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128 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back


top to bottom


centre to extremities


greatest physical growth, head grows faster than lower parts of the body , even within the head the top grows faster


middle parts develop early on

physical development in middle childhood

body growth , slow steady growth , body fat decrease , muscle mass increases

early maturing boys perceive themselves

more positively , more successful in relationships

late maturing girls are

more happy with body proportions , fewer problems in behavuiurs

brain growth spurt

last 3 months of prenatal development to first 2 years of life

- 75 % of adult weight reached by 2 years of age


collectmessages from neighbouring nerons and send messages to the cll body


conductselectrical impulsues awayfrom the cell body to other neruons

mylithn sheath

fattysubstance that acts as an insulator , acts like a coding that elts theelectrical

translates information

generateelectraiciity and chemcinals tothe axon


Cangenerate new neruons butits not the major way that things develop in the brain , were born with as manyneurons tht wewould need , the increase size of the brain is the formation of the glia

neutonal develpemnt

250 000 neurons born each mintue during embryonic stage

Whena neuron is “born”determines its eventual location and, in turn, its function


-Notall neruons areassigned a function , formed during embryonic stage , result from mitosis ,

-what makes them different is the position in the blastocyst Ecotderm becoes thenervous sytem and nerural tbewhich becomes the brain , after the nerual tubeseals there is a collection ofneruons that will become the brain

genes determine

neuronal migration

- migration/ location dictates function of neutron

- over time they become specialied


provides insulation for neurons


increases rate of transmission of electraical impulses

- continues throughout chidldhood


plays a role in more efficient moto control cognitive processing

neuronal pruning

neutrons that fire together wire together ,

half of the neurones in the infants brain will die over the first few years of life

neutrons that fire together and send messages to others

and the connections that are often used are strengthened and are wired together

- connections that are not used die off

neuro plasticity

ability of neutrons to change in structure and function

- critical periods

ex. learning a second language in childhood

cortext of the brain

more higher functioning things, thinking , language

subcotrical regions are the

first to develop

frontol cortext


motor and sensory cortext


motor cotext

:right arrow sensory left Morot :directs involuntary movements , sensory : all about perception of touch etc

:inborn reflexes disapear bythe age of 6 months

frontal lobe

:isntfully developed until the age of early 20s , lack of devleopemnt in adolsenseshas importance for teenage behavioursbecause it has to do with decision making , thinking ahead etc.

cerebral lateralization : left

Rightside of bodySpeech,Language ProcessingHearingVerbalmemoryPositiveemotions

cerebral lateralization : right

Leftside of bodyVisual-spatialProcessingMusicTouchsensationsNegativeemotions

corpus callousum connects

the 2 halves of the brain

on the first day of life

nspeechstimulates more activity in left hemisphere than right

most newborns

turn to the right placedon back; most reach for objects with right hand later in development

state ( alertness) is important because :

-itaffects how the baby interacts with the environment

-itaffects how adults respond to the baby

-itis an indicator of nervous system integrity

rooting and sucking

- disappears after 3 -4 months

-turn head to a touch stimulus to the cheek

-importants for eating

primitaive reflex

- moro reflex

-disapprears after 3 - 4 moths

Leftovers from evolutionary history , used to be important -If osmeone thighappens suddenly they will react by showing being startled , they trow headback and fling arms and legs together as if to hold onto something -Arent veryuseeful intodays society

primitative reflex

grapsing reflex

- disappears after 3 -4 months

babinski reflex

disappears after 9- 12 moths

-stroak foot , it will fan out and foot twists in

-if an adult shows its a sign of nervous system problems ex. greys

swimming reflex

- disappears after 6 -7 moths

-wont breath in water

stepping reflex

disappears after 3 - 4moths

- stepping movement

spinal galant reflex

disapears after 3 - 6 moths

-run finger along side one side of spine the baby will curve back toward that side

- ( evolutionary process) facilitate birth process , squirm their way out

tonic neck reflex

- disapperars after 2 months

-put on back baby makes fist and turn face to the right side

why do reflexes disappear ? traditional view :

Switchfrom subcortical control to cortical,voluntarycontrol

motor milestones: 1 month

hold head up

motor milestones : 2 - 4 moths

roll over

motor milestones 5 - 7 moths

sit without support

motor milestones 8 - 12 mpths

walk with support

gross motor skills : 11- 14 moths

walk unassisted

fine motor skills ex reaching : occurs at about 1 month

pre reaching

fine motor skills ex reacing : occurs at about 3 - 4 months

directed reaching ,

ulnar grasp

occurs at about 4 - 5 moths

pincer grapsh

occurs by about 9 moths

ulser grasph

transfer once object from one hand to another , not use fingers more like a claw

pincer grapsh

uses thumb and finger to pick up small objects , requires more skill

dynamic systems theory

pBothbiology and experience are importantppInfantis an active participant in its own developmentnWantto be efficient, effective, have a good time

information processsing approach

approach that focuses on the ways children process information about their world - how they manipulate information , monitor it , and create strategies to deal with it


the mechanism by which information gets into memory


the ability to process information with little to no effort

strategy construction

creation of new procedures for processing information


cognition about cognition , or knowning about knowing


concentrating and focusing material resources

selecive attention

focusing on a specific aspect of experience that is relevant while ignoring others that are irrelevant

divided attention

concentrating on more than one activity at the same time

sustained attention

maintain attentino to a selected stimulus for a prolonged period of time. requires focused attention and vigilance

executive attention

action , planning , allocating attention to goals , error detection , monitoring etc

joint attention

focusng on the same object or event that someone else is looking at ; requires the ability to track another behaviour , one person directing another attention

short - term memory

limimted capacity memory system which info is usually retained for up to 30 secs. using rehearsal individuals can keep the info in short term memory longer

long - term memory

relatively permanent and unlimited type of memory

working memory

mental workbench where individuals maniupulate and assemble info when making decisions , solving problems and comprehending written and spoken language


getting information into memory


retaining info over time


taking informaitno out of storage

schema theory

when people reconstruct information, they fit it into information that already exists in their minds

implicit memory

memory without conscious recollection ; memory of skills and routine procedures that are performed automatically

explicit memory

conscious memory of facts and experiences

theory of mind

awareness of ones own mental processes and the mental processes of others


concept of incoportation of new information into existing knowledge


concept of adjusting schemes to fit new information and experiences


concept of grouping isolated behaviours into a higher order , more smoothly functioning cognitive system ; the grouping or arranging of items into categories


how children shift from one stage to the next, trying to understand the world

object permanencce

term for one of an infants most important accomplishments ; understanding that objects continue to exist even when they cannot directly be seen , heard or touched

core knowledge approach

states that infants are born with domain specific innate knowledge systems , such as those involving space, object permanence etc.


internalized actions that allow children to do mentally what before they had done only physicality


preoperational thoght , inability to distinguish betweens one own and someone elses perspective

symbolic function substage

in prooporational thought

- child gains the ability to represent mentally an object that is not present



- belief that inanimate object have lifelike qualities and are capable of action

intuitive thought substage


-children begin to use primitive reasoning


focusing attention on one characteristic to the exclusion of all others


idea that altering an objects or substances appearance does not change its basic properties

horizontal decalage

simialiar abilities do not appear at the same time within a stage of development

types of conservation

1: number

2: matter

3: length


concete operation that involves ordering stimuli along a quantitative dimension ( length)

imaginary audience

aspect of adolescent egocentrism that involves attention getting behaviour motivated by a desire to be noticed , visible and onstage

personal fable

part of adolescent egocentrism that involves an adolescents sense of uniqueness and invincibility

zone of proximal development

vygotskys term , tasks that are too difficult for children to master alone but can be mastered with assistance from adults or more skilled children


practice of challenging the level of support provided over the course of a teaching sessions with more skilled person adjusting guidance for helping

social contructivist approach

emphasis on the social contexts of learning and the construction of knowledge through social interaction

dynamic system theory

seeks to explain how motor behaviours are assembled for perceiving and acting

gross motor skills

actions that involve large muscle activities , such as arm movements and walking

fine motor skills

actions that involve more finely tuned movements such as finger dexterity


reaction that occurs when information contacts the sensory receptors


the interpretation of sensation

ecological view

people directly perceive information in the world around them. perception brings people in contact with the environment in order to interact with it and adapt to it


opportunities for interaction offered by objects that are necessary to perform activities

visual preference method

determine if infants can distinguish one stimulu from another by measuring the length of time they attend to different stimuli


decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repreated presentations of the stimulus


recovery of a habituated response after a change in simulation

size constancy

recognition that an object remains the same even though the retinal image of the object changes

shape constancy

recognition that an object remains the same even though its orientation to the viewer changes

infants cannot hear

soft sounds as well as an adult

infants can

recognize mothers voice before birth

infants can prefer

higher pitched sounds over lower pitched sounds

infants can

determine the general location a sound is coming from

intermodial perception

ability to relate and integrate information about 2 or more sensory modalities , such as vision and hearing


main class of male sex hormones


main class of female sex hormone


estrogen that is a key hormone in girls pubertal development


girls first menstruation

precosous puberty

very early onset and rapid progression of puberty

frontal lobes

involved in voluntary movement , thinking , personality , and intentionality or purpose

occipital lobe

funciton in vision

temporal lobes

have an active role in hearing , language processing and memory

parietal lobes

important role in spatial location , attention and motor control


specialization of function in one hemisphere of the cerebral cortex or the other


process of encasing axons with a myelin sheath that increases the speed of processing informaiton

corpus callosum

brain area where fibres connect the brains left and right hemisphere

prefontal cortex

highest level of the frontal lobes that is involved in reasoning , decision making, and self control


seat of emotions in the brain