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26 Cards in this Set

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Accessory Organs
Organs that assist with the functioning of other organs within a system.
Amylase
enzyme in saliva that breaks down starch into simpler sugars.
Acid
enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of carbohydrates.
Catalyst
A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself undergoing any permanent chemical change.
Hydrolysis
The chemical breakdown of a compound due to reaction with water.
Chyme
The pulpy acidic fluid that passes from the stomach to the small intestine, consisting of gastric juices and partly digested food.
Digestive Tract
The Human gastrointestinal tract refers to the stomach and intestine, and sometimes to all the structures from the mouth to the anus. (The "digestive system" is a broader term that includes other structures, including the accessory organs of digestion).
Bolus
A small rounded mass of a substance, esp. of chewed food at the moment of swallowing.
Macromolecule
A molecule containing a very large number of atoms, such as a protein, nucleic acid, or synthetic polymer.
Liver
organ found in the abdomen that performs hundreds of functions as an accessory organ of the digestive system, including the secretion of bile to digest fats; other functions include plasma protein production, blood detoxification, and glycogen storage.
Disaccharide
Any of a class of sugars whose molecules contain two monosaccharide residues.
Monosaccharide
Any of the class of sugars (e.g., glucose) that cannot be hydrolyzed to give a simpler sugar.
Upper Esophageal (Cardiac) Sphincter
a muscular ring between the esophagus and the stomach that controls the movement of food into and out of the stomach.
Dehydration Synthesis
In chemistry and the biological sciences, a dehydration reaction is usually defined as a chemical reaction that involves the loss of water from the reacting molecule. Dehydration reactions are a subset of elimination reactions.
Gall Bladder
a small organ that aids digestion and stores bile produced by the liver.
Gastrin
stomach hormone that stimulates the secretion of hydrochloric acid and the inactive precursor molecule of pepsin from glands in the stomach.
Homeostasis
The tendency toward a relatively stable equilibrium between interdependent elements, esp. as maintained by physiological processes.
Peptide
enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids.
Bioavailability
The proportion of a drug or other substance that enters the circulation when introduced into the body and so is able to have an active effect.
Enzyme
protein molecule that acts as a catalyst to increase the rate of a reaction.
Duodenum
The first part of the small intestine immediately beyond the stomach, leading to the jejunum.
Microvilli
microscopic cellular membrane protrusions that increase the surface area of cells, and are involved in a wide variety of functions, including absorption, secretion, cellular adhesion, and mechanotransduction.
Nucleases
An enzyme that cleaves the chains of nucleotides in nucleic acids into smaller units.
Secretin
A hormone released into the bloodstream by the duodenum (esp. in response to acidity) to stimulate secretion by the liver and pancreas.
CCK (Cholecystokinin)
A hormone that is secreted by cells in the duodenum and stimulates the release of bile into the intestine and the secretion of enzymes by the pancreas.
GIP (Gastric inhibitory peptide)
Also known as the glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide is a member of the secretin family of hormones.