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81 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is cementation?

What is cementation in dentistry?
1. The bonding or uniting of two or more materials with cement
2. Attaching a restoration to natural teeth with cement
What are the three applications cements are used for in dentistry?
1. luting agents
2. cavity liners & bases in restorative materials
What is a luting agent?
Agents that bond, seal, or cement particles together
(restorations & orthodontic attachments)
What purpose do cements have as cavity liners, bases, & temporary cements?
To protect the pulp and foundations for restorations:
a. base between amalgam/composite in deep cavities to isolate pulp from restorative material
b. liners-very soft base, calcium hydroxide to protect pulp if prep is too deep
c. temporary cement- if need more than 1 visit for treatment
What are the classifications of dental cements?
1. Water based
2. Oil based
3. Resin based
What are four types of water based cements?
1. Glass ionomers
2. Hybrid ionomers
3. Zinc polycarboxylate
4. Zinc phosphate
Specify the three types of oil based cements
1. zinc oxide-eugenol
2. non-eugenol zinc oxide
3. calcium hydroxide (self cured)
What are the three types of resin based cements?
1. Calcium hydroxide (light-cured)
2. Composite and adhesion resin
3. Compomer
When is provisional cementation advised?
When a restoration needs to be evaluated over a long period of time
Which dental cements are indicated as temporary cements for provisional cementation?
1. Zinc oxide-eugenol
2. Non-eugenol zinc oxide
What is a weakness of provisional cementation?
May come loose during function
How is a provisional crown removed?
With the aid of a crown removal device
What is provilink?
Dual-curing temporary cement that cleans easily, has good retention, will leak if cleaned before curing
What are two important considerations when using definitive cementation?
Make sure to give adequate attention to definitive cementation and make the right choice of cement to be used
Name the two components of glass ionomers?
1. powder- finely ground aluminosilicate glass
2. liquid polycarboxylate copolymer, water
What is the weakness of glass ionomer cement?
It is susceptible to moisture contamination
What are the good qualities of glass ionomer cement?
1. good biocompatibility
2. adheres to enamel and dentin
3. Anticariogenic effect (release of F-ions)
4. translucent cement
5. high mechanical properties
What is the film thickness of glass ionomer cement?
22-24 microns
What is the maximum space between the tooth and the restoration?
25 microns
Some glass ionomers are translucent. What does translucent mean?
The cement will show up on the radiographs
Is glass ionomer cement more expensive than phosphate?
Name the indications for glass ionomer cement.
1. Class V restorations
2. Retention of alloy restorations
3. Retention of orthodontic bands
4. High-strength bases
5. Provisional restorations
Name one name-brand glass ionomer.
What is the most popular cement for retention of alloy restorations?
Glass ionomers
What are the components of hybrid ionomer cement?
1. Powder
a. radiopaque fluoroaluminosilicate glass
b. microencapsulated catalyst system
2. Liquid
a. polycarboxylix and tartaric acid
b. pendant methacrylate groups
c. 2-hydroxethylmethacrulate (HEMA)
What is a hybrid ionomer?
Resin-reinforced glass ionomer, introduced in the 1990's, expensive
What is an advantage of hybrid ionomer cement?
Less susceptible to early moisture exposure
What makes a cement stronger?
More resin particles
When should hybrid ionomer cement be avoided and why?
With all-ceramic restorations, b/c cement expands and may cause fracture
What are the indications for hybrid ionomer cement?
1. Class V restorations
2. Retention of alloy restorations
3. Retention of orthodontic bands
4. High-strength bases
Give a namebrand hybrid ionomer cement
What hybrid ionomer cement is used at CWRU?
25 microns
ceramometal restorations
little sensitivity
What are the components of Zinc Polycarboxylate cement?
Powder-zinc oxide
Liquid- polyacrylic acid, water
Why is zinc polycarboxylate not recommended?
High viscosity (difficult to mix)
Inferior long-term retention
Short working time
More difficult to remove
Provides less retention than zinc phosphate
What are some other characteristics of zinc polycarboxylate?
Relative biocompatibility
film thickness between 25-48 (over 25 micorns is not ideal)

**Maximum space should be 25 microns
What are the indications for zinc polycarboxylate?
Retention of alloy restorations
Retention of orthodontic bands
High strength bases
Less irritation to the pulp***
What is the composition of zinc phosphate?
Powder-zinc oxide, magnesium oxide, pigments
Liquid- phosphoric acid (note that other cements don't have phosphoric acid), water (Al-Zn ions)
What are the characteristics of zinc phosphate?
Inexpensive ($0.25 per crown ws $20 for glass)
Adequate strength microns
Reasonable working time (can prepare a lot of restorations)
Excess material can be easily removed
Acceptable effect over the dental pulp
Low cost
What is a major negative characteristics of zinc phosphate?
High acidity***phosphoric acid makes acidic but have good etching properties
What are the indications for zinc phosphate?
Retention of alloy restorations
Retention of orthodontic bands
High strength bases
Provisional restorations
Give a name-brand zinc phosphate
How long can zinc phosphate potentially serve as a luting agent?
20 yrs in select clinical situations
What is the composition of zinc oxide-eugenol?
Powder-zinc oxide (69%), Rosin (29%), zinc acetate
Liquid- eugenol (what gives dental offices distinctive smell)
Name the characteristics of zinc oxide-eugenol
Good biocompatibility
excellent seal
film thickness 25-34 microns
Inferior physical properties
Short working time
EASY TO REMOVE *** (used for temporaries)
What are the indications for zinc oxide eugenol?
Low and high-strength bases
**Provisional restorations
**Temporary & permanent retention of restorations (if pulp is exposed during preparations use zinx oxide-eugenol to watch and evaluate pulp)
What zinc oxide eugenol is used at CWRU?
What is the composition of non-eugenol zinc oxide?
Same as zinc oxide eugenol, but substituting eugenol with 2-ethoxybenzoic acid, EBA
What are the positive characteristics of non-eugenol zinc oxide?
EBA improves compressive strength, good biocompatibility and pulp protection
What are the negative characteristics of non-eugenol zinc oxide?
Short working time, excess material is difficult to remove
What are the indications for non-eugenol zinc oxide?
Temporary retention of restorations
Root canal sealers
Gingival tissue packs
Surgical dressing
What cement is used at CWRU for temporary crowns?
What is the composition of self-cured calcium hydroxide?
Base paste-Calcium tungstate, Calcium Phosphate, Zinc Oxide Glycol salicylate

Catalyst paste-calcium hydroxide, zinc oxide
What are the components of light-cured calcium hydroxide?
Urethane dimetharylate resin, calcium hydroxide, barium sulfate fillers, monomer
How do the mechanical properties of calcium hydroxide compare to other cements?
Calcium hydroxide has low mechanical properties
What are the positive characteristics of calcium hydroxide?
Stronger than zinc oxide eugenol
Stimulate formation of reparative dentin
What cement is used to cover accidental pulp exposure?
Calcium hydroxide, b/c of low thermal conductivity and it stimulates reparative dentin
What are the indications for calcium hydroxide?
Low-strength base, temporary retention of restorations, used for direct and indirect pulp capping, protective barrier beneath composite restorations
Give a name brand calcium hydroxide cement
What are the three components of composite and adhesive resins?
Dimethacrylate resin, glass filler, microhybrid & microfilled
Are cements available with adhesive properties?
What are the positive characteristics of composite and adhesive resins?
Capable of bonding chemically to dentin, film thickness is from 13-20 microns
Name the other characteristics of composite and adhesive resins.
Acceptable biocompatibility, high cost
What are the indications for composite and adhesive resins?
Use for almost anything
1. bonded crown & bridge
2. bonded ceramic and composite veneers, inlays, onlays
3. bonded post and cores
4. bonded maryland bridges
5. retention of provisional restorations
6. retention of orthodontic brackets
7. High strength bases
Why is the radiopacity of composite and adhesive resins beneficial in a clinical setting?
The radiopacity allows you to determine how well the restoration is sealed to the tooth when reading the radiograph
What composite/adhesive resin is best to use with in-ceram & procera?
kurary panavia 21, 18 microns universal shade, $14/g
What are the components of compomer cement?
Powder- strontium aluminum fluorosilicate glass, sodium fluoride, self-cured & light-cured initiators

Liquid- polymerizable methacrylate-carboxylic acid monomer, multifunction acrylate-phosphate monomer, diacrylate monomer, water
What properties do compomers possess?
High mechanical properties, low solubility, sustained F- release, can be charged w/F- (no proof yet that compomer can be recharged w/F-)
What are the indications for compomer cement?
Cementation of cast alloy inlays, onlays, crowns & bridges, PFM
What are the contraindications for compomer cement, why?
Contraindicated for all-ceramic restorations, compomer cement expands and can fracture all-ceramic restorations
Name the 5 properies of an ideal luting agent
1. long working time
2. adheres well to both tooth structure and cast alloy
3. provides good seal
4. nontoxic to pulp
5. adequate strength properties
What are the 5 properties of an ideal luting cement?
1. compressible into thin layers
2. low viscosity and solubility
3. good working and setting characteristics
4. any excess can be easily removed
5. inexpensive
(The ideal luting agent does not exist)
What are the major considerations for preparing for cementation?
a. avoid contamination of the material w/ water blood or saliva
b. restoration and tooth must be cleaned and drained
c. avoid excessive drying of the tooth to prevent damage of the odontoblasts
d. air abrasion surface w/50 micron alumina for restoration
e. isolation of the area is mandatory
f. tooth should never be desiccated (excessive loss of moisture)
g. If a non-adhesive cement is to be used, the tooth should be cleaned, gently dried, and coated w/cavity varnish or dentin bonding resin
Describe the frozen slab technique
Practical way to increase the working time and the setting time of zinc phosphate
a. 50% increased powder/liquid ratio
b. mixing on a frozen slab
c. effective when multiple castings are to be cemented
d. excess of cement is easy to clean up
What are the different formulations of resin luting agents?
Base in polymerization method
a. chemical cure
b. light cure
c. dual cure
Presence of dentin bonding agent mechanisms
Manipulation techniques vary widely
What type of cement is used for ceramic veneers and inlays?
These restorations rely on RESIN bonding for retention and strength. The cementation steps are critical to restoration success
What are the cementation steps for bonding ceramic veneers and inlays?
Steps for cementing ceramic veneers and inlays
1. air abrasion the restoration
2. etching the restoration
3. applying a silane coupling to the ceramic
4. etching the enamel w/phosphoric acid
5. Applying a resin bonding agent
6. seating the restoration w/resin luting agent
What resin luting agent would you use for veneers?
For veneers a light cured material
What resin luting agent would you use for inlays or onlays?
For inlays/onlays a chemical or dual cure material
What resin luting agent would you use for full ceramic crowns?
For full ceramic crowns a chemical of dual cure material
What temporary cement do we use in the school?***

Zinc oxide non-eugenol***
Restorations are most likely to fail in the cemented area so choose cements with high mechanical properties