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106 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

DNA replication

process that DNA is copied, how cells repair DNA

Hershey and Chase experiment

tagged radioactive sulfur to proteins and radioactive phosphorus to DNA, phage proteins came out, DNA stayed inside


change in geno/phenotype from combo of external DNA

Frederick Griffith experiment

two strands of bacteria, heat-killed cells made nonpathogenic lives cells pathogenic


viruses that eat bacteria


DNA or RNA protected by protein coat

Erwin Chargaff

analyzed base composition of DNA

Chargaff's rules

1)base comp. varies between species

2) within species, the number of A&T are equal, the number of C&G are equal

Rosalind Franklin

worked with X-ray crystallography to discover structure of DNA

Watson and Crick

built double helix DNA models

structure of DNA(running, lengths)

antiparallel, full turn every 3.4 nm, nucleotides 0.34nm apart

semiconservative model

each strand of parent molecule serves as template strand for synthesis of new, complementary strand

Meleson and Stahl experiment

proved that semiconservative model is correct for DNA

origins of replication

short stretch of DNA that starts replication

replication fork

Y-shaped region where parent strands unwind


enzyme that separates parent strands

single-strand binding proteins

proteins that bind to unpaired DNA to keep from winding back together


relieves strain by breaking/rejoining DNA strands


RNA chain that starts DNA synthesis; gives polymerase place to start


enzyme that makes primers

DNA pol I

replaces RNA with DNA, adds to 3' end of strand


adds DNA nucleotides

leading strand

replicates towards replication fork

lagging strand

replicates away from fork

Okazaki fragments

pieces of lagging strand(1000-2000 nucleotides long)

DNA ligase

bonds sugars and phosphates of Okazaki fragments into continuous strand


gives energy that gets rid of 2 phosphates

ways to repair DNA(2), chp 16

nucleotide excision repair

mismatch repair

mismatch repair

enzymes remove/replace incorrectly placed nucleotides

nucleotide excision repair(steps)

1) enzymes find bad DNA

2) nuclease cuts out damaged DNA

3)repair snthesis using DNA pol

4)ligase seals new end


DNA-cutting enzyme


nucleotide sequence at the end of DNA molecules


enzyme that catalyzes length of telomeres in eukaryotes


proteins that pack DNA at lvl 1

nucleosome and linker DNA

basic unit of DNA, "string" that connects nuclesomes


dense region of DNA in bacteria


complex of eukaryotic DNA and protein


irregular clumps of chromosomes, highly condensed


less compact, more dispersed chromosome than...

gene expression

process by which DNA dictates synthesis of proteins; code for proteins; transcription + translation

Archibald Garrod

suggested that genes dictate phenotype through enzymes that catalyze specific reactions

Beadle and Tatum experiment

bombarded bread mold with X-rays

found mutants that differed for nutritional value

Srb and Horowitz

proved one gene-one enzyme hypothesis

Beadle/Tatum idea restated

one gene-one polypeptide


synthesis of RNA using info in DNA


carries DNA info to protein-synthesizing part of cell; transcript of gene's coding instructions


synthesis of polypeptide using info from mRNA


site for polypeptide-making

primary transcript

initial RNA transcript, includes code that is not used in final protein


beginning of transcription of protein-coding genes

template strand

pattern for sequence of nucleotides in RNA transcript


mRNA nucleotide triplet

starting codon

AUG, methionine

stop codons(3)



DNA sequence where RNA pol initiates transcription

terminator(in bacteria ONLY)

DNA sequence that ends transcription

start point(transcription)

nucleotide where RNA synthesis actually begins

transcription unit

stretch of DNA that is transcribed into RNA

three stages of transcription and/or translation

initiation, elongation, termination

transcription factors

proteins the mediate binding of RNA pol and initiation of transcription

transcription initiation complex

complex of transcription factors + RNA pol II bound to promoter

TATA box

crucial DNA promoter sequence

RNA processing

enzymes in euk. nucleus modify pre-mRNA before going into cytoplasm

5' cap

modified form of guanine nucletide attached to 5' after transcription of first coupla nucleotides

poly-A tail

50-250 nucleotides at 3' end

RNA splicing

removing lotsa RNA molecule


sequences of mRNA that are cut out


sequences of mRNA that are expressed

small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs)

particles that recognize splicing site


snRNPs + more proteins release introns, join exons

small nuclear RNA (snRNA)

RNA in an snRNP


RNA molecules that function as enzymes; gave idea that snRNAs are catalysts

alt. RNA splicing

one gene creating more than one polypeptide


discrete structural + functional regions of proteins

e.g. of domain

active site of enzyme

transfer RNA (tRNA)

transfers amino acids from cytoplasmic pool into a growing polypeptide; translator for codons of mRNA molecule


introns increase probability of crossing over


codon at end of tRNA; base-pairs with codon on mRNA

aminoacyl-tRNA synthases

enzymes that match correct tRNA and amino acids


flexible base pairing at third nucleotide

ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs)

this + protein = ribosomal subunits

3 binding sites for tRNA

E, exit

P, protein synthesis

A, next amino acid

Where does the energy for translation come from?

hydrolysis of GTP

translation initiation complex

mRNA + initiator tRNA + small ribosomal subunit + large ribosomal subunit

elongation factors (translation)

proteins that brings translation initiation complex together

three steps of translation elongation

codon recognition

peptide bond formation


release factor(translation)

protein that binds to stop codon in the A site

all three stop codons





aka polyribosomes

ribosomes linked together to make proteins faster

Where do ribosomes start?

cytoplasm, bind to ER if they feel like it

signal peptide

targets proteins to ER

signal recognition particle (SRP)

protein RNA complex that escorts ribosomes to receptor protein in the ER membrane


changes to genetic info of cells and/or viruses

point mutation

changes in one nucleotide pair of a gene

adverse effect

genetic disorder/hereditary disease

nucleotide-pair substitution

replacement of nucleotide +partner with two new ones

silent mutation

no effect on phenotype

two types of small scale mutations

1) single nucleotide-pair substitutions

2) nucleotide-pair insertions/deletions

missense mutations

change one amino acid into another (not a big threat)

nonsense mutation

point mutation that changes codon to stop codon


addition/loss of nucleotide PAIRS in a gene (DISASTROUS EFFECT)

frameshift mutation

insertion/deletion alters how triplet groupings are read during translation

spontaneous mutations

incorrect base is used as template in next round of replication

how many nucleotides are altered

one in 10^10


phys. + chem. agents that interact with DNA and cause mutations

final definition of a gene

a region of DNA that can be expressed to produce a final functional product that is either a polypeptide or an RNA molecule