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42 Cards in this Set

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Interested in the whole of the human condition. Past, present, future; biology, society, language, and culture.
CULTURE AS A SYSTEM. Looks at subsystems (technology, economics, religion, social organizations and family, politics) and how they affect each other. then look at individual as a biocultural entity (we are products of biology and also we're cultural beings- culture is learned) then focus on a particular institution or individual but keep in mind background.
refers to the concept by with organisms cope with environmental forces and stresses, such as those posed by climate and topography or terrains, also called landforms.
The Effects of Money and Wage Labor in the Azande Culture
"Zande Scheme"= program of cash cropping (chiefly of cotton) and industry (producing cotton cloth). The introduction to money and wage labor acted to weaken kinship ties by obviating the need for kin to work together outside the household. They were resettled away from roads into farmland. The most detrimental feature of the resettlement plan was the arbitrary assignment of individuals to plots of land. Flawed bc it disregarded family groupings failed to account for Azande desire for mobility and flexible living arrangements, and resulted in some farmers receiving land with good soil and others receiving poor quality land. TENSIONS were engendered among resettles people that were counterproductive to the developers' wishes to create a stable workforce. By the mid-50's cotton production slowed to a near halt. A move to restart in the 1970's was cut short due to the civil war in Sudan.
The Aztecs journey to the valley of Mexico was arduous, they weren't welcomed and they argued amongst selves. Whenever they stopped they would construct a temple to Huitzilopotchtli- the most revered of the deities, who provided guidance on their exodus. HUman sacrifices took place at these sites. Berdan (1982) suggests that those performed en route to their permanent home may have served the purpose of eliminating dissension by members who were agitating to remain where they were and not continue on their journey as Huitzilopotchtli decreed.
The patron deity of the Mexica who guided their journey into the valley, is a sun god cauterized with the sacrificial war gods. The tie btw. warriors and sun was direct and critical: it was only through the blood of sacrifice that the sun could be fed and kept alive.
Why the Basseri Have Not Exploited the Potential of Unused Pasture
communal property problem because of the COMMON PROPERTY PROBLEM they are nomadic and share the land with other tribes. Il-rah= the tribal road and right to particular land occur at a specific time. They don't have exclusive utilization rights. Often the tribe will contract with the settled local residents to plant crops before they arrive to do the harvesting. Argricultural work is neither enjoyed nor highly valued: many nomads refuse to participate at all and look down upon those who do. Even landowners (bc they don't settle on their land) avoid all agricultural work by leasing the land to others in return for a portion of the yield. (p. 42 pG)
refers to an organisms evident traits (skin color, hair form, eye color, facial features, blood groups, enzyme production), its "manifest biology"- anatomy and physiology. (6-9) problematic as a basis for racial classification.
food production
the cultivation of plants and domestication of animals replaced foraging (hunting and gathering).
Ethnography vs. Ethnology
enthoGRAPHY=requires field work in a particular culture to collect data, is often descriptive, and is group/community specific. Gathers data he or she organizes, describes, analyses and interprets to build and present that account, which may be in the form of a book, article or film. Traditionally live in small villages and study local behavior, beliefs, customs, social life, economic activities, politics, and religion.
ethnoLOGY= The theoretical, comparative study of society and culture, compares cultures in time and space. Uses data collected by a series of researchers, usually synthetic, comparative and cross cultural. Compares the results of ethnography (data gathered in different societies) and uses data to compare and contrast and to make generalizations about society and culture. Attempt to identify and explain cultural differences and similarities to test hypothesis, build theory and enhance understanding of how social and cultural systems work.
Cultural resource management
The branch of applied archaeology aimed at preserving sites threatened by dams, highways, and other projects.and allowing their destruction if they aren't significant.Management refers to evaluation and decision making process.
The social process by which culture is learned and transmitted across generations. AQUIRED not through biological inheritance but by growing up in a particular society in which they are exposed to a specific cultural tradition. The process by which a child learns his or her culture.
Sub-disciplines of Anthropology
General Anthro:
Cultural anthropology
Social anthropologists
Archeological anthropology
biological or physical anthropology
linguistic anthropology
Applied Anthro:
Development anthropology
Cultureal resource management
Forensic anthropology
Study of linguistic diversity in classrooms.
our own cultural learning depends on the uniquely developed human capacity to use symbols, signs that have no necessary or natural connection to the things they stand for or signify. Something verbal or non verbal that arbitrarily and by convention stand for something else, with which it has no necessary or natural connection
Core Values
Key, basic, or central values that integrate a culture and help distinguish it from others. Cultures train their individual members to share certain personality traits. A set of characteristic core values (key, basic, central values) integrates each culture and helps distinguish it from others. (ex. america work ethic and individualism)
Different symbol-based patterns and traditions associated with particular groups in the same complex society.In US and Canada a variety of subcultures originate in region, ethnicity, language, class and religion. Ex. the religious backgrounds of jews, baptists, and roman catholics create subcultural differences between them. Although people who live in the same country share a national cultural tradition, all cultures also contain diversity. Individuals, families, communities, regions, classes and other groups with in a culture have diff. learning experiences as well as shared ones.
Cultural relativism
The viewpoint that behavior in one culture should not be judged by the standards of another culture. At extreme it argues that theres no superior, international, or universal morality, that moral and ethical rules of all cultures deserve equal respect (presents problems when dealing with Nazi Germany). CUltural Relativism opposes ethnocentrism.
def= the position that the values and standards of cultures differ and deserve respect. Anthropology is characterized by methodological rather than moral relativism: In order to understand another culture fully, anthropologists try to understand its members' beliefs and motivations. Methodological relativism does not preclude making moral judgements or taking action.
Intellectual Property Rights
Each societies cultural base-its core beliefs and principles. IPR is claimed as a group right, a cultural right, allowing indigenous groups to control who may know and use their collective knowledge and its applications. IPR has arisen in an attempt to conserve each societies cultural base, its core beliefs, knowledge, and practices. Much traditional cultural knowledge has commercial value. Examples include ethnomedicine (traditional medical knowledge and techniques), cosmetics, cultivated plants, foods, folklore, arts, crafts, songs dances, costumes and rituals. According to iPR concept, a particular group may determine how indigenous knowledge and its products may be used and distributed and the level of compensation required.
Informed Consent
an agreement sought by ethnographers from community members to take part in research.Before research begins, people should be informed about the purpose, nature, and procedures of the research an its potential costs and benefit t o them. Informed consent (agreement to take part in the research, after having been so informed) should be obtained from anyone who provides information of who might be affected by the research.
Participant observation
engagement in the daily life of another culture, taking part in the events one is observing, describing, and analyzing. A characteristic ethnographic technique.
Genealogical Method
non-industrial settings where kinship is widespread how people are related.
procedures by which ethnographers discover and record connections of kinship, descent, and marriage, using diagrams and symbols.Deals with kinship, ,descent and marriage. Geneology is a prominent building block in the social organization of nonindustrial societies, where people live and work each day with their close kin.
Life History
open ended interviewing-tell me about childhood, adolescence, adulthood-detailed account of individuals life.
Of cultural consultant; provides a personal cultural portrait of existence or change in a culture. Some villagers prove to be more interested in the ethnographers work and are more helpful, interesting, and pleasant that others are. Often when we find someone unusually interesting, we collect his or her life history. This recollection of a lifetime of experiences provides a more intimate and personal cultural portrait than would be possible otherwise. Life histories, which may be recorded or viotaped for later review and analysis, reveal how specific people perceive, react to , and contribute to changes that affect their lives. Can illustrate diversity, which exists within any community since the focus is on how different people interpret and deal with some of the same problems.
Emic vs. Etic
Emis-phonemics study of sounds of each language from the inside-sounds specific to each language. Emic(inside;culture-specific)
Etic-outside language neutral science of language as (crain and language/voice) language used by all languages, we all have the same brain areas in communication. (outside-culture-neutral).
EMIC= native oriented. investigates how local people think and relays on how they explain things to say what is significant and what isn't. The research strategy that focuses on native explanations and criteria of significance

ETIC= scientist-oriented shifts focus from local observations, categories, explanations and interpretations to those of the anthropologist. This approach realizes that members of a culture often are too involved in what they are doing to interpret their cultures impartially. instead ethnographer emphasizes what he or she (the observer) notices and considers important. the research strategy that emphasizes the observers rather than the natives' explanations, categories, and criteria of significance.
Survey Research
Characteristic research procedure among social scientists other than anthropologists. Studies society through sampling,s statistical analysis, and impersonal data collection. Used when working in large, populous nations by sociologists, political scientists, and economists.
Why the Villagers Would Refuse Baker’s Offers of Tea and Biscuits
In Ski Lanka, to ask them by question if they want a cup of tea is like saying "you don't want any, do you" A good hostess will prepare it and put it in front of guests not allowing them an opportunity to resume- that opportunity is seen as impolite. If you give them the choose their proper behavior is to refuse.
Suduwatura Ara Vs. Kalugolla Mukulana
Suduwatura Ara means "White Water Stream" A pleasant sounding name for a village of a district located in the dry and semi-dry zones, where water is a perennial problem. The villagers chose the name themselves preferring it to the dark and somber name formerly given to that particular frontier area Kalugolla Mukalana, meaning "black thicket jungle." Though that name connotes more clearly the harsh environment.
The Villagers’ Explanation for Baker’s Jeep Accident
we had failed to stop and put a coin in the shrine of the local diety. We had defied the power of the hod who reigned over that area and he had shown his anger. It could have been worse! Had I known about the shrine I would have gladly stopped and made my contribution. I I made it a point to do so at all roadside shrines with collection boxes in the future.
Into What Was Cricket Transformed by the Trobriand Islanders?
for presentday Trobrianders the game of cricket is explicitly a kayasa, a competitive feast. It was a response to alien rule by reinforcing their threatened culture. they developed dances and chants made for the game they wore their "war clothes." they played cricket in terms of their own tradition of kayasa-ritualized political competition-> competitive, obligatory activity.
Arm Chair Anthropology
before direct, developed unilineal evolution- sat in their arm chairs looking at second hand data from untrained. Studied documents and come up with flawed theories (wrong data in, wrong theories out)
Bronislaw Malinowski
Polish-exiled to Trobriand islands and decided to study people he was credited as the founder of ethnographic research (best suited to small groups of people) by accident. He learned to speak language and interviewed them.
Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research Methods
qualitative=literature review for comparative purposes, life histories, genealogies, case studies, mapping, photography, cognitive/psychological tests (rorschach and TAT)
quantitative= computer applications (endnotes, SPSS), Survey questionnaires
Depth vs. Breath, part observation & interviewing vs. Surveys.
Qualitative: strengths: deep, rich data and inexpensive weaknesses: limited to small groups, takes a long time.
QUantitative: strengths- breadth of coverage and fast. Weaknesses- superficial data, expensive. (questions like how long have you been here? not very meaty) but can cover a huge population.weakness of qualitative are strengths in quantitative and vice versa.
Fieldwork in a Foreign Setting vs. in a Familiar Setting
Foreign= right of passage, travel far away to a place very different from own culture. Takes months to come from elsewhere to close member of community. Its easier to get into another forest than to get out of our own forrest to see the trees. <-- Familiar, hard to find far off exotic places in our own surroundings,try to start as a member of own culture, transcend it, and try to get a birds eye view to see whats unique and interesting. Decreasing distance- starting out of the loop and working your way closer into being part of the foreign community vs. Increasing distance and trying to step back from own community to form an objective view.
borrowing between cultures either directly or through intermediaries. movement of culture over space and time, empirical and scientific. Contact between neighboring groups have always existed and has extended over vast areas, no culture has ever truly been isolated.
must have skill, capital to get it started in marketing, hire marketing. 3rd world innovators are at the bottom, women with nothing to loose. The poorest of the poor (everyone above them has too much to loose)
Cultural Diversity≠Ethnic Diversity
Cultural diversity transcends ethnic diversity (ex. don't have to be italian to enjoy italian food) ethnic identity= vessel
culture=what fills it up
The Biological Capacity for Culture
maybe we are born with ability to develop to a 3 yr. old? (Jenie and wild boy of Averlon)
We have a biological capacity for culture. specific tools that can teach us are our LARGE COMPLEX CEREBRUM which allows us to think and learn, our cerebellum for motor control,
OPPOSIBLE THUMBS allows us to pick up small and large items with great precision, lock thumbs around tools (hammer, swing bat)
BIPEDAL LOCOMOTION: capactity for upright culture.
The “Wild Boy” of Averon
human like creature would stay behind the pack of wolves and eat its left overs. "it" was caught and shipped to a professor who named it victor and estimated it was around 13 years old. He couldn't develop past the age of 3. Perhaps he lost human contact at 3 and cognitively stopped development.
The Use of Ducks in Balinese Rice Fields
used as pest control
Academic vs. Applied Anthropology
academic=pursue scholarship for its own sake-goal is to contribute to a body of theory concerning particular interests. theory-scholarship as an end in itself. theory driven.
-use ethnographies to provide data for ethnology aka theory. Use data to come up with theories.
-topics academic anthropologists focus on: political, economic, psychological, urban, feminist,anthropologies anthropology of religion
APPLIED anthropology: community service driven application of anthropological knowledge to application of anthropological knowledge to the solution of practical community problems. Theory is a means to another end- community service.
The Ethnographic Approach
-learning about people by living among them because in order to understand how people view the world anthropologists learn to view the world as they do.
-perspective from the inside out-rather than the outside in
-writing, act of translation from field notes to a written version that readers can understand-must maintain the original, essential meaning of the culture.
-finely research methodology and writing monographs its a method and a way of writing.
The Comparative Approach
in order to understand one culture we have to understand all cultures-farming villages compare to other farming village not a metropolis. never study culture in isolation, must compare to understand how it is unique. sharpen features of what we study by sifting through similarities and differences-put them in perspective.
The Anthropological Epistemologies
how does anthropology use knowledge= the nature and grounds of knowledge.
1) explanation-to discover causation A from causation B received science (from physics/chemistry) positivism-correlation, study of rigidly empirical, oly enumerated/counted. Treat social facts as things" then you could count them.
A-p (A more important, p provide data)
2)interpretation/hermeneutics-"how to interpret/understand meaning. understand meaning (vs. explain)
A-P equal status
3)post-modernism/deconstruction-"let the people themselves speak"/ "strip away all assumption and interpretations of the anthropologist. =>don't explain/interpret strip away ediphace or explanation/interpretation.a-P anthropologist is the recorder of the people, the people are important
ex. baseball- functional: fills/satisfies need for entertainment, provides relief from drudgery and stress of life, way to make money, provide jobs
interpretive: study many ball pars-infield is identical but outfield caries in size/hard to anticipate. Metaphor for life. infield=predictable and expected (HOME) outfield=unknown, and has mistakes
Post modernism: narratives of players, managers, vendors.
The Sub-Disciplines of Anthropology
physical anthropology
linguistic anthropology
social anthropology
cultural anthropology.
The Goddess and the computer
changed cropping patterns-trained experts. Water is a gift from the Goddes-tail end of irrigation system-water distribution coordination of temples controls water distribution. coordination of temples control water irrigation. temples organize irrigation(technology) timing is key. irrigation normally political system controls water if coordinated properly-water is prevalent all the way to the end-he used holism to find that priests are irrigation engineers and they made the water temple model work.Led to unique discovery.