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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What are the 3 areas that emotional development is broadly divided in to?

Recognise-the child's ability to recognise different facial emotional expressions and to convey their own emotions

Understanding-when do children realise that certain situations elicit particular emotional responses?

Regulate-how do children become able to regulate their emotions and control their feelings?

How do researchers attempt to investigate Darwin's (1872) claim that communicating emotions through facial expressions is innate?

By establishing whether different emotional facial expressions are universally understood

By observing whether newborn infants spontaneously produce recognisable facial expressions

What does cross-cultural research show about how emotions are conveyed through facial expressions?

That human understanding of how emotions are conveyed through facial expressions is universal

How did Harris (1989) argue against the assumption that understanding of emotions through facial expressions is innate?

Pointed out that it could be possible that all cultures simply learn about facial expressions by copying others in specific emotional contexts

Adults are skilful in accurately reading infants' expressions, but are they less accurate in discriminating between the different types of negative facial expressions (e.g. fear, anger or sadness)?


What did Oster (2003) find from studies of facial expressions in infants with craniofacial abnormalities?

Adults were just as good at reading the facial expressions of the children with the abnormalities as the children with no abnormalities

What did Barrera and Maurer (1981) propose about 3-month-olds?

That they could distinguish between photographs of people smiling and frowning

What did Caron et al (1982) find about 4-7 month olds?

That they could distinguish between expressions of happiness and surprise

What did Field et al (1982) find about neonates (a child less than one month old)?

They could discriminate between happy, sad and surprised expressions by a live model

How does Field et al's (1982) study suggest that infants may be able to empathise with others?

They were imitating the facial expression they were watching

What is social referencing?

The infant looks to their caregiver for information on how they should act in a difficult or uncertain situation

What is the visual cliff?

A piece of apparatus used to study depth perception-a glass table with a checkerboard pattern immediately beneath the glass on one half (shallow side) and on the floor on the other half (deep side)

What did Sorce et al (1985) find about social referencing and the visual cliff?

Infants only crossed over to the deep side if their mothers looked happy; if their mothers posed a fearful expression, they did not cross to the other side

At what age did Bretherton et al (1981) report children's acquisition of emotion words?

18 months

What is emotional ambiguity?

The realisation that a person's feelings may not be clear-cut or match your own emotional response

What did Repacholi and Gopnik (1997) find in a study of emotional ambiguity?

That infants as young as 18 months can appreciate that another person might like something that they themselves dislike

What is meant by a secondary-drive?

That the view of the infant-mother attachment was a by-product of the infant associating the mother with providing for physiological needs, such as hunger

What is the fundamental belief put forward by Bowlby (1958) about the mother-infant attachment?

That it is an innate primary drive: instinctual behaviours such as crying, clinging and smiling, elicit a reciprocal attachment response from the caregiver

Which procedure tests the goal-corrected system?

The strange situation procedure

Which procedure assesses the internal working models?

The adult attachment interview

What are the 4 indices in the coding scheme for attachment security in infant behaviour?

Proximity-seeking, contact-maintenance, resistance and avoidance

What has early disorganisation been identified as a risk factor for?


What does attachment theory propose about internal working models?

That children use their early experiences with their caregivers to form internal working models which incorporate representations of themselves, their caregivers and their relationships with others. They use these internal working models as templates for interacting with others

What are the 4 attachment categories for adults taking the the adult attachment interview?

Autonomous, dismissing, preoccupied and unresolved

Are autonomous parents more likely to have a secure attachment with their infants?


Which AAI classification has been found to be predictor of insecure-disorganised attachment?


What is monotropy?

Bowlby's belief that infants need attachment to mother

What have we now found about the initial proposal of monotropy?

That it does not have to be the mother and that babies can form multiple attachments

What percentage of non-clinical middle class US families are classified as disorganised?


What does Bowlby's (1969) theory argue?

That attachment depends on environmental conditions activating innate predispostion

What is the sensitivity hypothesis put forward by Mary Ainsworth (1978)?

That sensitivity is the ability to perceive and interpret children's attachment signals and respond to them quickly and appropriately-picking up on the infants' cues and being sensitive to them

What is secure attachment?

Sensitive parenting-prompt responsiveness and warmth

What is insecure-avoidant attachment?

Intrusive, excessively stimulating, controlling interactional styles-parents may not be less involved, but less in tune with the baby, perhaps taking over too much and not letting the child explore themselves-subsequently, the child avoids the parent

What is insecure-resistant attachment?

Unresponsive, under involved approach to caregiving-not responding to the childs cues, and the child clings on to the parent too much

What evidence since that of Ainsworth suggests that something else is going on apart from just mother's sensitivity?

A meta-analysis from De Wolff and Van Lizendoorn (1997) found only a weak effect size (.22) between mother's sensitivity and attachment

What did a meta-analysis of paternal sensitivity find?

There was a small significant effect size between paternal sensitivity and attachment but not as large as the mother

How can depression be a risk factor for disorganised attachment behaviour?

Depressed people tend to be more self-involved

Face expressions are important and depressed people might not smile often

Type of speech is important-it might be quite slow and sad

What is the hypothesised predictor of mother's sensitivity?

Their past and present attachment experiences affect their degree of sensitivity and responsiveness

What do the Adult Attachment interviews measure?

Semi-structured interview-measuring how they are feeling NOW, how do they view and talk about their experiences? are they genuine? are there any examples of experiences?

What is autonomous adult attachment?

Secure-coherent, well-balanced account, clear value of close relationships

What is dismissing adult attachment?

Insecure avoidant-deny any importance of attachment experiences, insisting they cannot recall childhood events and emotions

What is preoccupied adult attachment?

Insecure resistant-over involved issues relating to early attachment experiences

What is unresolved adult attachment?

Disorganised-they have not been able to resolve feelings relating to death of loved one or to abuse that they may have suffered

What is intergenerational transfer?

The way a parent represents their own childhood attachment experiences is related to the type of relationship formed with their own child

What is the transmission gap?

The gap in explaining the transfer of the parents' state of mind about attachment and their sensitivity

What can the 23% transmission gap of the association between adult state of mind (AAI) and infant attachment be accounted for by?


What is Mind-Mindedness?

Treating the child as if they have an autonomous mind and treating them appropriately-giving narrative around the child's mental states

What do higher levels of mind-mindedness in the child's first year of life predict?

Secure attachment and Theory of Mind

What is the temperament hypothesis?

The idea that children have different temperaments; easy, difficult, slow to warm up etc and that different temperaments predict different attachment styles

What evidence is against the temperament hypothesis?

There are different measures of what temperament is. It may just be the way that the child is reacting in the strange situation

What two family influences are strong predictors of attachment?

Low socio-economic status

Marital discord

Is there an effect of child care on attachment status?

No-but there is an effect between the quality of the care and the sensitivity of the mum to the attachment style

Which culture has 73% secure 37% insecure resistant and none avoidant?