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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Branch of medical science that deals with the use of radiant energy in the diagnosis and treatment of disease
the makeing of radiographs by exposing and processing xray film
and image produced on photosensitive film by exposing the film to xray and then developing it
the emission and propagation of emergy through space or through a material medium in the form of electromagnetic waves,
radiation field
the region where the evergy is being propagated
wilhelm konrad roentgen
discover xradiation
exposed his wifes hand for 20 min! rings on finger were visable.
won nobel prize in 1901
otto walkoff DDS
sopposedly exposed first dental radiograph
exposed his own mouth for 25 min.
dr C. Edmond Ells
exposed first intraoral radiograph.
30 min exposure time.
had cancer and many amputations
commited suicide
Dr. William Herbert Rollins
Father of modern radiation protection.
recodnized many of the dangers of xrays.
possitive charge
orbital electrons
negative charge
electron orbits
in a normal atom there is a balance between centripetal foce and electrostatic force
binding energy
energy required to move and electron from its shell.
Ionising Radiation
when ions pairs are formed, chemical chances occur in matter;
when nutral atom gains or loses electron
Particulate corpuscular radiation
minute particles of matter that travel in stright line at high speeds; they posses mass and are electrically charged
electromagnetic radiation
propagation of energy through space accompanied by electric and megnetic force fields
man-made and produced outside nucleus of stable atom
wave concept
wlectromagnetic radiaiton isi the propagation of wave like energy through space or mass at the speed of light
distance between two crsts
# of waves passing a set point
short wave length
high frequency
high energy
hard xray
Particle concept
electromag. radiation senn as bundles of energy called guanta of photons
used to descride the interaction between radiation and matter
they have no mass travel at the speed of light and energy depends on frequency.
little bunbles of energy running into matter
electromagnetic spectrum
grouped acording to wavelengths
scatter radiation
diverges which means spreads out as it goes like a V
Production of xrays
the process of energy conversion
A.source of electrons
B.Power the move electrons
C.focusing of electrons
D.torget to stop the electrons
Xray tube
inside tubehead
sealed leaded glass envolope no air.
contains to electrodes in a vacume Anode+ and cathode-
negative termanal
has tungsten wire (filaments)set in a cup
has a high melting point and is the source of electrons
possitive termanal
must have a poss charge to attract electrons and is made of copper
the block of tungsten set into the face of the copper anode
focal spot
area on target that electrons strike to generate xrays
the smaller the focal spot sharper the image
Generation of electrons
the tungsten filament is the source of electrons it is heated to incandescents the oter shell electrons of the filament atoms escape via thermionic emission
therminic emission
the boiling off of electrons
boiling of of electrons
electron cloud
temp. of filament
controls the the quantity of electrons
increas mA
increase temo of the tugnsten filament
power or energy
high circuit (KvP)
causes the electons to accelerate to high speeds toward the target.
high the voltage
greater the speed the greater the speed more energetic of penetrating potons (more energy)
cathode/molybdenum focusing cup
casues the electron stream to converge on the focal spot
focal spot
is source of xray production
stoping electrons
high speed electrons hit focal spot on the tungsten target
kinetic energy of the electrons is converted to
99% head and 1% xrays
Useful beam
those 1% xrays leave threw the window of tube threw the BID
kilovoltage peak -maximum voltage across the tube causing aceleration of electrons
kiloelectron volts-energy of an individual cathode electron in the beam
Cathode electrons
have a broad range of kinetic energy
kenetic energy converts
heat or radiation
general/whate radiation
bremsstrahlug or breaking radiaiton
most produced xrays in a dental unit
interaction of a high speed cathode electron with a tunsten atom nucleus of the target anode+
photons of varying wavelengeths and energies
braking of cathode electrons vary
so does energy of xray photons produced
kvp varies
so will kinetic energy