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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
phonology
Fundamental sound units and combinations of units in a given language.
semantics
Meanings of words or combinations of words
grammar
Rules pertaining to the structure of language
syntax
Grammatical rules that dictate how words can be combined
morphology
Rules for how to combine the smallest meaningful units of language to form words
pragmatics
Rules for using language effectively within a social context
prosody
Patterns of intonation, stress, and rhythm that communicate meaning in speech
cooing
Vowel-like utterances that characterize the infant's first attempts to vocalize
babbling
Consonant-vowell utterances that chracterize the infant's first attempts to vocalize
canonical babbling
Repetition of simple consonant-vowel combinations in well-formed syllables
protodeclarative communication
Use of a gesture to call attention to an object or event
protoimperative communication
Use of a gesture to issue a comman or request
nominals
Words that label objects, people, or events; the first type of words mose children produce
vocabulary spurt
Period of rapid word acquisition that typically occurs early in language development
underextension
Application of a label to a narrower class of objects than the term signifies
overextension
Tendency to apply a label to a broader category than the term actually signifies
receptive language
Ability to comprehend spoken speech
productive language
Meaningful language spoken or otherwise produced by an individual
referential style
Type of early language production in which the child uses mostly nominals
expressive style
Type of early language production in which the child uses many social words
fast-mapping
Deriving meanings of words from the contexts in which they are spoken
mutual exclusivity bias
Tendency for children to assume that unfamiliar words label new objects
joint attention
Episodes in which the child shares the same"psychological space" with another individual
telegraphic speech
Early two-word speech that contains few modifiers, prepositions, or other connective words
overregularization
Inappropriate application of syntactic rules to words and grammatical forms that show exception
semantic bootstrapping hypothesis
Idea that children derive information about syntax from the meanings of words
referential communication
Communication in situations that require the speaker to describe an object to a listener or to evaluate the effectiveness of a message
metalinguistic awareness
Ability to reflect on language as a communication tool and on the self as a user of language
metaphor
Figurative language in which a term in transferred from the object it customarily designates to describe an object or event in another context
Broca's area
Portion of the cerebral cortex that controls expressive language
expressive aphasia
Loss of the ability to speak fluently
Wernicke's area
Portion of the cerebral cortex that controls language comprehension
receptive aphasia
Loss of the ability to comprehend speech
motherese/parentese
Simple, repetitive, high-pitched speech of caregivers to young children; includes many questions
turn taking
Alternating vocalization by parent and child
turnabout
Element of conversation that requests a response from the child
recast
Repetition of a child's utterance along with grammatical corrections
expansion
Repetition of a child's utterance along with more complex forms
private speech
Children's vocalized speech to themselves that directs behavior
inner speech
Interiorized form of private speech