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52 Cards in this Set

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apical
lying or moving toward the apex (tip) of the root of the tooth
coronal
lying or moving toward the crown of the tooth
interproximal space
the space between two adjacent teeth
mesial surface
the interproximal surface of the tooth nearest the central incisor
distal surface
the interproximal surface of the tooth farthest away from the central incisor
buccal (labial) surface
the outer surface of the tooth nearest the lips or cheek
lingual (palatal) surface
the tongue side of the tooth (lingual for the mandibular teeth and palatal for the maxillary teeth)
What are diphyodonts?
animals that have two sets of teeth, one designated deciduous or primary and one permanent
What is the difference b'twn successional & nonsuccessional teeth?
Nonsuccessional teeth are permanent teeth, classically molars, which do not succeed a deciduous counterpart. Successional teeth are permanent teeth that replace or succeed deciduous counterparts which typically include incisors, cuspids and premolars.
What is mixed dentition?
combination of erupted deciduous and permanent teeth within an oral cavity
Why is it clinically important to distinguish deciduous teeth from permanent teeth?
overly retained deciduous teeth can lead to the development of malocclusions in permanent teeth
Early extraction of overly retained deciduous teeth can help prevent these malocclusions from developing.

The deciduous tooth is recognized by its smaller size and its position relative to the permanent tooth. Overly retained deciduous teeth are usually located labial to the permanent tooth except in the case of overly retained maxillary canine teeth that are located distal (behind) the maxillary permanent canine tooth.
deciduous dental formula: dog
2(I 3/3, C 1/1, P 3/3) = 28
deciduous dental formula: cat
2(I 3/3, C 1/1, P 3/2) = 26
permanent dental formula: dog
2 (I 3/3, C 1/1, P 4/4, M 2/3) = 42
permanent dental formula: cat
2 (I 3/3, C 1/1, P 3/2, M 1/1) = 30
What is oligodontia?
decreased number of teeth

more common in dogs than cats: puppies with missing deciduous teeth will also be missing the same adult teeth
What are supernumerary teeth?
extra teeth

may result in crowding and malalignment of teeth predisposing to the development of periodontal disease
What is the main purpose of the following types of teeth:

a. incisors
b. canines
c. premolars
d. molars
a. cutting & grooming
b. puncturing & tearing
c. shearing
d. grinding
Which teeth are known as carnassial teeth?
maxillary P4
mandibular M1
How many roots does each tooth have in the dog?
incisors, canines: 1
maxilla P & M:
1st has 1, next 2 have 2, next 3 have 3
mandible P & M:
all have 2 except for 1st & last, which have 1 (P1, M3)
How many roots does each tooth have in the cat?
incisors, canines: 1
maxilla P & M:
1,2,3,2
mandible P & M: all have 2
What is the clinical importance of knowing the number of roots for each tooth?
failure to extract all roots results in persistance of clinical signs incl. facial swelling, osteomyelitis, gingival/mucosal draining tracts, cutaneous draining tracts
crown
portion of the tooth that is normally visible in the mouth
enamel
exterior surface of the crown

hardest substance in body, normally white
apex
the tip of the root
cementum
exterior surface of the root
cervical line (cemento-enamel junction)
the anatomic landmark that separates the crown from the root and separates the portion of the tooth that is covered by either enamel or cementum
furcation
the point at which the roots of a multirooted tooth branch from the crown
alveolar bone
bone in which the roots of the teeth lie
alveolar juga
prominences of the roots in the maxillary canine and caudal cheek teeth that can be palpated and occasionally seen
root
portion of the tooth that is normally below the gingival margin
dentin
hard pale yellow intermediate layer of the tooth, forms the bulk of the calcified tooth structure

dentin is covered by enamel in the crown and by cementum in the root
gets thicker w/ age
pulp
innermost layer of the tooth, containing vessels & nerves which enter thru the apex
pulp chamber
portion of the pulp that is found in the crown of the tooth

radiating from the pulp chamber are pulp canals
the number of pulp canals in a tooth is directly related to the number of roots in a tooth, with each root normally having one canal.
What is enamel hypoplasia & what are some causes?
incomplete or defective formation of enamel caused by disruption of ameloblasts (cells that form enamel) during 1st several months of life while teeth are developing

assoc. w/ periods of high fever, infections (esp. canine distemper), nutritional deficiencies, disturbances of metabolism, & systemic disorders
What is the pathophysiology of fractured teeth w/ pulpal exposure?
Pulpal exposure --> Bacterial pulpitis --> Pulp necrosis --> Apical granuloma --> Periapical abscess --> Acute alveolar periodontitis Osteomyelitis --> Sepsis
What are some radiographic changes assoc. w/ chronic pulpal exposure?
-Periapical lysis (lysis of the bone around the apex seen radiographically as a dark halo around the tip of the root)
-Apical lysis (lysis of the root tip)
-Large asymmetrical endodontic systems (pulp chambers and canals) when compared to contralateral teeth
-Radiographic loss of tooth structure to the pulp canal
-Secondary destruction of periodontal structures
-Gutta-percha point (used as radioopaque marker) placed in draining tract pointing to apex of affected tooth
non-attached (free) gingiva
most corcoronal part of the gingiva and has no attachment to the tooth or bone
gingival sulcus
nonpathologic space between the free gingiva and the tooth
attached gingiva
tissue covering neck of each tooth & the alveolar process
gingival margin
the edge of the free gingiva
mucogingival line
The line separating the attached gingiva and the alveolar mucosa
alveolar mucosa
overlies the alveolar bone and is loosely attached to the underlying bone

apical to mucogingival line
What is the clinical importance of gingival & mucosal anatomy?
normal gingival sulcus depth: < 3 mm in dogs & < 0.5 mm in cats

mucogingival line is an important landmark for determining the type of pathology that may cause draining tracts around the teeth
What is the periodontium?
combination of the tooth attachment and support complex of the tooth which consists of soft & hard tissues
What soft tissue & hard tissue components make up the periodontium?
soft: gingiva, epithelial attachment, periodontal ligament

hard: alveolar bone, tooth root cementum
What is the periodontal ligament?
spans the space between the cementum of the root and the alveolar bone of the tooth socket and is located apical to the epithelial attachment all around the root

function: attaches the root of the tooth to the alveolar bone

radiographically the periodontal ligament appears as a radiolucent (black) line outlining the root(s) of the tooth.
What is the clinical importance of knowledge of periodontal anatomy?
85% of dogs > 4 yo have periodontal dz
causes bone loss & pathologic periodontal pockets
may result in tooth mobility, hemorrhage, oronasal fistulas, abscesses, jaw fx
What are some ocular complications from lack of dental anatomy?
inadvertent penetration of the retrobulbar space or globe
A: coronal
B: apical
What are the correct directional terms for A & B above?
A. crown
B. root
C. enamel
D. dentin
E. pulp chamber
F. cervical line (cemento-enamel junction)
G. furcation
H. pulp canal
I. cementum
J. apex
Identify the parts of the tooth labeled A-J above.
A. alveolar mucosa
B. mucogingival line
C. attached gingiva
Identify the parts of the gingival anatomy labeled A-C.