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50 Cards in this Set
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What does Z in an element represent?

Atomic number, equal to number of protons in an atom. (Top number)


What does A in an element represent?

Mass number, equal to number of protons and neutrons. (Bottom number)


What are electrons farthest from the nucleus called?

valence electrons.


What determines the reactivity of an atom?

valence electrons


How are atomic masses expressed?

AMU. 1 AMU is exactly 1/12 of the mass of Carbon12


What are the two measurments an atom can be weighted?

 Atomic mass (amu)
 Atomic Weight (g/mole) (more conventional) 

What is avogadro's number?

6.022 * 10^23
(it is the number of atoms or molecules in one mole) 

How do you find the atomic weight of an element when you are given multiple isotopes and their atomic masses?

1.) multiply the masses of each isotope by the decimal of the percent (60% = .6)
2.) Sum all the multiplications together to give atomic weight of the element See page 189. 

What did Ernest Rutherford discover?

Showed an atom has a dense postively charged nucleus that only accounts for a small portion of the VOLUME of an atom.


What did Max Planck discover?

Developed first quantum theory, energy emitted as electromagnetic radiation from matter comes in discrete bundles called quanta.


What is quanta?

bundles of energy emitted as electromagnetic radiation from matter.


What is the equation to find the energy value of quantum?

E = hf
h = planck's constant = 6.626 * 10^34 J*S f = frequency of radiation 

What is planck's constant?

6.626 * 10^34 J*S
Represents H in the quantum equation E=hf f= frequency 

What is the equation for angular momentum?

angular momentum = nh/2(pie)
h=planck's constant n=quantum number (any positive integer) 

What is the only value in the angular momentum equation that can change total angular momentum?

n (which equals quantum number)
(the energy of the electron changes in discrete amounts only with respect to the quantum number) 

The energy of the electron changes in discrete amounts only with respect to the __________________.

Quantum number (n) (pg 190)


The energy of an electron is ________.

Quantized. (pg 190)


The smaller the orbital radius, the _______ the energy state of the electrion?

lower


The larger the orbital radius, the _______ the energy state of the electrion?

higher


What is the term to describe when when electrons are excited and they release photons when returning to their ground state.

Atomic emission Spectra
(E=hc/lambda) 

What does Atomic emission spectra provide?

The electromagnetic energy of photons that are released as an excited electron returns to its ground state.
(E=hc/lambda) 

What is the equation for the atomic emission spectra?

(E=hc/lambda)
h= planck's constant c = velocity of light (3.00*10^8 m/s) lamda = the wavelength of the radiation 

What is atomic emission spectrum?

Quantized energies of light do not produce a continuous spectrum. This spectrum is composed of light at specific frequencies. Each line on the spectrum corresponds to a specific electronic transition. (pg 191)


Do different elements have different atomic emission spectrums? Explain.

Yes. Each element has each electron exicited to different energy levels, creates a fingerprint of the element.
(pg 191) 

What is the Balmer Series?

Hydrogen emission lines corresponding to transitions from upper levels n>2 to n=2. (pg 191)


What is the Lyman Series?

Hydrogen emission lines corresponding to transitions from upper leves n>1 to n=1. (pg 191)


What is the atomic absorption spectra

The amount of energy needed to be absorbed by an electron to jump from an orbital of low energy to one of higher energy.


What is the main difference in the Quantum mechanical model and bohrs model that was corrected?

Electrons are now described as being in a state of rapid motion within regions of space around the nucleus called orbitals.


What is the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle?

pinpointing the exact position and momentum is impossible.


What are the four quantum numbers?

N (Principle quantum number) (shell)
l (Azimuthal quantum number) (subshell) ml (Magnetic quantum number) ms (Spin quantum number) 

What is the pauli exclusion principle?

no two electrons in a given atom can posses the same set of four quantum numbers.


The larger the integer of the principle quantum number, the _______ the energy level.

higher


What is the maximum number of electrons in each principle quantum number, (n) or (shell)?

2n^2


The difference between the 3rd and 4th shell is __________ than that between the 2nd and 3rd shells?

less.


What is the value of the azimuthal quantum number or (angular momentum number)?

any integer in the range of 0 to n1.
The four subshells corresponding to l=0,1,2, and 3 are known as s,p,d,f. 

What are the subshells in order according the the azimuthal quantum number?

s=0, p=1, d=2, and f=3


What is the maximum number of electrons that can exist within a subshell?

4*(azimuthal number) +2
(Pg 193) 

A greater azimuthal number means the _________ the energy of the subshell

greater


The 4s subshell will have a _______ energy than the 3d subshell.
Explain. 
lower.
 because its average distance from the nucleus is smaller. 

What does the magnetic quantum number specify?

The particular orbital within a subshell where an electron is likely to be found?


How do you determine the value for the magnetic quantum number?

Integers from L to L, including 0.


How many orbitals will the p subshell contain?

3 orbitals
p > L = 1 ml or magnetic quantum number = 1,0,1 = (3 orbitals) 

How many orbitals with the f subshell contain?

7 orbitals
f > L = 3 ml or magnetic quantum number = 3, 2,1,0,1,2,3 = (7 orbitals) 

What is parallel spin?

Electrons in DIFFERENT orbitals with the same Spin quantum number.


How do you determine the order subshells are filled?

n+L rule.


Which will fill first, the 3d or the 4s subshell?

4s
3d > n=3 + L = 2 > 5 4s > n=4 + L = 0 > 4 4s fills faster. 

To determine which subshells are filled, if an atom has a positive 1 charge, what would you do?

1.) Determine number of electrons based on atomic number
2.) Subtract 1, because it is positive 1 charge. 

What is Hund's rule?

Within a subshell, orbitals are filled such that there are a maxium number of halffilled orbitals with parallel spins.


What is a paramagnetic atom?

An element with unpaired electrons, aligns with magnetic field according to spins of these electrons.


What is a diamagnetic atom?

An element with no unpaired electrons and repelled by a magnetic field.
