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47 Cards in this Set

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Modified grid with shops and apartments (high traffic generators) that were located on arterials forming the boundary of the superblock. Schools, churches, parks were located at center and houses filled residential blocks.

Circulation Patterns

Linear Patterns

Grid Patterns

Loop Patterns

Radial Patterns

Spiral Patterns

Linear Pattern

Parallel to natural features

Grid Pattern

Parallel to street network

Loop Pattern

Connects series of open spaces

Radial Pattern

Walkways converge at plaza or square

Spiral Pattern


Utility Systems

physically connect individual buildings with off-site utilities and facilities

What are the principles of composition?

1) Unity which includes repetition, simplicity, rhythm and proportion. In sum, internal coherence and compatibility with surroundings.

2) Balance which includes weight and scale.

3) Emphasis which includes contrast and hierarchy.

What is the walking radius for transit and for bus service?

For premium transit and rail, the walking radius is half a mile.

For bus service, the walking radius is one quarter of a mile.

What should the length of a block be to improve walkability?

Blocks with lengths between 300-500 feet improve neighborhood walkability.

What are zoning codes?

Zoning codes are used to implement a comprehensive plan, to divide a community into small planning districts. Zoning Codes identify:

1) Permitted Land Uses and Buildings

2) Intensity of the use

3) Height, bulk and other dimensional standards.

What are zoning overlay districts?

Zoning Overlay Districts may impose additional standards or be more flexible.

What is intensive zoning?

Intensive zoning is used to include amenities such as parks, plazas, etc.

What is a variance?

A variance is due to unusual circumstances where compliance with zoning requirements would pose a hardship on the land owner.

Unified Development Codes

Unified development codes blend use and intensive review process (which is a part of zoning) with design review (which is part of subdivision review). Allows citizens and neighbors to get a clearer picture of what is being proposed on the site. For example, Form Based Codes.

What is an Environmental Impact Statement or EIS?

An Environmental Impact Statement may be required to explain the adverse impacts on a site and describe the steps that will be taken to mitigate those impacts.

What is a floodplain?

A floodplain is a relatively flat area adjacent to streams that is susceptible to flooding at regular intervals, that is, annually or more.

What is a floodway?

A floodway is a strip centered on the channel fo streams and rivers defined by FEMA and ACE as marking the boundaries within which building structures are not allowed. The exceptions are bridges and culverts.

What is the flood fringe?

A flood fringe is the area of the floodplain which is outside of the floodway.

What is flood routing?

Flood routing defines the boundaries of the floodways and floodplains.

What is freeboard?

Freeboard is the additional height of a structure above design of high water level to prevent overflow. It is the vertical distance between water level and the top of a structure.

What is the base flood?

As defined by FEMA, base flood is a flood having a one percent probability of being equaled or exceeded in any given year. Also known as the 100 year flood.

What are levees?

Levees were a common structural measure used in the past. If engineered, these included soil, compaction and armoring. If not engineered: these were long piles of earth pushed up along a river.

What are four basic types of stream channels?

1. Ephemeral

2. Intermittent

3. Perennial

4. Tidal


A stream channel that has no cut channel, where flow occurs only during a runoff producing storm event. A swale is a constructed ephemeral stream.


An intermittent stream channel has a cut channel; bare earth on channel walls. Flow does not occur year round. Days and week after a storm there is still flowing water in the channel.


A perennial stream channel is a cut channel. Stream flow occurs year round.

tidal influenced

A tidal influenced stream channel's water level and flow are affected by both storms and the tide.


Baseflow is water moving through the water table through the soil

What are wetlands

Areas characterised by hydrophilic plants and hydric soils.

Hydrophilic Plants

Water Loving plants

Hydric Soils

Hydric soils are soils that have become saturated, flooded or ponded long enough during the growing season due to anaerobic conditions. Anaerobic denotes the absence of oxygen.

Types of Wetlands

1. Tidal

2. Non-Tidal

What are tidal wetlands?

1. Salt Marshes

2. Brackish Marshes

3. Mangrove Swamps

4. Intertidal Flats

What are non-tidal wetlands?

1. Emergent

2. Vernal Pools

3. Scrub Shrub - can be bogs or pocosins

4. Forested

What elements influence vegetation design?

1. Cost

2. Microclimate

3. Air Quality

4. Fire Safety

5. Visual Quality

6. Erosion Control

7. Maintenance

What is a clear zone?

A clear zone is an area around playstructures without any:

1. other structures

2. play apparatus

3. hard objects

And no building overhangs or trees with hanging branches.

What are feautures of playground design?

1. Protective feature equals fall height. That is, the surfacing needs to match the height of the structure.

2. Use zones or clear zones meet standards.

3. Separated ages

4. Maintenance

5. No pinch, crush, shearing hazards

6. Guardrails are on raised platforms

7. No heavy swings or free-hanging ropes

8. No openings smaller than 3"

What is a safety audit?

A safety audit is a walkthrough by a qualified professional to evaluate a built environment against a set of defined standards. Any public space can be audited, such as a school, park, etc. Fire Safety and CPTED are evaluated.

What are sediment control measures?

1. Sediment basins

2. Sediment traps

3. Filter fabric fencing

4. Straw bale barriers

5. Drain inlet protection traps

6. Vegetated filter strips

What is a Subdivision Ordinance?

A subdivision ordinance divides land into several parcels, which requires subdivision plat approval.

Subdivision controls regulate site development, including: ‘‘streetwidths and design; requirements for sidewalks, shapes of lots and blocks; specificationsfor street lights, street trees, bus stops, and other amenities; and requirements for theinstallation of public utilities and other services for new development’’

What are building codes?

Building codes are concerned with the structural integrity of buildings subjected to variousstresses or ‘‘loads’’ from occupants, seismic activity, wind and snow, and the buildings’ ownweight. Building codes also address other health and safety issues associatedwith building design, including fire safety, plumbing, electrical power, and sanitation.Published national design and construction standards, such as the Uniform BuildingCode (UBC), are often adopted by municipalities and supplemented with local standards

Scientific Certification System

Created by USGBC's LEED program.

S.C.S. certifies wood, cement, rock and other materials used in site work. Certifies manufactured products that contain a minimum percentage of recycled materials to qualify for LEED. But no formal process for evaluating or documenting materials recovered by deconstruction for reuse.

What is the preferred building orientation and shape?

An elongated building on an east-west axis is preferred. In northern latitudes in winter, these buildings tend to receive almost three times as much solar radiation on the south side of the buildings as on the east or west. This is the reverse in the summer.

What is site albedo?

Site albedo is a reflection coefficient and has a value of less than one. The reflecting power of a surface.

What is an environmental site assessment or ESA?

ESA is a risk assessment used in the planning and feasibility stages of real estate development. Assessments are used to evaluate all types of property for conditions that are indicative of possible environmental contamination. ASTM has developed site assessment protcols.