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128 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The exam in the dental practice is compairable to the ___ in Community dental health
survey
The diagnosis in the dental practice is compairable to the ___ in Community dental health
analysis
The treatment planning in the dental practice is compairable to the ___ in Community dental health
program planning
The treatment in the dental practice is compairable to the ___ in Community dental health
program operation
The payment in the dental practice is compairable to the ___ in Community dental health
finance
The evaluation in the dental practice is compairable to the ___ in Community dental health
evaluation/appraisal
international group that focuses on health problems of international status
World health organization
6 federal groups concerned about health problems of national population
department of health and human services
cdc
health resources and services administration
national institute of health
national institute of dental and craniofacial research
agency for healthcare research and quality
what group published healthy people of 2010 and 2020
department of health and human services
four levels of government in public health
international
federal
state
local
types of samples
random
stratified
systematic
judgement
convenience
each element in the population has an equal chance of appearing; reduces chance of bias
random
select every "nth" to participate
systmatic
someone who knows the population selects the sample and since they are familiar with the population, they may be bias
judgement
selecting an element according to certain subgroups to diminish th echance of sample fluctuation
stratified
accomplished by selecting a proportionate number of subjects from each subgroup for the sample
random stratified
group is chosen because it happens to be comvienient; it may represent the population and there is an ease for the evaluator
convienience
what is being measured or observed
vairable
the outcome of interest should chance in response to intervention
dependent variable
the intervention what is being manipulated
independent variable
a science that describes data for the purpose of making interpretations
statistics
concerned with the presentation, organization, and summarization of the data
descriptive statistics
allows one to generalize from the sample o a larger group of subjectst
inferential statistics
tabulating how often each score occurs
frequency distribution
data is presentation in ascending or descending order along with the frequency of each score occuring in the data set
ungrouped
frequency of occurrence of scores up to and including any given value in the data set
cumulative
grouping vairables into consecutive intervals
grouped
the symmetry of the curve
skew
when more scores are in the lower range of a skew
positive skew
when more score are in the higher range
negative skew
scores are equally distributed around the mean; mean, median, mode have all the same value
normal curve AKA Bell curve
different ways to define the center or middle of a distribution
measures of central tendency
average # of scores; most commonly used
mean
divides the distrbutuion into 2 equal parts; half above, half below
median
score that occurs the greatest frequency; coresponds to the peak of the curve when plotted out
mode
describes how wide the scores are around a central point
measures of distribution
difference between the high and the low score; affected by extremely high or low scores
range
the square root of the sample variance; most commonly used method of dispersion in oral hygiene research; the larger the # representing the standard deviation, the wider the distribution curve
standard deviation
the degree to which a data collection instrument measures the variable it is designed to measure; does the test really measure what it claims to be measureing?
validity
the extent to which the method of measurement preforms consistency
reliability
consistent preformance by the same investigator when using a data collection instrument
intraexaminer
consistent preformance by a different investigator when using a data collection instrument
interexaminer
the process of establishing a relationship between a measuring device and the units of measure; helps increase interexaminer reliability
calibration
the ability of a test to correctly identify the presence of a disease
sensitivity
the ability of a test to correctly identify the absence of a disease
specifity
determines the strength of relationship between 2 vairables; shows a possible cause and effect; between -1 and +1; the closer to either -1 or +1 the stronger the correlation
correlation co-efficient
direct association between 2 variables; as value of x increases, the value of y increases; and vice versa
positive correlation
direct association between 2 variables; as value of x increases, the value of y decreases; and vice versa
negative correlation
the more hours you study= the higher your score will be
positive correlation
the more fluoride used= less caries
negative correlation
a statistical hypothesis test used when compairing the statistical difference between 2 mean scores
t-test
used when testing hypothesis; standard of acceptability is p < 0.05-1 out of 20 occurred bby chance, nothing to do with the testing situation
p value ( probability value)
involves techniques and agents to forestall onset and reverse progress of disease of arrest the disease process before treatment becomes necessary
primary services
examples of primary services
plaque control
fluoride
sugar dicipline
involves routine treatment methods to terminate a disease and restore tissues to as normal as possible; intervene or prevent the progression and recurrence of disease
secondary services
examples of secondary services
periodontal debridement
restorations
involves using measures necessary to replace lost tissue and rehabilitate patients
tertiary services
examples of tertiary services
prosthedontics
implants
dentures
an unexpectedly large number of cases of disease in a particular population at a particular time and place
epidemic
a disease that occurs regularly in a population as a matter of course
endemic
an outbreak of disease over a wide geographical areas such as a continent
pandemic
the number of events that occur in a given population in a given period of time
rate
the nimber of live births
natality
the rate of an illness in a population
morbidity
the number of deaths in a population
mortality
the number of new cases in a population at risk during a particular period of time; conveys info abour the risk of contracting a disease
incidence
the number of new and old cases of a disease in a population in a given period of time; tells how widespread the disease is
prevalence
an incidence rate calculated for a particular population for a single disease outbreak
attack
describes a epidemic with respect to person, place and time
descriptive studies
descriptive studies help determine:
who, where,and when a disease is occuring
aimed at testing a hypothesis
analytical studies
types of anylitical studies
retrospective
prospective
longitudinal
a cohort is classified by exposure to one or more specific risk factors and observed into the future to determine the rate at which disease develops
prospective study
a group is observed over a long period of time
longitudinal study
seeks to compare those diagnosed with those who do not have the disease for proper exposure to specific risk factors
retrospective study
(case-control study)
a study carried out under controlled situations
experemental studies
experemental studies use two groups called:
control groups
treatment groups
experemental studies involve ___ which is the practice in which the researcher remains uninformed and unaware of the indentifies of treatment and control group members through the period of the experiment to prevent bias
blindness
the experemental study may be ____ which means that neither the researcher nor the subjects know who is recieving the tx
double blind
an expression of clinical observations in numeric value
indices
characteristics of an ideal index
simple
valid
reliable
clear
sensitive
quantifiable
objective
accepted
general catagories of indices
reversible
irreversible
simple
cumulative
measures cumulative conditions that cannot be reversed
irreversible
measures conditions that can be reversed or resolved
reversible
measures the presence or absence of a condition
simple
measures all the evidence of a condition, past and present
cumulative
decayed missing filled teeth
DMFT
decayed missing filled surfaces
DMFS
irreversible and used to measure past and present caries experience of a population with permanent teeth
DMFT/ DMFS
decayed, need for extraction, filled teeth
deft
irreversible and measures observable caries experience in primary teeth and does not take into account that the teeth may have been exfoliated or extracted due to past caries experience
deft
decayed, filled teeth
dft
decayed, filled surfaces
dfs
irreversible and used to measure observable caries experience in primary teeth
dft/ dfs
root caries index
RCI
irreversible and attempts to assess the extent of root caries experience within the contex of individuals at risk for the disease; only takes into consideration areas of root exposure
RCI
gingival index
GI
reversible; based on severity of inflammation and location; can be used to determine prevalence and severity of gingivitis in cohort groups as well as in individual dentitions
GI
sulcular bleeding index
SBI
reversible; designed to ddetect early symptoms of gingivitis; useful in short-term clinical trials
SBI
periodontal disease index/ ramfjord
PDI
irreversible; measures the prevalance and severity of periodontal disease; measures both reversible (gingivitis) and irreversible (attachment loss) of periodontal disease
PDi
Periodontal disease /russell
PI
irreversible; each tooth is scored according to the condition of th esurrounding tissue; does not measure loss of attachment and there is a question of validity
PI
periodontal screening and recording
PSR
assesses the state of periodontal health in a rapid and effective manner; preliminary screening to determin need for full-mouth periodontal assessment; requires a special probe
PSR
the community periodontal index of treatment needs
CPITN
established by WHO to determine periodontal tx needs rather than periodontal status; requires a special probe
CPITN
simplified oral hygiene index
OHI-S
reversible; used to measure oral hygiene status; involves both a debris and calculus index
OHI-S
plaque index
PlI
reversible; measures difference in thickness of soft deposits at gingival margin; used in conjunction with gingival index
PlI
patient hygiene performance
PHP
reversible; assesses individual's performance in removing debris after toothbrushing instructions
PHP
volpe-manhold index
VMI
reversible; used to test agents for plaque control and calculus inhibition; scores supra calculus following prophy
VMI
process by which the program planner identifies and measures gaps between what is and what ought to be
needs assessment
those whom the program is intended to serve
target population
complete exam- includes mouth mirror and explorer, lighting, radiographs, study models, tests a needed
type I
limited exam- includes mouth mirror and explorer, lighting, posterior bitewings and selected periapicals
type II
inspection- mouth mirror and lighting
type III
screening- tongue depressor and lighting
type IV
gathering info about the target population
population profile
broad based statement of what changes will occur as a result of the program
goal
specific statement that describes in a measurable manner, the desired result of the program based on needs of target population; can be considered steps to achieve the program goals
objective
stages of learning
habit
action
involvement
self intrest
awareness
unawareness
outcome evaluation- after the program; examing the processes or activities of a program after they have taken place; measures imact of program
summative
evaluation during the program; examining the processes or activities of the program as they are taking place
formative