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83 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
*An involuntary response to external stimulation*

-Triggered by specific stimuli
-Survival implications
-Precursors for later voluntary movement
-Insight into nervous sys. health
-Permanent or temporary

ex: Eye blink, palmar grasp, sucking response
Postural Control - Motor Milestones
-Head upright & stable (2 mo)

-Sitting w/o support (6 mo)

-Stands alone (11 mo)
Locomotion - Motor Milestones
-Rolls over (3 mo)

-Crawls, creeps (7 mo)

-Walks alone (12 mo)

-Walks up steps (17 mo)

-Walks down stairs, alternating (4-5 yrs)

-Gallops/skips (4-5 yrs)
Manual Control - Motor Milestones
-Grasps objects (4 mo)

-Pincer grasp (9 mo)

-Attempt to use spoon/fork (15 mo)

-Eats w/ spoon (2-3 yrs)

-Cuts paper w/ scissors (3-4 yrs)

-Eats w/ fork (4-5 yrs)

-Ties shoes (6-7 yrs)
Infant State
Recurring pattern of arousal in the newborn, ranging from alert/vigorous/wakeful activity to quiet, regular sleep
Infant Auditory Development
-Infants can hear before birth
-Can hear all sounds in all languages, diminishes in 1st yr

-Sound localization = locating sound in space (will search @ 4 mo)
A prolonged period of unexplained crying by an infant
Infant Development of Taste & Smell
- Babies prefer mother's scent

- Taste develops prenatally

- Taste preferences devel. early
--> Amniotic fluid has diff tastes (prefer own)
--> Breast milk has flavor
Cat in the Hat Study - Decasper & Spence (1986)
- Mothers read "The Cat in the Hat" to fetuses 2x/day for last 6.5 weeks of pregnancy
-Newborns could suck one way to listen to mother's voice recording of "Cat in the Hat" or another way for a different book
-Babies preferred listening to the book they were exposed to prenatally
Sound Localization
Babies look towards the direction of a sound

-Develops at 4 months
Infant Development of Touch
- Pain develops @ birth, prenatally (Changes in med. procedures)

- Mouth, palms, feet most sensitive to touch

- Babies sensitive to hot/cold
Infant Development of Vision
- Can detect brightness, movement
- Can visually track an object

- Preference for faces
-->Eyes & internal features = more attention
-->Prefer mom's face
-->Learning experiences in 1st days after birth may influence preferences
-->1-yr olds prefer attractive faces
3 Aspects of Infant Vision
1) Visual Acuity (Clarity)
- Poor, can't perceive whole forms from far away
- Elements of complex patterns can attract attention

2) Color Perception
- Limited color vision
- Color distinction after 3 mo

3) Depth Perception
- Rely on depth/distance cues available to each eye independently
- Eye coordination @ 3-5 mo
- Improves rapidly (adult acuity by 6-12 mo)
Depth Perception & Locomotion Study (Bertenthal & Campos, 1994)
- Prelocomotor vs. Postlocomotor
-Use of visual cliff
-HR measured (decelerates in a state of non fearful attentiveness, accelerates as a defensive response)
-All infants showed evidence for depth perception on deep side, but only locomotor infants had fear-related cardiac acceleration in response to heights
- Walker experience = wariness of heights
Stereoscopic Vision
Sense of a 3rd spatial dimension (depth), produced by brain's fusion of the separate images contributed by each eye
Visual Cliff
Apparatus that tests an infant's depth perception by using patterned materials and an elevated glass platform to make it appear that one side of the platform is several feet lower than the other
Intermodal Perception
Use of sensory info from more than one modality to identify a stimulus and make sense of it

The identification of a stimulus already identified by means of one modality by use of another modality
ex: vision & hearing
ex: smooth vs. knobby pacifier

*Babies born w/ intermodal perception
Habituation-Dishabituation Paradigm
-Present 1 stimulus repeatedly
-Visual fixation = interest
-Initial interest fades w/ time & infant becomes bored/familiar to stimulus
-New stimulus = Increased interest

Dishabituation = Infant recognizes diff. bet. new and old stimulus
-Infants can differentiate @ 4mo

-Can present series of stimuli, allows to test categorization abilities
Visual Preference Method
(aka Preferential Looking Paradigm)
-Show 2 stimuli at same time
-Measure time of visual fixation to each
-Look at 1 longer = infant can differentiate between the two
Methods to Study Infants
-Habituation-Dishabituation Paradigm

-Visual Preference Method

-Operant Conditioning

-Physiological responses
--> Brain activity, stress hormones
Classical Conditioning
1) Conditioned stimulus (CS) elicits no rxn
2) CS and unconditioned stimulus (US) elicits unconditioned response (UR)
3) CS elicits CR

ex. Baby conditioned to fear a doctor
Operant Conditioning
Learning to exhibit/inhibit some behavior because of the rewarding/punishing consequences it brings

ex. Cat in the Hat study
Cautilli, et al (2005)
-35 wk old fetus
-Observed rate of kicking behavior over 4 successive 3-min periods

-Verbal statements combined w/ gentle touch serves as reinforcer for in utero fetus to kick
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
-Measures electrical output from brain

-Measures timing and rough locations of brain activity
Glial cell
A nerve cell that supports & protects neurons and serves to encase them in myelin sheaths
Neuron Proliferation
The rapid formation of neurons in the developing organism's brain

~250,000 new neurons/min during embryonic period

-Most neurons developed by 7 months gestation
-100-200 billion neurons
Neural Migration
The movement of neurons within the brain that ensures that all brain areas have a sufficient number of neural connections

"Always on the move"
**Absence of right #neurons in right location assoc. w/ dyslexia, schizophrenia
Connection site of intercellular communication where info exchanged between neurons by means of neurotransmitters
The forming of synapses

-Forms faster than neurons
-Allows for increasingly complex communication
Neuronal Death
Surrounding neurons die to provide more space for crucial loci of info transmission

aka Programmed Cell Death
Synaptic Pruning
The brain's disposal of the axons/dendrites of a neuron that isn't often stimulated

-Frees up space for new synaptic connections
-Increases efficiency & specialization
-Occurs at diff. times for diff. parts of brain
Sequential Brain Development
1) Motor Cortex
-Develops rapidly (reflex --> voluntary moves)
-2 mo = rooting, startle response drop out

2) Visual Cortex
-Huge proliferation bet. 4 - 12 mo
-Vision enhances, skilled at focusing on objects at diff. distances

3) Hippocampus
-Memory functions, fully functional @ 8-9 mo

4) Prefrontal Cortex
-Involved in forethought/logic
-Synaptic density devel. slower, reaches peak @1st yr
Hemispheric Specialization
Differential functioning of the two cerebral hemispheres
-Left hemi controls right side
-->Language, speed sounds, positive emotions
-Right hemi controls left side
-->Nonspeech sounds, negative emotions
Heller, Nitschke, & Miller (1998)
There are stable indiv. diff. in asymmetric brain activity across the lifespan

Predict important biases in emotional responsiveness to stress or challenge
Fox & Davidson (1988)
-Infants who cry when faced with maternal separation displayed less left, more right anterior activity than babies who were not distressed

-Adults who show greater left anterior activity report more positive affect, engage in more approach behavior, respond more intensely to positive vs negative stimuli

-Adults showing greater right anterior activity report more negative affect, engage in more avoidance behaviors, and respond more to negative vs. positive stimuli
Brain Plasticity
Responsiveness of neural structures & f'ns to input from the environment

-Stimulation from environment plays critical role in brain development (Improves brain's efficiency by strengthening synapses and modifying brain chemistry)

Ex: rats reared in enriched vs. impoverished environments
Grasping Behavior
An infant's ability to reach, grasp, & pick-up objects enables exploration and learning

Pre-Reaching: uncoordinated swipes @ objects
Directed-Reaching: 3 mo, complex/efficient pattern of reaching

*Younger & older infants show sensitivity to size/shape of objects relative to hand size
Skills Implicated in Grasping (Bertenthal & Hofsten, 1998)
1) Learning to control & balance neuromuscular forces
-->Ability to sit critical, 7 mo

2) Distance perception

3) Coordinating body parts

4) Mapping visual/tactile info to response patterns (visual perception)

5) Selecting hand to contact object
Developmental Progression of Grasping
5-6 mo: baby uses ulnar/palmar grasp to trap object size of cube against palm

7-9 mo: develops a thumb-finger pincer grasp
Case-Smith et al. (1997)
*Type of toy important (especially bet. transition periods)*

- Need to expose to fine motor toys
- Haptic attributes: texture, color, size, etc
Role of Experience & Culture on Motor Development
- More physical attention to babies = babies achieve motor milestones earlier
-Zambian babies left alone to practice motor skills = earlier devel.
-Jamaican babies motorically advanced
-Practice in motor behavior hastens walking
Ways Locomotion Affects Other aspects of Development
- Increased independence
- Increased parent-child interaction
- Development of fear of heights
- Can deal w/ changes in spatial orientation
Factors Affecting Physical Growth
1) Genetics
- Plays strong role in height & weight
- Gender during puberty

2) Environment
- Nutrition
- Psychological disorders
- Climate
- Poor caregiving
- Ethnicity
Catch-Up Growth
The tendency for human beings to regain a normal course of physical growth after injury or deprivation
Differentiating Crying (Kopp)
- Very hard to determine diff. types of cries
- Mothers can distinguish cries of own kids
- Mothers more skilled than fathers
- Parents more skilled than non-parents
Gustafson & Harris (1990)
Contextual Cues for Crying
- Know when child eats/naps/falls over lets you know what type of cry
- No advantage of mothers over non-mothers

*w/o contextual cues, mothers/non-parents/non-mothers can't distinguish
3 Theories of Language Acquisition
1) Learning View
- Skinner (Operant Learning)

2) Nativist View
- Chomsky (Inborn Universal Grammar)

3) Integrationist View
- Bruner's Lang. Acquis. Support System (LASS)
Learning View of Language Acquisition
Skinner - Operant Learning

Use of reinforcement, imitation to teach infant language
Nativist View of Language Acquisition
Chomsky - Inborn Universal Grammar

The human nervous system incorporates an innate concept of language

Kids sensitive to an environmental stimulus during a critical period for language learning
Integrationist View of Language Acquisition
Bruner's LASS

Language is learned in the context of spoken language, and humans are in some way biologically prepared to learn how to speak
Bruner's Language Acquisition Support System (LASS)
A collection of strategies & tactics that environmental influences (initially a kid's parents) provide the language-learning child
Techniques for Language Development
1) Non-verbal games (ex. Peekaboo)

2) Infant-Directed Speech
- Simple sentences, talk slower, high pitch

3) Expansion
- Imitate and add to a child's statement
Study of systemic relations between language & context

Set of rules that specify appropriate language for particular social context
Stages of Language Acquisition
1) Cooing (1-2 mo)
2) Babbling (4 mo)
--> Canonical
--> Jargon
3) One-Word Stage (12-18 mo)
4) Two-Word Stage (18-24 mo)
5) Sentences (2 yr)
One-Word Stage
-Words learned slowly
-Names of things, objects
Tardif (1996)
A cultural variation exists in learning during the one-word stage of language acquisition

*Asian languages = learn verbs 1st
Children overgeneralize during the one-word stage, using a single word to cover many diff. things

--> Could mean they don't understand the meaning of the word

-->--> Recognition outpaces language production
Thompson & Chapman (1975)
-Kids @ one-word stage asked to choose dog from a set of pics of a real dog, stuffed dog, others

--> They picked dog picture = they know what it means

-->--> Recognition outpaces language production
Telegraphic Speech
Two-word utterances that include only words essential to convent the speaker's intent
Gonikoff et al. (1987)
2 yr-old telegraphic speech speakers

Q: Do they look more at the action that's consistent w/ the audio more often than the other action?

Audio1 --> Look longer @ Visual1
Audio2 --> Look longer @ Visual2

Young kids know more than their utterances suggest; see rapid increase in vocab, devel. syntax
Fernald et al. (1998)
-72 infants (15 mo, 18 mo, 24 mo)
-Calculate infant's rxn time to seek correct pic

-->15 mo infants demonstrated recog. of 4 target words by looking at the correct object named, but didn't initiate gaze until the target word was spoken

-->24mo infants shift gaze to the correct object before end of the spoken word = make decisions based on incomplete acoustic information (like adults)

**Neural reorganization**
Werker & Desjardins (1995)
Babies are hardwired to learn any language at birth

This ability drops out @ 10 mo. when infants commit to a language
Language Acquisition in Deaf Children
-Similar steps
-Learn sign language faster, earlier
--> After 2yrs, differences disappear

*Motor centers of brain devel. faster than speech centers
Metalinguistic Awareness
Understanding that language is a rule-bound system of communicating
Cognitive Development
Study of how intellectual abilities and knowledge of the world change as a person grows older

Critical for social/emotional development
2 Broad Approaches to Cognitive Development
1) Quantitative (Continuous) [based on age]

2) Qualitative (Discontinuous) [based on maturity, Piaget]
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
Constructivist View: children actively seek info and organize it into SCHEMAS

4 Stages:
1) Sensorimotor (0-2 yr)
2) Preoperational (2-7 yr)
3) Concrete Operational (7-12 yr)
4) Formal Operational (12+ yr)
Sensorimotor Stage of Cognitive Development
Behavioral Schemas
- Crawling, grasping, sucking, looking

Transition from basic reflexes to beginnings of symbolic thought

Object permanence develops
-8-12 mo basic understanding
-12-18 mo full understanding
*Manual search task*
Preoperational Stage of Cognitive Development
- Emergence of symbolic representation
- Mental schemas
-Inability to think logically (animistic thinking, ego-centricism, irreversibility)
Concrete Operational Stage of Cognitive Development
Child is able to reason logically about materials that are physically present (no abstract thought)
Formal Operational Stage of Cognitive Development
Child is capable of abstract thinking, complex reasoning, hypothesis testing
Tendency to view world from one's own perspective and to have difficulty seeing things from another's viewpoint
Animistic Thinking
The attribution of life to inanimate objects
Understanding that steps of a procedure or operation can be reversed and that the original state of the object can be obtained

*During preoperational stage, children do not have conservation of number/volume/mass
Three-Mountain Task
Piaget's test for egocentrism

-Child asked to describe what the doll sees from another side of the 3 mountains
-Preoperational kids can't consistency identify doll's view
Baillargeon' Object Permanence
-Habituation-Dishabituation Paradigm
-Previous Problem: infants could not motorically move objects

*Object permanence appears as early as 3 months

*Car and block rolling down ramp study
Violation of Expectation (Baillargeon)
- Introduce impossible event
- Object floating in space

*Location & degree of support important

-Initial concept: Support or no support
-Infants identify discrete variable (locus of support), then continuous variable (amount of contact)
Dual Representation
- Symbolic understanding, must mentally represent both the symbol itself and its relation to the referent

- Idea that objects have both a concrete and abstract nature (representational insight)
Factors Affecting Representational Insight
- Degree of similarity bet. symbol & referent
- Degree of info provided about symbol-referent relation
- Amount of prior experience child has w/ symbols

**Depends on particular stimuli and situation
Credible Shrinking Room (DeLoache)
-3 yr olds performed well, 2.5 yr olds performed poorly
-Younger children do better if the salience of the model is decreased (can't physically touch it = more symbol-like)

-Non-symbolic task --> Shrunken room didn't represent larger room, IT IS the larger room
Impact of Culture on Cognition
- Euro-American kids describe memories in relation to own feelings & experiences
- Chinese kids emphasize social roles & responsibilities
- Siblings & parenting style play role in developmental process
-Theory of mind develops around the world
Theory of Mind ("False Belief" Task)
The understanding of the mind and how it works

-Tell a child a story, ask what a character in the story thinks
(Younger children respond based on personal beliefs)

ex. Max's candy is hidden in the cupboard.
3 yr-olds say candy is hidden in the drawer, b/c that's where their candy is hidden
Evidence of Reversibility
Conservation of Volume: when a screen is placed in front of the short and tall glasses, children were able to conserve
--> Distracting changes in height/width of water column not visible to kids