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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
NASP Principle of Ethical and Legal Consideration in Measurement
Principle II.3: Responsible Assessment and Intervention Practices
-Highest standard for responsible professional practice in assessment and intervention
APA Ethical Code for Measurement
Standard 9
-Bases for assessment, use of assessments, informed consent, release of test data, test construction, interpretation of assessment results, assessment by unqualified persons, obsolete tests, outdated test results, test scoring and interpretation services, explaining assessment results, maintaining test security
IDEA, 2004 in regards to Ethical and Legal Considerations in Measurement
-Funds to state and local educational agencies to provide free and appropriate public education (FAPE)
-Legal requirements for evaluating and identifying children with disabilities: Need for special education must be established and a disability in obtaining an education must be documented
What is nondiscriminatory assessment and classification?
Multifaceted assessment process, awareness of test bias, due process, equal protection
What is informed consent?
Written parental consent
What are some considerations needed in assessment planning?
Multifaceted, comprehensive, fair, valid, useful
What needs to be looked at when selecting instruments?
Reliability, validity, adequacy of norms
What are some aditional considerations needed in measurement?
-Nondiscriminatory assessment and classification
-Informed consent
-Assessment planning
-Selection of instruments
-Data collection
-Data interpretation
-Making recommendations
-Report writing
-Sharing results
-IEP teams
What are the 5 stages in developing, norming, and revising tests?
1. Test Conceptualization: What is test designed to measure, objective, need, population, format, training, interpretation
2. Test Construction: Scales decided on based on what best suits the measurement of variable being tested
3. Test tryout: Tried on people similar in critical aspects to people for whom it is designed, identical conditions, eliminate extraneous variables
4. Test Analysis: Goal--select best items from pool of "tryout" items, consider index of items' difficulty, reliability, validity, discrimination
5. Test Revision: Throw out bad items, administer to appropriate sample under standardized conditions, norming is important
What is Standardization
A process to ensure uniformity in test administration, scoring, and interpretation
What are some reasons that tests may need revision?
-Stimulus materials look dated
-Verbal content not readily understood by test-takers
-Culture changes
-Reliability/validity improvements
-Theory on which test is based has been improved
What is reliability?
Consistency of test scores from one testing session to another
What are some sources of error variance?
-Test construction
-Test administration
-Test scoring and interpretation
What is test-retest reliability?
-Using same instrument to measure the same thing at two points in time
What are some sources of error in measuring test-retest reliability?
-Greater amount of time between--lower reliability coefficient
-Experience, practice effect, memory, fatique, motivaton
Explain parallel/alternate forms in determining reliability.
-Different, equivalent versions
-Minimizes effect of memory
-Measures coefficient of equivalence
Explain internal consistency/split-half reliability
-Correlating two pairs of scores from equivalent halves of same test
-Measure of internal validity and internal consistency
What is inter-scorer reliability?
-Degree of agreement between two scorers
-Indicates that it may be scored with consistency with proper training
What is Reliability of Individual Scores?
-Standard error of measurement (percision)
-Confidence interval (range/band likely to contain true score)
What are some methods used to determine reliability of scores?
-Parallel/alternate forms
-Internal consistency/split-half
-Reliability of Individual Scores
What is Validity?
Degree to which an instrument measures what it purports to measure
What is content validity?
-Degree to which a tool samples behavior representative of the behavior it is designed to measure
-How adequately questions represent content being assessed
-Accuracy of test format
What is criterion-related validity?
-Degree to which how adequately a score on a test can be used ot infer an individual's standing on some criterion
-Compare performance on one test with performance on another
-Degree of relationship between scores--validity coefficient
What is concurrent criterion validity?
-Degree to which test score is related to some criterion measure obtained at same time
What is predictive criterion validity?
Degree to which test score predicts performance on criterion measure obtained in the future or on expectancy table
What is construct validity?
-Broadest category
-Judgment about appropriateness of inferences drawn from test scores regarding individual standings on a variable called a construct (scientific idea developed to describe or explain behavior)
-Measured by assessing evidence on predictions made from theory
What are two different Types of Tests/Measures?
Norm-Referenced Tests & Criterion-Referenced Tests
What are norm-referenced tests?
Compare test taker's score to scores of a group of test takers
What are criterion-referenced tests?
Assess whether the test taker has met certain criteria
What is the use of norm-referenced tests?
Survey individual differences
What are the use of criterion-referenced tests?
Mastery of task, competence
How are norm-referenced tests interpreted?
Compare individuals
How are criterion-referenced tests interpreted?
Compare performance to criterion
What is the content of norm-referenced tests?
What is the content of criterion-referenced tests?
How is performance measured in norm-referenced tests?
Relative position
How is performance measured in criterion-referenced tests?
List some intelligence tests
-Stanford-Binet 5th Ed. (SB-5)
-Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (KABC)
-Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ III-COG)
-Differential Ability Scales (DAS)
List some academic achievement tests
-Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement (KTEA)
-Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ III-ACH)
-Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests-Revised (WRMT-R)
-Gray Oral Reading Test (GORT)
List some Personality/Projective Tests
-Self-Direct Search (SDS)
-Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
-Rorschach Inkblots
-Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
List some Clinical/Counseling Tests
-Beck Depression Inventory
-Parenting Stress Index (PSI)
-Structured Interviews
List some test for individuals with Behavior Disabilities
-Connors III
-Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL)
-Behavior Assessment Scale for Children (BASC-2)
List some Career/Business Tests
-Checklist for Adaptive Living Skills (CALS)
-Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
List the pros of the discrepancy test model
-Easy to apply and understand
-Statistical properties to establish predictable LD population size
-Allows examiners to evaluate learning style and information processing skills during testing
List the cons of the discrepancy test model
-Not practical or accurate for young students
-Requires a student to each a certain level of failure before being identified
-Does not adequately consider error of testing--will identify non-LD students while failing to identify others
-Time-consuming process
List the pros of the RTI Model
-Can be applied to students of all ages
-Does not require student to fail for a significant period of time before being identified
-Forces schools to be proactive in providing mainstream interventions
-Requires little educational disruption for testing
List the cons of the RTI Model
What is a CBM and who identified this definition?
-A set of methods for indexing competence and growth on basic academic skills
-Elliot and Fuchs (1997)
What does a CBM entail?
-Sampling test stimuli from local curricula and administering and scoring on a routine basis
-Produce reliable and valid information about students' academic skills for English-only and ELL students
-When administered routinely, alternate forms of CBM models academic growth well and enhances instructional planning.
What are the benefits of using a CBM?
-Longitudinal measurement
-Informing instructional planning
-Documenting treatment effects
Define Longitudinal Measurement
1. Taps a construct that is constant in both quality and difficulty
2. Summarizes performance on same raw score metric and provides equal scaling over time
3. Provides enough alternate-forms for the whole year
Explain how CBMs inform instructional planning
-Wesson (1991) and Fuchs, Deno, and Mirkin (1984) provide evidence that student outcomes improve when special educators use CBM to inform instructional planning
Explain how CBMs can be used to document treatment effects
-Marston, Fuchs & Deno (1986) documented that CBM reigstered more student growth than traditional in 10-week period
-Fuchs, Fuchs, and Hamlett (1989) demonstrate CBM slopes reflected treatment effects more sensitively than traditional pre-post measurement