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42 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the components of the dig. system?
tract

acc. organs:
salivary glands
liver
gallbladder
pancreas
What are the 6 processes of the digestive system?
ingestion
mechanical processing
digestion
secretion
absorption
excretion
What protects the trachea from food?
Epiglottis
What is the process of moving a bolus called?
peristalsis
What are the 3 layers of muscle in the stomach called?
longitudinal
circular
oblique
What are the layers of the stomach wall?
mucosa (includes gastric pit)
submucosa
muscularis externa
serosa
What are the 3 regions of the small intestine called?
Duodenum
Jejunum
Ileum
What purpose does the villi throughout the GI system serve?
increase surface area
house capillaries and lacteal (lymph capillaries)
Where would you find the friendly flora?
Large intestine: e.g. e.coli
What are the functions of the large intestine?
absorption
"bulking up"
What are the functions of the liver?
storage
lipid metabolism
carb metabolism
What are Kupffer cells?
hepatic macrophages found in liver sinusoids
What are the functions of hepatocytes?
production of bile
processing bloodborne nutrients
storage of fat-soluble vitamins
detoxification
What part of the gallbladder controls bile secretion?
Sphincter of Oddi
Insulin and glucagon are released by?
pancreas
(insulin: beta cells, gulcagon: alpha cells)
What does insulin do in the body?
increases the storage of glucose in the liver, fat and protein
increases cellular uptake of glucose
What does glucagon do in the body?
increases blood glucose levels
What causes the release of glucagon?
low blood sugar
high protein meals
exercise and stress
What is the purpose of digestion?
To present organic compounds in an accessible form (small molecules that are able to be absorbed)
What amount of energy do carbs produce?
16kj/gram
What do monosaccharides include?
glucose
fructose
galactose
What do disaccharides include?
sucrose
lactose
maltose
In the mouth, how are carbs digested?
salivary amylase breaks starch down into smaller molecules
In the stomach, how are carbs digested?
They aren't - acidic environment stops salivary amylase but no further digestion occurs
In the small intestine, how are carbs digested?
pancreatic amylase is released
intestinal cells release maltase, sucrase and lactase
monosaccharides are absorbed
What happens to fats in the stomach?
gastric lipase acts on triglycerides
What happens to fats in the small intestine?
most fat digested here
cholecystokinin (CCK) stimulates pancreas to release pancreatic lipase
CCK stimulates release of bile to help emulsify fat
fat broken down into monoglycerides and fatty acids
How is protein digested in the stomach?
gastrin (hormone) releases pepsinogen from chief cells in stomach
pepsinogen converted to pepsin by acid in stomach
pepsin breaks down proteins into peptones
How is protein digested in small intestine?
CCK released
trypsin, chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase released into duodenum by pancreas
these break peptones into peptides and amino acids
can now be absorbed
What is absorbed in the stomach?
water
some alcohol
some forms of fats
What is absorbed in the small intestine?
Nearly everything
95% of ingested energy from protein, fat, carbs and alcohol
What is absorbed in large intestine?
water, minerals, short-chain fatty acids
Where does the enterohepatic circulation run?
liver - gallbladder - small intestine - portal vein - liver
What is metabolism?
sum of all body activities
How is energy stored in the body?
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
What are the 3 metabolic processes to produce energy?
aerobic
anaerobic/glycolysis
ATP-CP
How does the ATP-CP system work?
Creatine phosphate and ATP stored, broken down and energy released
only 3-15 seconds of maximal effort
How does the anaerobic/lactic acid system work?
breakdown of glucose to lactic acid (no oxygen required)
rise in acidity triggers muscle fatigue
30 sec - 2 mins of intense activity
=2 ATP
How does the aerobic system work?
breakdown of fat and carbs for energy
pyruvate --> acetyl CoA --> citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle)
2min - 3 hrs
yields 34 ATP per cycle
What is catabolism?
breaking down
What is anabolism?
building up
How much food (chemical energy) is stored as ATP?
40%