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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Triadan Numbering System in Dogs
8 is always the carnassial on top (pm4)
4 is always the canine
9 is the carnassial on the bottom (first molar)

best to start at the carnassial tooth and count forward
Triadan Numbering System in Cats
9 is the last tooth in a cats mouth in all arcades
In upper arcade no 5
In lower arcade no 5 or 6
lying or moving toward the crown
lying or moving toward the apex of the root
Gingival margin
the gingival part of the tooth- what lays just beneath the gum line
Towards the midline
Away from the midline
Along the palatal surface
Buccal or labial
Along the lip surface or cheeks
Toward the tongue
labial or buccal surface
Facing the opposite jaw
Where the teeth touch
Bite surface
Between the teeth
where the lower incisors hit behind the upper incisors
Jugal ridge
raised area of bone over the root of the canine
Infraorbital foramen
Important for nerve blocks
Located approximately above the upper PM3
Mental foramen
Located below the front root of the second premolars
The second foramena of 3
Halfway between the mandible and alveolar ridge
Occurs when tension is left on the jaw
Spring loaded mouth gags should be used with caution/ not for long periods of time
Palatine fissure
Only located in the maxilla
Two holes rostrally behind the incisors
Major palatine foramina
Nerve exits there to block
Located halfway between midline and arcade near carnassial
Mandibular foramen
Inside mandible
Where Mandibular nerve enters and then exits at mental foramen
Animals that only have one set of teeth
Continually grow
Ex: rodents
Animals that have many sets of teeth
Constantly replacing them
Ex: fish, sharks
Animals that have two sets of teeth
Deciduous and permanent
Permanent teeth are stronger and larger than deciduous teeth
Ex: most species
Successional teeth
Permanent teeth that replace or succeed deciduous counterparts
Ex: incisors, canines, most premolars
Nonsuccessional teeth
Permanent teeth that do not succeed a deciduous counterpart
Ex: molars, some premolars
All the teeth are the same shape or type but may vary in size
Ex: fish, reptiles, sharks
Several types of teeth in same dentition including incisors, canines, premolars and molars
Ex: dogs and cats
Dentition with shorter crown: root ratio
Ex: dogs, cats, primates, other carnivores
Dentition with a longer crown:root ratio with crown submerged and continual eruption
Radicular hypsodont
True roots (closed roots) that cause additional crown to erupt as teeth are worn down
Ex: horses and cattle
Aradicular hypsodont
Absence of true roots (open roots) additional crown produced as tooth is worn
Ex: lagomorphs and incisors of rodents

common to get odontomas a cementum issue
If the roots grow too long they can affect breathing in these animals (obligate nasal breathers), best to remove the incisors
Mixed dentition
combination of erupted deciduous teeth and permanent teeth
Covered by enamel
Meets the root at teh cemento-enamel junction (CEJ- is the neck of the tooth and is normally not visible
Anchors the tooth to the jaw
Teeth may have one or more roots
The end of the root is the apex which can have a single foramen (humans) or a multiple canal delta arrangement (cats and dogs)
Apical delta has multiple holes at the apex of the tooth
Alveolar bone
Roots are encased in the alveolar processes of the jaws
The process comprises alveolar bone (around the tooth), trabecular bone (maxilla), and compact bone (mandible)
Lamina dura
Dense bone lining the alveolus and is called the cribriform plate
Radiographically seen as a white line called the lamina dura (black line is the periodontal ligament space)
Periodontal fibers attach to the bone
96% inorganic
Hardest substance in the body
Covers the exterior surface of the crowns only
Breach in enamel causes bacteria to get in and the tooth to die
Main supporting structure of the tooth
Second hardest tissue in the body
70% mineral and 30% organic
Main structure is the dentinal tubule which extends from the external surface to the pulp
There are approximately 30,000-40,000 tubules per square milimeter
With age more secondary dentin is deposited
Three types of dentin
Primary dentin
Forms before tooth eruption
Secondary dentin
Forms after eruption, as the tooth develops with age it develops from the odontoblasts living within the pulp cavity
Tertiary or Reparative dentin
Forms as a result of trauma to the odontoblasts
Has few tubules and is darker in color and very dense in structure
Common in "tennis ball chewers", tries to seal the tooth to keep bacteria from getting in
Covers the enamel-free roots
Provides a point of attachment for the periodontal ligament
Similar in composition to woven bone
45-50% inorganic and 50-55% organic material
Periodontal ligament
Comprised of taut collagen fiber bundles
Anchored to the cementum of the tooth and the alveolar bone by Sharpey's fibers
Comprised of connective tissue, nerves, lymph and blood vessels, collagen and undifferentiated reserve mesenchymal cells (odontoblasts)
Everything on the inside of the tooth
As the tooth grows the pulp forces the crown to erupt

The pulp canal has an oblong type shape
Class 0 malocclusion
Normal bite
Class I malocclusion
teeth wrong location, but jaws in proper relationship
Class II malocclusion
bracygnathism or distocclusion (underbite)
Class III malocclusion
prognathism or mesioclusion (overbite)
Class IV malocclusion
special classification of Wry
Has both unilateral mesiocclusion and unilateral distocclusion