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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Fermentation has been used to process foods as far as

6000 BC

do just bacteria play a role in production of foods?

no fungi too

milk is made by


cheese is made by

lactococcus lactis

they die off because ph is too high

chocholate is made by

candida rugosta

bread, wine and beer are made by

S cerevisae

cheese has been around more than

8000 years

all cheese results from

lactic acid fermentation of milk producing curd

holes in swiss cheese is due to

gas production by propionibacteria present during ripening

mold are used in the production of cheeses like

penecillium to make blue cheese

what is used in chocolate

candida rugosa hydrolyze the pectin and ferment sugars into ethyl alcohol and Co2, then lactic acid bacteria grow lowering PH which allows acetic acid bacteria to grow

what denatures the proteins to give chocolate taste

acetic acid

how to make wine

crushed into mush

used sulfur dioxide to remove native microbes

replace desired yeast

bacteria ferment malice acid from the grape juice into lactic acid and co2

ehtanol is made by _____ for the purpose of ______

S cerevisea

purpose of food/fuel

acetone/butanol is made by ____ for the purpose of _____

C. acetobutylicum

for food/fuel

enzymes is made by ____ for the purpose of _____


for chemical/pharmacutical production

amino acids is made by ____ for the purpose of _____

corynedbacterium glutamicum

for food flavor

polysacharides is made by ____ for the purpose of _____


for plastics/paints

vitamins is made by ____ for the purpose of _____


for food

antibiotics is made by ____ for the purpose of _____


for medicine

global energy consumption is expected to increase ___% by 2030


whats used for transportation


what used for power and heat

coal and methane

fossil fuels produce

green house gases

microbial energy conversion includes the transformation of organic materials into

biofuels (ethanol/hydrogen) by microbes

most common source of biomass for ETOH


crop residues

plant materials left in fields after harvest and contain cellulose and hemicellulose

looking to see if can use these but theres no single microbe that can ferment all these products

ethanol disadvantages

absorbs water

contains low energy yield (may expend more energy to produce it)

fermentation does make a lot of



advantages:3x more potential energy then gasoline

can be made by diverse group of microbes

disadvantages: storage and distribution problem (because its a gas) can't be mixed with gasoline

need more time to develop it and do research

ways to make hydrogen

fermentation, oxygenic photosynthesis, anoxygenic photoheterotrophs

algal products

remove c02 from atmosphere as they grow so these plants are built near manufacturers that produce CO2

can be made in plants we already have

rhizobia is sold for inoculation of legume seeds to ensure

efficient nodulation and nitrogen fixation

diatoms can be used for

making optical, catalytic or electrical materials

bacteria harboring magnetosomes convert

iron to magnetite surrounded by membrane

membranes allow attachment of molecules like enzymes of antibodies

oncolytic viruses

use viruses to infect and kill cancer cells, due to specific markers and high replication rates

examples are measles for ovarian cancer

herpes for melenoma

vaccinia for liver cancer

gene therapy

use viruses to deliver genes to individuals with genetic defects

examples are adenovirus for blindness

HIV for adrenoleukodystophy

GMO inserted genes include resistance to

herbicides and inscents, soybeans have been made to have lower sat fat

bacterium that causes tumors in plants through insertion of bacterial genes in the plant genome

argobacterium tumefaciens

this insertion takes place by

larges conjugative plasmid called ti which transfer then genes

since Ti discovery of being tumor inducing agents it has been

modified for remove non-essential and tumor inducing elements and whatever genes is of inteeres

bacteria can take Ti plasmid and

deliver it to he plant cells during infection

can be used in dicots but not monocots

what are used to kill insects

bacteria, fungi, viruses

B thuringiensis does what

causes insect lysis when gets into membrane

its marketed at BT