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11 Cards in this Set

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Development

refers to how a country's resources are used to meet the basic needs of its population, and examines the quality of life of the majority of its people.

gross domestic product (GDP)

is the total value of all goods and services produced by a country within the country itself. GDP is usually given in US dollars.

gross national product (GNP)

includes the GDP but also any earnings from outside the country.



per capita earnings

both the GDP and the GNP can be divided by the total population to give an idea of the money available per season in the country. this is not the real earnings of any individual but it is useful for comparing countries.

productivity

attempts to assess the efficiency of the economic activity. it is the balance between inputs and outputs- higher output relative to input indicates higher efficiency.

Human Development index (HDI)

this measure the average achievements in a country in three basic dimensions of human development: wealth, health and education. the index combines life expectancy at birth, education as reflected by both literacy rate and school enrollment and the standards of living reflected by the GDP PPP in US dollars.


(the higher the number means a lower rank and vice versa)

the Gini coefficient

seeks to investigate the disparities with a country. it examines the distribution of wealth in a country by comparing the proportion of total earnings with the proportion of the population. the Gini coefficient can range from 0 to 1. a low Gini coefficient indicates a more equal distribution of wealth, with 0 corresponding to complete equality. higher Gini coefficient indicates a more unequal distribution, with 1 corresponding to complete inequality.

internet penetration

is considered an indicator of development, as it allows for better global communication and international economic activity.

good governance

participatory, consensus oriented, accountable, transparent, responsive, effective and efficient, equitable and inclusive, and which follow the rule of law. moreover, good governance assures that corruption is minimised, the views of the minorities are taken into account, and that the voices of the most vulnerable in society are heard in decision making. it is also responsive to the present and future needs of society.

sustainable development

development that meets the needs of the present population but allows future generations to fulfill their needs. it is linked to environmental factors such as the tremendous environmental cost of the rush to modernization, with its high level of materialism.

responsible environmental factors

implies that countries and individuals need to act in environmentally responsible ways.