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20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
who discovered x-rays
and what was he expiramenting with?
Roentgen in 1895
Cathode ray tube
x-rays produce what?
what is ionization?
the ejection of an orbiting electron from an aton
it produces ion pairs or free radicals (unstable)
Alternating Current Electricity
movement of e(-) along a wire toward a (+) charge
*the direction of movement changes 60 times per second (thus, x-ray units produce 60 bursts of impulses of radiation per second)
*So, .5 second exposure setting is 30 impulses, .25 is 15 impulses, etc..
Amps (Amperes)
NUMBER of e- in a current at a given time
potential difference between - & +
therefore... SPEED or FORCE of moving e- toward the + charge
electron are ________ charged and are attracted to the ________ charge of the ________.
where do electrons originate?
what do e-'s collide with to produce x-ray photons?
tungsten target
The faster the e- move, the greater the collision and more energetic or penetrating the photons... Will an x-ray such as described above have a short or a long wavelength?
SHORT length
High frequency
Milliamps (mA)
one thousandth of an ampere
amount of e- flowing through the wire each second
Kilovolt (kVp)
speed of e- as they collide with the targed
What does the aluminum filter do?
absorbs weak/soft x-rays
reduces total number of photons, but
increases percentage of hard photons
as exposure time goes up, ______ photons are produced?

(more, fewer)
If you increases distance from film, will it increase or decrease the amount of photons that strike the film?
decrease because of the angle the x-ray spreads at < more are lost to surroundings
what are the 2 measures of x-ray quality?
density & contrast
degree of blackening/blackness
too little density appears too light
too much density appears too dark
*depends on # of photons reaching film
*affected by mA, kVp, filtration, exposure time, distance
contrast between areas of interest on film (blacks, whites, greys)
*many grey levels=low contrast
*mostly black & white w little grey=high contrast
*affected by kVp & filtration only (percent of highly penetrating/hard photons that reach film
40 kVp =
60 kVp=
100 kVp=
*high contrast (short scale)--great for caries
*medium scale
*low contrast (long scale)--might be better for soft tissue that high contrast
organs that secrete hormones