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95 Cards in this Set

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what is personality?

an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
psychoanalytic perspective
importance of unconscious processes and childhood experiences
humanistic perspective
importance of self and fullfillment of potential
social cognitive perspective
importance of beliefs about self
trait perspective
description and measurement of personality differences
Psychoanalytic perspective and Freud
Freud's theory which proposes that childhood sexuality and unconscious motivations influence personality
Psychoanalysis
Freud's theory of personality that attributes our thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts. Techniques used in treating psychological disorders bny seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions.
Free Association
in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious.
Person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.
Unconscious
according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories
Preconscious
information that is not conscious, but is retrievable into conscious awareness
Pleasure Principle
drive toward immediate gratification, most fundamental human motive
Sources of energy
-eros: life instinct, perpetuates life
-manatos: death instict, aggression, self-destructive actions
-libido: sexual energy or motivation
Id
contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives, irrational and emotional part of the mind, baby's mind is all id (wants)
Primitive Mind
contains all the basic needs and feelings. Id is too strong = bound up in self-gratification and uncaring to others
Superego: Conscience
operates on the morality principle, internalization of societal and parental values, partially unconscious, can be harshly punitive using feelings of guilt
Personality Structure-Superego
the part of the personality that presents internalized ideals, provides standards for judgement (the conscious) and for future aspirations, constantly strives for perfection, superego too strong = feels guilty all the time
Ego: the Reality Principle
ability to postpone gratification in accordance with demands of reality. rational, organized, logical mediator to demands of reality. can repress desires that cannot be met in an acceptable manner.
Personality Structure-Ego
the largely conscious "executive" part of the personality, realizes the need for compromise, ego too strong = extremely rational and efficient, but cold, boring and distant
Psychosexual Stages
the childhood stages of development during which the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distict erogenous zones
Psycho Sex age 0-18 months
focus on pleasure centers on the mouth-sucking, biting, chewing
psycho sex age 18-36 months
pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination, coping with the demands for control
psycho sex age 3-6 years
pleasure zone is the genitals, coping with incestuous sexual feelings
psycho sex age 6 to puberty
dormant sexual feelings
psycho age puberty on
maturation of sexual interests
Oedipus Complex
a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealously and hatred for the rival father
Electra Complex
a girl's sexual desire toward her father and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival mother
Castration Anxiety
boys feel guilt and fear that their father would punish them (castration) for sexual desires for their mother & jealousy of their father
Penis Envy
women fixated in this stage symbolically castrate men through embarrassment, deception, and derogation
Identification
the process by which children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos
Fixation
a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, where conflicts were unresolved
Oral Fixation
possibly because of overindulgence or depriving, exhibit either passive dependence or an exaggerating denial of this dependence--by acting tough or being sarcastic, might also continue to seek oral gratification through excessive smoking or eating
Anal Fixation
never resolve anal confict. Anal expulsive ppl are messy and disorganized. Anal retentive ppl are highly controlled and compulsively neat
Defense Mechanisms
the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
Repression
the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness
Regression
defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated
reaction formation
defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. ppl may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings
projection
defense mechanism by which ppl disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others
rationalization
defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions
displacement
shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet
sublimation
ppl re-channel their unacceptable impulses into socially approved activities. Freud suggested that Leonardo da Vinci's painting of Madonna could be traced back to his desire for intimacy with his own mother
projective test
a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics
thematic apperception test (TAT)
a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes
Rorschach test
the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots designed by Hermann Rorschach, seeks to identify ppl's inner feelings by analyzing their inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots
Drawbacks to Projective Tests
examiner or test situation may influence individual's response, scoring is subjective, test fail to produce consistent results (reliability problem), tests are poor predictors of future behavior (validity problem)
Alfred Adler
most fundamental human motive is striving for superiority, arises from universal feelings of inferiority that are experienced during childhood, overcompensation may cause superiority complex where person exaggerates achievements and importance, importance of childhood social tension
Karen Horney
need for human love and security, look at anxiety related to security and social relationships, basic anxiety-the feeling of being isolated and helpless in a hostile world, sought to balance Freud's masculine biases-women don'e have penis envy and they don't have weak superegos
Carl Jung
universality of themes-archetypes inherited universal human concepts "mother", collective unconscious, persona, and 1st to describe introverts and extraverts
collective unconscious
memory traces from our human collective evolutionary history
persona
a mask ppl wear to hide what they really are or what they really feel
Freud's indeas in light of modern research
human development is not fixed in childhood, but over time; gender identity does not form because of Oedipus Complex; dreams do not disguise and fulfill wishes; repression rarely occurs, unconscious is not seething passions and repressive censoring but information processing that occurs without awareness
Abraham Maslow
studied self-actualization processes of productive and health ppl
Carl Rogers
father of humanism, focused on growth and fulfillment of individuals, genuiness, acceptance, empathy
Self-Actualization
the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved, the motivation to fulfill one's potential
Unconditional Positive Regard
an attitude of total acceptance toward another person
Self-Concept
all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in an answer to the question, "Who am I?"
Spotlight Effect
overestimating others noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders
Self Esteem
one's feelings of high or low self-worth
Self-Serving Bias
readiness to perceive oneself favorably
Possible Selves
possible selves include your visions of the self you dream of becoming-the rich self, the successful self, the loved and admired self. also includes the self you fear becoming-the unemployed self, the lonely self, the academically failed self.
Benefits of Self-Esteem
fewer sleepless nights, succub less easily to pressures to use drugs, less likely to use drugs, more persistent at difficult tasks, less shy and lonely, less likely to see rejection where none exists, just plain happier
Culture and Self-Esteem
ethnic minorities, ppl with disabilities, and women do not live lives of lowe self-esteem, blacks have a slightly higher self-esteem score than whites
Individualism
giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications
Collectivism
giving priority to the goals of one's group (often one's extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly
Terror-Management Theory
faith in one's worldview and the pursuit of self-esteem provide protection against a deeply rooted fear of death
Evaluating Humanism
difficult to test or validate scientifically, tends to be too optimistic, minimizing some of the more destuctive aspects of human nature
Trait
a characteristic pattern of behavior, a dispotion to feel and act, an assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports
Factor Analysis
theorists use this to identify a relatively small number of the most basic personality traits
Extroversion-Introversion
extroverts seek stimulation because of their normal levels of brain arousal are relatively low
Emotional stability-instability
emotionally stable ppl react calmly because their autonomic nervous system are not so reactive as those of unstable ppl
Personality Inventory
a questionnaire (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) on which ppl respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors, used to assess selected personality traits
Self-Report Inventory
psychological test in which an individual answers standardized questions about their behavior and feelings, the answers are then compared to established norms
Strength of Self-Reports
standardized-each person receives same instructions and responds to the same questions, use of established norms: results are compared to previously established norms are not subjectively evaluated
Weakness of Self-Reports
evidence that ppl can "fake" responses to look better (or worse), tests contain hundreds of items and become tedious, ppl may not be good judges of their own behavior
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
(MMPI)
the most widcely research and clinically used of all personality tests, originally developed to identify emotional disorders, now used for many other screening purposes, originally designed to assess mental health and detect psychological symptoms, has over 500 questions to which person must reply true or false
Empirically Derived Test
a test seveloped by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups, such as the MMPI
William Sheldon
Somatotyping (body typing) 3 types: endomorph, ectomorph, mesomorph
Endomorph
pulmp, relaxed, jolly (santa claus)
Ectomorph
high strung and solitary (sherlock holmes)
Mesomorph
bold and physically active (superman)
Type A
intense, driven, goal-oriented, successful, task-oriented
Type B
laid back, easy-going, procrastinator
Evaluation of Trait Perspective
doesn't really explain personality, simply describe the behaviors, doesn't describe the development of the behaviors, trait approaches generally fail to address how issues such as motives, unconscious, or belief about self affect personality development
Person-Situation Controversy
we look for genuine personality traits that persist over time and across situations. If you consider friendliness a trait, friendly ppl must act friendly at different times and places.
Consistency of Expressive Style
our expressive styles are impressively consistent. At any moment the immediate situation powerfully influences a person's behavior, especially when the situation makes clear demands. Averaging our behavior across many occasions does, however, reveal that we do have distinct personality traits.
Barnum Effect
believing a horoscope describes you when it's very generic
Social Cognitive Thoery
the importance of observational learning, conscious cognitive processes, social experience, self-efficacy and reciprocal determinism in personality
Reciprocal Determinism
model that explains personality as the result of behavioral, cognitive, and enviornmental interactions
Self-Efficacy
belief that ppl have about their ability to meet demands of a specific situation
Personal Control
our sense of controlling our enviornments rather than feeling helpless
External Locus of Control
the perception that chance or outside forces beyond one's personal control determine one's fate
Internal Locus of Control
the perception that one controls one's own fate
Learned Helplessness
the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated avoid repeated aversive events
Positive Psychology
the scientific study of optimal human functioning, aims to discover and promote conditions that enable individuals and communities to thrive
Assessing Behavior in Situations
the best means of predicting future behavior is neither a personality test nor an interviewer's intuition. Rather, it is the person's past behavior pattern in similar situations
Evaluations of Social Cognitive Perspective
well grounded in empirical, laboratory research. However, laboratory experiences are rather simple and may not reflect the complexity of human interactions. Ignores the influences of unconscious, emotions, conflicts.