance


*Generic Not Available




Flovent (fluticasone) is a steroid. It prevents the release of substances in the body that cause inflammation.Flovent is used to prevent asthma attacks. It will not treat an asthma attack that has already begun

Qvar


*For Maintenance

Beclomethasone


(Corticosteroid, Inhalant (Oral) *Maintenance


*Generic Not Available




Beclomethasone is a steroid. It prevents the release of substances in the body that cause inflammation.Beclomethasone inhalation is used to prevent asthma attacks. This medication will not treat an asthma attack that has already begun.

Dulera

Mometasone and Formoterol


(Beta2 Agonist, Long-Acting and Corticosteroid)




Similar mechanism to Symbicort

Astagraf XL


Prograf


Protopic (Topical)

Tacrolimus


(Calcineurin Inhibitor/Immunosuppresant)




Topical: Tacrolimus is an immunosuppressant. It works by decreasing your body's immune system. Tacrolimus topical (for the skin) is used to treat severe atopic dermatitis (eczema).




Oral/Injectable: Tacrolimus lowers your body's immune system. The immune system helps your body fight infections. The immune system can also fight or "reject" a transplanted organ such as a liver or kidney. This is because the immune system treats the new organ as an invader.Tacrolimus is used together with other medicines to prevent your body from rejecting a heart, liver, or kidney transplant.

Gris-PEG



Griseofulvin (GRIS-ee-oh-FUL-vin)


(Antifungal Agent, Oral)




Griseofulvin is an antifungal medication that fights infections caused by fungus.Griseofulvin is used to treat infections such as ringworm, athlete's foot, jock itch, and fungal infections of the scalp, fingernails, or toenails. FDA pregnancy category X. This medicine can harm an unborn baby or cause birth defects. Do not use griseofulvin if you are pregnant.Griseofulvin may make birth control pills less effective

Dexilant

Dexlansoprazole


(PPI) *Generic Not Available




Healing and maintaining healing of irritation of the esophagus. It is also used to treat symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (eg, heartburn).

Depakote


Depakote XR


Depakote Sprinkle (Capsule)

Divalproex Sodium (dye-val-PRO-ex)


(Anticonvulsant/Antimanic Agent)




Controlling certain types of seizures in the treatment of epilepsy. It is also used to treat the manic phase of bipolar disorders (manic-depressive illness) and to prevent migraine headaches




It works by reducing or preventing the number of seizures by controlling the abnormal activity of nerve impulses in the brain and central nervous system. Exactly how it works to treat bipolar disorder and migraine headache is not known




Pregnancy Risk Factor X for migraine


Pregnancy Risk Factor D for bipolar

Accutane


Absorica


Amnesteem


Myorisan

Isotretinoin (EYE-soe-TRET-i-noyn)
(Acne Products)




Isotretinoin is a form of vitamin A (retinoid). It reduces the amount of oil released by oil glands in your skin, and helps your skin renew itself more quickly. Isotretinoin is used to treat severe nodular acne that has not responded to other treatments, including antibiotics. It works by reducing skin oil production, changing the characteristics of the skin oil, and preventing abnormal hardening of the skin.Do not use isotretinoin if you are pregnant, may become pregnant, or if you are planning to become pregnant. Serious and sometimes fatal birth defects can occur if isotretinoin is taken during pregnancy.




iPleadge required


Pregnancy Risk Factor X



Lanoxin


Digitek

Digoxin


(Antiarrhythmic Agent)




Digoxin helps make the heart beat stronger and with a more regular rhythm. Digoxin is used to treat heart failure. Digoxin is also used to treat atrial fibrillation, a heart rhythm disorder of the atria (the upper chambers of the heart that allow blood to flow into the heart). Avoid becoming overheated or dehydrated during exercise, in hot weather, or by not drinking enough fluids. Digoxin overdose can occur more easily if you are dehydrated

DDAVP

Desmopressin


(Hormone/Hemostatic Agent)




Main Function: Treats symptoms of increased thirst and urination




Desmopressin is a man-made form of a hormone that occurs naturally in the pituitary gland. This hormone is important for many functions including blood flow, blood pressure, kidney function, and regulating how the body uses water. Desmopressin is used to treat bed-wetting, central cranial diabetes insipidus, and increased thirst and urination caused by head surgery or head trauma.




It is very important to reduce your intake of water and other fluids while you are taking desmopressin




Diabetes insipidus (die-uh-BEE-teze in-SIP-uh-dus) is an uncommon disorder characterized by intense thirst, despite the drinking of fluids (polydipsia), and the excretion of large amounts of urine (polyuria).

Deltasone

Prednisone


(Systematic Corticosteroid)




Prednisone is a corticosteroid. It prevents the release of substances in the body that cause inflammation. It also suppresses the immune system

Rayos

Prednisone


(Systematic Corticosteroid)




Prednisone is a corticosteroid. It prevents the release of substances in the body that cause inflammation. It also suppresses the immune system

Grifulvin V

Griseofulvin (GRIS-ee-oh-FUL-vin)

(Antifungal Agent, Oral)




Griseofulvin is an antifungal medication that fights infections caused by fungus.Griseofulvin is used to treat infections such as ringworm, athlete's foot, jock itch, and fungal infections of the scalp, fingernails, or toenails. FDA pregnancy category X. This medicine can harm an unborn baby or cause birth defects. Do not use griseofulvin if you are pregnant.Griseofulvin may make birth control pills less effective

Prevalite

Cholestyramine (koe-LES-teer-a-meen )

(Antilipemic Agent/Bile Acid Sequestrant) *same class as Welchol




Cholestyramine helps reduce cholesterol (fatty acids) in the blood. High cholesterol is associated with an increased risk of heart disease and atherosclerosis (clogged arteries).Cholestyramine is used to lower high levels of cholesterol in the blood, especially low-density lipoprotein (LDL) ("bad" cholesterol).Cholestyramine powder is also used to treat itching caused by a blockage in the bile ducts of the gallbladder.

Altoprev

Lovastatin


(Antilipemic Agent)




Lovastatin reduces levels of "bad" cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein, or LDL) and triglycerides in the blood, while increasing levels of "good" cholesterol (high-density lipoprotein, or HDL).Lovastatin is used to lower the risk of stroke, heart attack, and other heart complications in people with diabetes, coronary heartdisease, or other risk factors

Fioricet



Acetaminophen, Butalbital, and Caffeine




Acetaminophen is a pain reliever and fever reducer.Butalbital is in a group of drugs called barbiturates. It relaxes muscle contractions involved in a tension headache. Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant. It relaxes muscle contractions in blood vessels to improve blood flow.Acetaminophen, butalbital, and caffeine is a combination medicine used to treat tension headaches that are caused by muscle contractions.

Margesic

Acetaminophen, Butalbital, and Caffeine




Acetaminophen is a pain reliever and fever reducer.Butalbital is in a group of drugs called barbiturates. It relaxes muscle contractions involved in a tension headache. Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant. It relaxes muscle contractions in blood vessels to improve blood flow.Acetaminophen, butalbital, and caffeine is a combination medicine used to treat tension headaches that are caused by muscle contractions.

Esgic

Acetaminophen, Butalbital, and Caffeine




Acetaminophen is a pain reliever and fever reducer.Butalbital is in a group of drugs called barbiturates. It relaxes muscle contractions involved in a tension headache. Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant. It relaxes muscle contractions in blood vessels to improve blood flow.Acetaminophen, butalbital, and caffeine is a combination medicine used to treat tension headaches that are caused by muscle contractions.

Zetia

Ezetimibe (ee-zet-i -mibe)


(Antilipemic Agent)




Zetia is used to treat high cholesterol, along with a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet. It is sometimes given with other cholesterol-lowering medications. It is also used to treat high blood sitosterol and campesterol along with diet therapy.

Risperdal

Risperidone


(Antimanic Agent)




Risperdal is used to treat schizophrenia and symptoms of bipolar disorder (manic depression). Risperdal is also used in autistic children to treat symptoms of irritability


Risperdal is not approved for use in psychotic conditions related to dementia. Risperidone may increase the risk of death in older adults with dementia-related conditions.




While you are taking Risperdal, you may be more sensitive to temperature extremes such as very hot or cold conditions. Avoid getting too cold, or becoming overheated or dehydrated. Drink plenty of fluids, especially in hot weather and during exercise. It is easier to become dangerously overheated and dehydrated while you are taking this medication. Drinking alcohol can increase certain side effects of risperidone.

Vistaril

Hydroxyzine Pamoate


(Antihistamine)



Hydroxyzine reduces activity in the central nervous system. It also acts as an antihistamine that reduces the natural chemical histamine in the body. Hydroxyzine is used as a sedative to treat anxiety and tension. It is also used together with other medications given for anesthesia. Hydroxyzine may also be used to control nausea and vomiting.

Antihistamines

First-Generation OTC Antihistamines


1. Brompheniramine (1 brand name: Dimetapp Cold and Allergy Elixir)


2. Chlorpheniramine (1 brand name: Chlor-Trimeton)


3. Dimenhydrinate (1 brand name: Dramamine)


4. Diphenhydramine (2 brand names: Benadryl Allergy, Nytol, Sominex)


5. Doxylamine (2 brand names: Vicks NyQuil, Alka-Seltzer Plus Night-Time Cold Medicine)




*Pseudoephedrine reduces the effect of drowsiness




Second-Generation OTC Antihistamines




1. Loratadine (2 brand names: Alavert, Claritin)


2. Cetirizine (1 brand name: Zyrtec)


3. Fexofenadine (1 brand name: Allegra)

Pepcid

Famotidine



Famotidine a histamine-2 blockers. Famotidine works by decreasing the amount of acid the stomach produces.Famotidine is used to treat and prevent ulcers in the stomach and intestines. It also treats conditions in which the stomach produces too much acid, such as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Famotidine also treatsgastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and other conditions in which acid backs up from the stomach into the esophagus, causing heartburn.

Mylanta

Aluminum/Magnesium/Simethicone


(Antacid + Antigas)




Treating acid indigestion, heartburn, gas, and sour stomach. It may also be used for other conditions as determined by your doctor.Mylanta suspension is an antacid and antiflatulent. It works by neutralizing acid in the stomach. It also causes the gas produced by some foods to remain dissolved, allowing it to be passed through the system more comfortably.

Micro-K


Klor-Con


K-Dur


K-Sol (solution)


K-Tab (tablet)

Potassium Chloride


(Electrolyte/Supplement)




Potassium is a mineral that is found in many foods and is needed for several functions of your body, especially the beating of your heart.Potassium chloride is used to prevent or to treat low blood levels of potassium (hypokalemia). Potassium levels can be low as a result of a disease or from taking certain medicines (diuretics), or after a prolonged illness with diarrhea or vomiting.




A large drop in potassium level may slow your heartbeat. This can cause you to feel lightheaded or faint. A very low potassium level can even cause your heart to stop.

Toradol

Ketorolac


(NSAID)




Reversibly inhibits cyclooxygenase-1 and 2 (COX-1 and 2) enzymes, which results in decreased formation of prostaglandin precursors; has antipyretic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory properties



Labeled Indications: Short-term (≤5 days) management of moderate-to-severe acute pain requiring analgesia at the opioid level.


Off Labeled Indications: The injection dosage form is also used to release migraine pain for off labeled use

Tolectin

Tolmetin


(NSAID)




Reversibly inhibits cyclooxygenase-1 and 2 (COX-1 and 2) enzymes, which results in decreased formation of prostaglandin precursors; has antipyretic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory properties




Labeled Indications: Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis


Off-Labeled Indications: pain management

Lodine

Etodolac


(NSAID)




Reversibly inhibits cyclooxygenase-1 and 2 (COX-1 and 2) enzymes, which results in decreased formation of prostaglandin precursors; has antipyretic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory properties


Labeled Indications: 1) Acute and long-term use in the management of signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis 2) rheumatoid arthritis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) 3) management of acute pain 4) Dental Use- management of postoperative pain




Onset of action: Analgesic: 2-4 hours; Maximum anti-inflammatory effect: A few days

Clinoril

Sulindac


(NSAID)




Reversibly inhibits cyclooxygenase-1 and 2 (COX-1 and 2) enzymes, which results in decreased formation of prostaglandin precursors; has antipyretic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory properties


Labeled Indications: Management of inflammatory diseases including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, acute gouty arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, acute painful shoulder (bursitis/tendonitis)




Sulindac has less GI irritation thanIndomethacin even though both drugs contain acidic group. Sulindac is a prodrug, therefore it doesnot inhibit COX in the stomach, it starts to function after metabolism (activemetabolite is the portion which is responsible for pharmacological effect). Being a product bypasses the direct GI irritation.

Indocin


Tivorbex

Indomethacin


(NSAID)




Reversibly inhibits cyclooxygenase-1 and 2 (COX-1 and 2) enzymes, which results in decreased formation of prostaglandin precursors; has antipyretic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory properties.




The Tivorbex brand is only approved for its use in acute pain attack in adults (its really just a lower dose of Indocin). Indomethacin is sometimes associated with GI irritation. When irritation occurs, MD can choose to switch to Sulindac (a prodrug) which bypasses direct acid insult of the stomach, therefore lowers such adverse effects.

Disalcid

Salsalate


(Salicylate, NSAID)




This drug is used for treatment of signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and related rheumatic disorders (not like aspirin, which can also be used for pain and antipyretic purposes). Salsalate inhibits prostaglandin synthesis providing, anti-inflammatory effects with less inhibition of platelet aggregation than aspirin.

Dolobid

Diflunisal


(NSAID)




Like all NSAIDs, diflunisal acts by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins,[2] hormones which are involved in inflammation and pain. Diflunisal also has an antipyretic effect, but this is not a recommended use of the drug. Dolobid is mostly prescribed for anti-inflammation (arthritis) and anti-pain purposes. All NSAIDs including prodrugs should be taken with food to avoid GI irritation.

Dilantin


Phenytek

Phenytoin


(Anti-convulsant)




This drug stabilizes neuronal membranes and decreases seizure activity by increasing efflux or decreasing influx of sodium ions across cell membranes in the motor cortex during generation of nerve impulses; prolongs effective refractory period and suppresses ventricular pacemaker automaticity, shortens action potential in the heart.




Purpose of the drug include: Status Epilepticus (a dangerous condition in which epileptic seizures follow one another without recovery of consciousness between them ) and seizure.

Acetadote

N-Acetylcysteine


(Antidote)




To reverse Acetaminophen poisoning: Only the 72-hour oral and 21-hour IV regimens are FDA-approved. Ideally, in patients with an acute acetaminophen ingestion, treatment should begin within 8 hours of ingestion or as soon as possible after ingestion. Regardless of the treatment regimen selected, serum acetaminophen levels, liver function, and clinical status should be evaluated during and prior to the end of the treatment regimen to determine if treatment discontinuation is appropriate.


Oral 72-hour regimen: Consists of 18 doses; total dose delivered: 1330 mg/kg.


Loading dose: 140 mg/kg


Maintenance dose: 70 mg/kg every 4 hours; repeat dose if emesis occurs within 1 hour of administration


IV (Acetadote):21-hour regimen: Consists of 3 doses; total dose delivered: 300 mg/kg


Loading dose: 150 mg/kg (maximum: 15 g) infused over 60 minutes


Second dose: 50 mg/kg (maximum: 5 g) infused over 4 hours


Third dose: 100 mg/kg (maximum: 10 g) infused over 16 hours

Diamox

Acetazolamide


(Anticonvulsant/Anti-glaucoma/Antiemetic)



Acetazolamide is used for various purposes. It can be used to treat altitude sickness (higher dose), edema (increased electrolyte and water excretion), glaucoma (decreased aqueous humor production, third line therapy, for acute angle closure glaucoma) and epilepsy (action unknown).



Reversible inhibition of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase resulting in reduction of hydrogen ion secretion at renal tubule and an increased renal excretion of sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, and water. Decreases production of aqueous humor and inhibits carbonic anhydrase in central nervous system to retard abnormal and excessive discharge from CNS neurons.

Otrexup


Rasuvo


Rheumatrex


Trexall

Methotrexate


(Antineoplastic Agent/Antifolate/DMARD/Immunosuppressant Agent)




Methotrexate is a folate antimetabolite that inhibits DNA synthesis, repair, and cellular replication. Methotrexate irreversibly binds to and inhibits dihydrofolate reductase, inhibiting the formation of reduced folates (folic acid), and thymidylate synthetase, resulting in inhibition of purine and thymidylic acid synthesis, thus interfering with DNA synthesis, repair, and cellular replication. Actively proliferative tissues are more susceptible to the effects of methotrexate.Since Methotrexate targets rapid growing cells, it is also used to treat cancer. The MOA in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis is unknown, but may affect immune function. In psoriasis, methotrexate is thought to target rapidly proliferating epithelial cells in the skin. In Crohn disease, it may have immune modulator and anti-inflammatory activity. Onset of action: Antirheumatic: 3 to 6 weeks

Remicade

Infliximab


(DMARD/Gastrointestinal Agent/Immunosuppressant/TNF Blocker)




Infliximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to human tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) ONLY, thereby interfering with endogenous TNFα activity. Elevated TNFα levels have been found in involved tissues/fluids of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, plaque psoriasis, Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis (interesting). Biological activities of TNFα include the induction of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukins), enhancement of leukocyte migration, activation of neutrophils and eosinophils, and the induction of acute phase reactants and tissue degrading enzymes. Animal models have shown TNFα expression causes polyarthritis, and infliximab can prevent disease as well as allow diseased joints to heal.

Enbrel

Etanercept (et-a-NER-cept)


(DMARD/TNF Blocker/Immunosuppressant)




Etanercept is a recombinant DNA-derived protein composed of tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) linked to the Fc portion of human IgG1. Etanercept binds tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and blocks its interaction with cell surface receptors. TNF plays an important role in the inflammatory processes and the resulting joint pathology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), polyarticular-course juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and plaque psoriasis.

Elidel

Pimecrolimus (pim-e-ROE-li-mus)


(Calcineurin Inhibitor/Immunosuppressant Agent)




This drug comes in cream only. Pimecrolimus penetrates inflamed epidermis to inhibit T cell activation by blocking transcription of proinflammatory cytokine genes such as interleukin-2, interferon gamma (Th1-type), interleukin-4, and interleukin-10 (Th2-type). Pimecrolimus binds to the intracellular protein FKBP-12, inhibiting calcineurin, which blocks cytokine transcription and inhibits T-cell activation. Prevents release of inflammatory cytokines and mediators from mast cells in vitro after stimulation by antigen/IgE.

Pulmicort

Budesonide


(Corticosteroid)




Controls the rate of protein synthesis; depresses the migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, fibroblasts; reverses capillary permeability and lysosomal stabilization at the cellular level to prevent or control inflammation. Has potent glucocorticoid activity and weak mineralocorticoid activity.

Rocaltrol


Vectical



Calcitriol


(Vitamin D Analog)




There are several types of vitamin D available but most other types need 'activating' by the kidneys. Calcitriol is a form of vitamin D which does not need this activation process, and so it is particularly helpful for people who need their bones strengthening but who also have kidney problems.

Valtrex

Valacyclovir


(Antiviral, prodrug of Acyclovir) *oral only




Acyclovir itself is poorly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract -- its oral bioavailability is 10% - 30%. In contrast, valacyclovir is more than 10 times more permeable than acyclovir because it is a prodrug which is not absorbed in GI but exerts its effect after metabolism. Acyclovir is converted to acyclovir monophosphate by virus-specific thymidine kinase then further converted to acyclovir triphosphate by other cellular enzymes. Acyclovir triphosphate inhibits DNA synthesis and viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase. Also, it terminates DNA chain elongation due to the lack of 3'-OH.This drug is particularly good against Herpes 1 and 2

Zovirax

Acyclovir


(Antiviral)




Acyclovir is converted to acyclovir monophosphate by virus-specific thymidine kinase then further converted to acyclovir triphosphate by other cellular enzymes. Acyclovir triphosphate inhibits DNA synthesis and viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase. Also, it terminates DNA chain elongation due to the lack of 3'-OH.


This drug is particularly good against Herpes 1 and 2

Moxatag

Amoxicillin


(Aminopenicillin)




Inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to one or more of the penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs, aka transpeptidase); which in turn inhibits the final transpeptidation step of peptidoglycan synthesis in bacterial cell walls, thus inhibiting cell wall biosynthesis. Amoxicillin and Ampicillin are aminopenicillins which are designed for oral use

Augmentin

Amoxicillin with Clavulanate


(Aminopenicillin with beta-lactamase inhibitor)




Amoxicillin: Inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to one or more of the penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs, aka transpeptidase); which in turn inhibits the final transpeptidation step of peptidoglycan synthesis in bacterial cell walls, thus inhibiting cell wall biosynthesis. Amoxicillin and Ampicillin are aminopenicillins which are designed for oral use


Clavulate: structurally similar to beta-lactam which binds to beta-lactamase, allowing the amoxicllin to work better (like sacrificing itself)

Zithromax


Zmax

Azithromycin


(Antibiotic, Macrolid)




It binds to 50S ribosomal subunit of bacteria and inhibit protein synthesis; bacteriostatic or bactericidal depending on drug concentration, infection site, and organism

Omnicef

Cefdinir


(Cephalosporin, 3rd Generation)




Inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to one or more of the penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs, aka transpeptidase); which in turn inhibits the final transpeptidation step of peptidoglycan synthesis in bacterial cell walls, thus inhibiting cell wall biosynthesis

Ceftin

Cefuroxime


(Cephalosporin, 2nd Generation)




Inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to one or more of the penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs, aka transpeptidase); which in turn inhibits the final transpeptidation step of peptidoglycan synthesis in bacterial cell walls, thus inhibiting cell wall biosynthesis

Zinacef

Cefuroxime


(Cephalosporin, 2nd Generation)




Inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to one or more of the penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs, aka transpeptidase); which in turn inhibits the final transpeptidation step of peptidoglycan synthesis in bacterial cell walls, thus inhibiting cell wall biosynthesis

Keflex

Cephalexin


(Cephalosporin, 1st Generation)




Inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to one or more of the penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs, aka transpeptidase); which in turn inhibits the final transpeptidation step of peptidoglycan synthesis in bacterial cell walls, thus inhibiting cell wall biosynthesis

Cipro

Ciprofloxacin


(Fluoroquinolone)




Like all quinolones, it functions by inhibiting the two type II topoisomerase enzymes, namely DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Topoisomerase IV is necessary to separate DNA that has been replicated (doubled) prior to bacterial cell division. With the DNA not being separated, the process is stopped, and the bacterium cannot divide. DNA gyrase, on the other hand, is responsible for supercoiling the DNA, so that it will fit in the newly formed cells. Both mechanisms amount to killing the bacterium, that is, Ciprofloxacin acts as a bactericide

Biaxin

Clarithromycin


(Antibiotic, Macrolid)




It binds to 50S ribosomal subunit of bacteria and inhibit protein synthesis; bacteriostatic or bactericidal depending on drug concentration, infection site, and organism

Cleocin

Clindamycin


(Antibiotic, Lancosamide)




It binds to 50S ribosomal subunit of bacteria and inhibit protein synthesis; bacteriostatic or bactericidal depending on drug concentration, infection site, and organism

Vibramycin

Doxycycline


(Tetracycline Class)




All Tetracycline antibiotics inhibit 30S ribosomal subunit of bacteria, thereby preventing protein synthesis, which stops the growth of bacteria (bacteriostatic), allowing our immune system to clear away the bacteria. Can be used to treat acne and other types of bacterial infections.

Doryx

Doxycycline


(Tetracycline Class)




All Tetracycline antibiotics inhibit 30S ribosomal subunit of bacteria, thereby preventing protein synthesis, which stops the growth of bacteria (bacteriostatic), allowing our immune system to clear away the bacteria. Can be used to treat acne and other types of bacterial infections.

Diflucan

Fluconazole


(Antifungal, Azole, Triazole)




All azole antifungal agents work by inhibiting the enzyme cytochrome P450 14α-demethylase, thereby inhibiting the conversion of lanosterol to ergosterol

Nizoral

Ketoconazole


(Antifungal, Azole, Triazole)




All azole antifungal agents work by inhibiting the enzyme cytochrome P450 14α-demethylase, thereby inhibiting the conversion of lanosterol to ergosterol

Levaquin

Levofloxacin


(Fluoroquinolone)




Like all quinolones, it functions by inhibiting the two type II topoisomerase enzymes, namely DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Topoisomerase IV is necessary to separate DNA that has been replicated (doubled) prior to bacterial cell division. With the DNA not being separated, the process is stopped, and the bacterium cannot divide. DNA gyrase, on the other hand, is responsible for supercoiling the DNA, so that it will fit in the newly formed cells. Both mechanisms amount to killing the bacterium, that is, levofloxacin acts as a bactericide

Flagyl

Metronidazole


(Antibiotic, Miscellaneous)




Metronidazole is of the nitroimidazole class. It inhibits nucleic acid synthesis by disrupting the DNA of microbial cells

Minocin


Dynacin


Solodyn

Minocycline


(Tetracycline Class)




All Tetracycline antibiotics inhibit 30S ribosomal subunit of bacteria, thereby preventing protein synthesis, which stops the growth of bacteria (bacteriostatic), allowing our immune system to clear away the bacteria. Can be used to treat acne and other types of bacterial infections.

Vigamox

Moxifloxacin Ophthalmic


(Fluoroquinolone)




Moxifloxacin is a DNA gyrase inhibitor, and also inhibits topoisomerase IV. DNA gyrase (topoisomerase II) is an essential bacterial enzyme that maintains the superhelical structure of DNA. DNA gyrase is required for DNA replication and transcription, DNA repair, recombination, and transposition; inhibition is bactericidal.

Macrodantin


Macrobid


Furadantin

Nitrofurantoin


(Antibiotic, Miscellaneous) *Oral Use Only




This drug is indicated to treat Urinary Tract Infection only (bactericidal). It inactivates bacterial ribosomal proteins leading to inhibition of protein synthesis, aerobic energy metabolism, DNA, RNA, and cell wall synthesis


Nystop (Topical)


Nystatin (Oral)

Nystatin

(Antifungal, Miscellaneous)




Like amphotericin B and natamycin, nystatin binds to ergosterol directly. It binds to ergosterol and shifts it to the side, forming pores in the membrane that lead to potassium leakage, acidification, and death of the fungus. Many of the systemic/toxic effects of nystatin are attributable to its effect on human cells via binding to cholesterol.

Tamiflu

Oseltamivir


(Antiviral, Neuraminidase Inhibitor)




Oseltamivir is a neuraminidase inhibitor, serving as a competitive inhibitor of the activity of the viral neuraminidase (NA) enzyme upon sialic acid, found on glycoproteins on the surface of normal host cells. By blocking the activity of the enzyme, oseltamivir prevents new viral particles from being released through the cleaving of terminal sialic acid

Pen VK

Penicillin V Potassium


(Antibiotic, Beta-Lactam, Penicillin)




Inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to one or more of the penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs, aka transpeptidase); which in turn inhibits the final transpeptidation step of peptidoglycan synthesis in bacterial cell walls, thus inhibiting cell wall biosynthesis

Pyridium


Baridium [OTC]

Phenazopyridine HCl


(Urinary Analgesic)




Symptomatic relief of pain, burning, urgency, frequency, and other discomforts arising from irritation of the lower urinary tract mucosa.


Exerts local anesthetic or analgesic action on urinary tract mucosa through an unknown mechanism


Take with food

Bactrim


Septra

Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim


(Antibitioc Micellaneous)




Sulfamethoxazole is a sulfa drug that inhibits dihydropteroate synthase


Trimethoprim inhibits dihydrofolate reductase


The combination of these two drugs work in synergism




Orally used to treat urinary tract infection, acute otitis, acute exacerbation of bronchitis due to H. Influenzae or S. pneumoniae


Do not use in pregnancy because it causes kernicterus in fetus

Lamisil

Terbinafine


(Antifungal/Squalene Epoxidase Inhibitor)




Inhibits squalene epoxidase (recall how fungi cell wall is synthesized), a key enzyme in sterol biosynthesis in fungi. This results in a deficiency in ergosterol within the fungal cell wall and results in fungal cell death

Neut

Sodium Bicarbonate


(Alkalinizing Agent)



Dissociates to provide bicarbonate ion which neutralizes hydrogen ion concentration and raises blood and urinary pH (make them more basic)



IV is used to treat (1) cardiac arrest, (2) metabolic acidosis, (3) hyperkalemia (IV)


Oral: (1) Chronic renal failure (2) Increase urine pH

Vancocin (capsule)

Vancomycin


(Glycopeptide Antibiotic)




Note: Administered IV except when use to treat Enterocolitis or C. difficile associated diarrhea. This drug targets gram positive bacteria ONLY


Mechanism: Inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by directly binding to D-alanyl-D-alanine, thereby inhibiting glycopeptide polymerization


Vancomycin levels should be monitored in patients with any renal impairment

Vibativ

Telavancin


(Glycopeptide Antibiotic)




Indication: Complicated skin infection or nosocomial pneumonia


Mechanism: same mechanism as Vancomycin with an additional mechanism which involves the disruption of membrane potential and changes cell permeability due to presence of lipophilic side chain moiety


Note: Think of it as a combination of Vancomycin and Daptomycin

Cubicin

Daptomycin


(Antibiotic Miscellaneous)




Mechanism: Daptomycin binds to components of the cell membrane of susceptible organisms and causes rapid depolarization, inhibiting intracellular synthesis of DNA, RNA, and protein. It has excellent activity against gram-positive organisms


Indication: Daptomycin shows promise in experimental models of endocarditis, meningitis, ventriculitis, and peritonitis, and is currently approved for complicated skin infection as well as bloodstream S. aureus

Romycin


Ilotycin

Erythromycin Ophthalmic Ointment


(Macrolide)




Mechanism: Binds to 50S ribosomal subunit and inhibits RNA-dependent protein synthesis at the chain elongation step


Indication: Treatment of superficial eye infections involving the conjunctiva or cornea




Direction: Conjunctivitis: Instill 1/2” (1.25 cm) 2-6 times/day depending on the severity of the infection

Biaxin

Clarithromycin


(Macrolide)




Mechanism: Binds to 50S ribosomal subunit and inhibits RNA-dependent protein synthesis at the chain elongation step




Note: Patient must be 6 months or older. Clarithromycin is several-fold more active than erythromycin against gram-positive organisms, while azithromycin is 2- to 4-fold less potent. Both azithromycin and clarithromycin are equivalent to standard oral therapies against respiratory tract and soft tissue infections caused by susceptible organisms, including S aureus, S pneumoniae, S pyogenes, H influenzae and etc.

Dificid

Fidaxomicin


(Macrolide)




Indication: Treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD)


Mechanism: Binds to 50S ribosomal subunit and inhibits RNA-dependent protein synthesis at the chain elongation step




Note: Do not use for systemic infections. Use only in patients with proven or strongly suspected Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infections.

Prevpac

Lansoprazole, Amoxicillin, and Clarithromycin


(Combination Antibiotic)




Indication: H. pylori eradication


Mechanism: Lansoprazole suppresses gastric acid secretion by blocking the acid (proton) pump within gastric parietal cells. Amoxicillin inhibits bacterial cell wall mucopeptide synthesis and clarithromycin inhibits microbial protein synthesis.


Auxillary: Take with food

Omeclamox-Pak

Omeprazole, Amoxicillin, and Clarithromycin


(Combination Antibiotic)




Indication: H. pylori eradication


Mechanism: Omeprazole suppresses gastric acid secretion by blocking the acid (proton) pump within gastric parietal cells. Amoxicillin inhibits bacterial cell wall mucopeptide synthesis and clarithromycin inhibits microbial protein synthesis.


Auxillary: Take with food

Rocephin

Ceftriaxone


(Cephalosporin Antibiotic)




Mechanism: Cephalosporin class, which inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis


Note: Parenteral Use ONLY. It is a 3rd generation cephalosporin with excellent activity against many gram-negative, and reasonable activity against most gram-positive microorganisms. No renal adjustment nor hepatic adjustment is necessary


Note: Ceftriaxone plus Azithromycin is first line therapy for gonorrhea


Orapred

Prednisolone Sodium




Contains no alcohol

Prelone

Prednisolone Base

Adcirca

Tadalafil




Indication: Pulmonary hypertension




Adcirca is not prescribed to treat erectiledysfunction, despite the fact that it is the same generic drug as Cialis.Adcirca, is prescribed as treatment for pulmonary arterial hypertension

Differin

Adapalene




Indication: Acne vulgaris, rosacea




Retinoidssuch as Tretinoin, Adapalene and Tazarotene are used as first line agents totreat inflammatory acne. They can be used in combination with benzoyl peroxideor topical antibiotics to treat mild to moderate inflammatory andnon-inflammatory acnes. ***Patients may experience exacerbation of acne uponinitiation of use. This is COMMON and EXPECTED. Symptoms usually resolve in 3to 6 weeks

Aczone

Dapsone




Indication: Acne vulgaris




TopicalDapsone 5% gel is recommended for inflammatory acne, particularly in adultfemales with acne

Congentin

Benztropine




Indication: Drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms,Parkinsonism




Benztropine mesylate is an anti-Parkinson's agent andanticholinergic agent used as an adjunct treatment in the therapy of all formsof Parkinsonism. Benztropine mesylate is also used to help controlextrapyramidal disorders, which are side effects that may result from takinganti-psychotic medications To treat Parkinson's disease, the usual dailydose of benztropine mesylate is 1 to 2 mg, with a range of 0.5 to 6 mg orallyor parenterally. In treating extrapyramidal disorders due to neuroleptic drugs(e.g., phenothiazines), the recommended dosage is 1 to 4 mg once or twice a dayorally or parenterally

Casodex

Bicalutamide




Indication: Prostate cancer (metastatic)




Bicalutamide therapy is for men with advancedprostate cancer at stage D2, when there is evidence of metastases (cancerspread) to other areas of the body

Albenza

Albendazole


(Anti-helmintic)




Indication: Tapeworm infection



Aclovate

Alclometasone


(Corticosteroid)




Treatment of inflammation and pruritic manifestations of corticosteroid-responsive dermatosis in adults and pediatric patients ≥1 year

Alcortin A

Iodoquinol and Hydrocortisone


(Antifungal + Corticosteroid)




Iodoquinol is an antifungal and antibacterial agent.Hydrocortisone Acetate is an anti-inflammatory andantipruritic agent




Works for eczema, tinea infection, folliculitis, candidiasis, etc.

AlphaquinHP

Hydroquinone


(Depigmenting Agent)




Indication: Gradual bleaching of hyperpigmented skin conditions, such as chloasma, melasma, freckles, senile lentigines, and other unwanted areas of melanin hyperpigmentation




Hydroquinone is available in some OTC products; Alphaquin HP requires prescription

Amitiza

Lubiprostone


(Chloride Channel Activator)




1. Chronic idiopathic constipation


2. Irritable bowel syndrome with constipation: Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with constipation in women ≥18 years


3. Opioid-induced constipation: Treatment of opioid-induced constipation

Aptiom

Eslicarbazepine




Brand only. Approved in 2013


Used for seizure




Eslicarbazepine acetate is extensively converted to eslicarbazepine, which is considered responsible for therapeutic effects. A precise mechanism has not been defined, but is thought to involve inhibition of voltage-gated sodium channels.

Nuvigil

Armodafinil


(CNS stimulant)




Indication: Narcolepsy, obstructive sleep apnea and shift-work disorder




Narcolepsy: To improve wakefulness in patients with excessive sleepiness associated with narcolepsy


Obstructive sleep apnea: Limitations of use: In OSA, armodafinil is indicated to treat excessive sleepiness and not as treatment for the underlying obstruction.


Shift-work disorder: To improve wakefulness in patients with excessive sleepiness associated with shift-work disorder




Basically this drug WAKES YOU UP; take in morning

Armour Thyroid


Nature-Thyroid

Levothyroxine is synthetic T4. It is not the same as Armour Thyroid, which is desiccated pig thyroid gland. The desiccated gland contains T3 and other thyroid hormones in addition to T4.