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55 Cards in this Set

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Bach et al, 2004

NGOs are key actors




NGOs use of ICTs




NGOs mediate/produce identities

Barnett, 2004

TV/radio is historically a tool of racial/ethnic division




South Africa, Yizo Yizo, TV as a political tool (allows govt to control what is viewed, encourages political discussion in everyday life)




TV = a distancing effect and lesser influence

Bell et al, 2009

Children = passive --> active




Agency is linked to power

Cameron et al, 2008

Public faces of dev influence N-S relations




Poverty pornography/dev made sexy




Need to consider how representations of dev are constructed

Cowen et al, 1995

Dev is a contested concept




Dev policies are employed by those in power




Those in power have the right to determine dev practices of the under-developed (trusteeship)

Fluri, 2010

The body and security




Military wear/chadori = situated knowledge (Haraway, 1988)

Gillespie, 2006

Media creates spaces in which belonging and identity are negotiated




Graphic images = political response, incite anger (not desensitising)




TV is especially important for migrant/diasporic communities in producing loyalties: forces a decision between 'us' and 'them'

Gilmartin, 2004

Language in SA education


11 nation languages: Eng, Afrikaans used most widely, reinforces inequalities of apartheid




English considered language of social advancement




Black students are inferiorised (no outlet in their own language)

Ismail et al, 2008

Radio in Kenya: media initially good reputation for democracy




Local language radio questioned dominance of Western imposition of English-speaking Capital, gave an outlet for previously suppressed voices




Then: ethnic hatred, no mediators, emphasised difference and encouraged 'us'/'them' division

Kapoor, 2004

Western intellectuals assume the right to speak on behalf of Third World 'other', silencing through generalisations (mindless tribalism masks complexities)




Western style dev is the norm: assumed superiority over Global South




Discursive constructions are rooted in geopolitical positioning




Knowing the 'other' is concerned with managing them

Znaniecki

Culturalism: our cultural lens is how we see the world

Halas, 2010

Each world view is relative

MacGinty et al, 2009

+ve dev in one context may not apply everywhere: e.g. urbanisation may create unstable conditions for increased tension or insecurity

Kratke, 2003

Culture = the shared viewpoints/values/practices of a group of people


Cultural images = agents of influence and persuasion




Cultural products flow FROM key industrialised areas in the global North, acts as a trend machine

Olson, 2008

Diversification as a necessary response to development/loss of culture (in Quechuan communities in Southern Andes)

Orjuela, 2010

Sri Lankan govt attempting to encourage traditional Buddhist culture as well as Western style modernisation, twin vision




Rights of marginalised to question top-down imposition of development


(State no-build zone on beach)

Papacharissi, 2009

Online spaces' architecture encourages you to perform a certain identity




Identities frequently mirror real-life




The extent to which the internet is a social equaliser is questionable

Quist, 2001

The native's mind can become disciplined by the mastering of spoken French




Colonial language as the sanctioned medium for higher-order activities




Education system as Western-patterened




Education system favoured social elites




Mfantsipim school: encouraging traditional Ghanaian culture AND Western academic models

Rasool, 2007

Underdeveloped countries still face unanswered questions about which language will best further economic/social dev = colonial legacy of hybridity




British Colonial India:


English = Enlightenment vs Sanskrit, Arabic = retrogressive


1837 = English as official language for formal domains


English associated with power, upward social mobility, lead to skills/power divide


English valued, vernacular languages stigmatised

Heugh, 2007

Language in SA as a contemporary example of post-colonial phenomena




Role of language as emphasising division of with/without power




How best to enhance opportunities of African-language speakers?




Post-apartheid promises of challenging bi-lingual dominance have not come to fruition

Robins, 2001

NGOs role in mediating San culture: contradictory aims (cultural survival vs western modernisation)




Artificial dichotomy between traditional/modern: Western thinking asserts this divide




Romanticism of culture, desires for authenticity




Indigenous modernities

Gaonkar, 1990

Ideas of a modernising society as good and inevitable are rooted in specific western socio-historic conditions




Power/knowledge are mutually constitutive, Foucault

Ashcroft, 2009

Globalisation is characterised by multiple modernities

Sitko, 2008

Maize production: not just an economic activity, but saturated with cultural meanings




A symbol of modern/good farming vs an inhibition to food security




Fields of performance




Need to be culturally sensitive

Smith et al, 2004

Development is a specialised activity practised by experts




Representing the other is tied up with exercising power over them: demeaning images deny agency




Alternative representations of development: challenge N-S relationships

Taylor, 1997

Structure of feelings


Every context has a culture (no 'lack' of culture)

Tabulawa, 2009

Education in Botswana


Global knowledge economy requires workers with specific/new types of skills (creativity, problem solving, critical thinking)




Education system is structured around Western ideas of what it means to be educated, assumption that learner-centred education will transform an agricultural society to a modern one (one route to dev, Rostow)




White student = academic, black students = vocational

Tarabini, 2010

Knowledge is a driving force of the new global economy




Investing in education is a key strategy of tackling poverty and achieving development

Tacoli, 2003

Cannot easily separate rural/urban




Diversifying as a response to loss of tradition




Will require improvement in basic serves to achieve MDGs (not just ICTs)

Thompson et al, 2010

Use of ICTs as a vehicle for development:


Institutional infrastructure


Governance/civil society


Economic activity


Access to global markets




Assumption that ICTs are inherently developmental... consider need for basic services as a priority vs ICT connectivity?

Emblen, 1995

Under-dev is caused by a gap in skills/knowledge that can be filled by bringing in experts



Verhelst et al, 2002


Powell, 1995

Multiple alternative views/routes to development

Rose, 2006

Importance of images in bringing depicted item close


Nezhati, 2014

Images in NGO campaigns are an emotionally manipulative marketing strategy

Fetherstonhaugh et al, 1997

Increased apathy/insensitivity to the value of human life

Silverstone, 2006

Centripetal role of the media, making the world smaller and annihilating difference

Philo, 1993

The internet is key in galvanising a response

Kaplan, 2000

Development is considered a project to assist the under-developed

Tufekci et al, 2012

Role of social media in encouraging political protest in Tahrir Square

Howes, 1996

Fears of loss of local culture as local products are replaced by mass-produced ones originating in the West

McCracken, 1988

Assume that culture is substantiated through material goods

Young, 2010

Cultural appropriation is frequently associated with oppression (powerful appropriating culture of weak/minorities)

McLennan, 2014

Voluntourism is saturated with issues of privilege and inequitable relationships

Saeed, 2007

Harmful misrepresentations: Islamophobia

Miller, 2002

The media has the power to present the world in particular ways

Yang 2013/2011

Cultural tourism: consolidated Mosuo culture in Yunnan, China through dress/practice, BUT only to satisfy tourist desire for authenticity




Underlying issues of power inequalities

Escobar, 2011

We should consider development as a discourse, stepping back from it and considering how it is constructed




Indigenous/minority peoples are increasingly considered agents in their own development, increasing visibility, denouncing incompatibility of many dev practices and indigenous world views

Mohanty, 1991

Representation of Third World women


Ignorant, poor, tradition bound to home/family vs modern, powerful western woman




Western standard is set as the benchmark




Paternalistic attitude

Slater, 2013

Colonial history of treating Global S as objects of knowledge/rule... knowledge/power coupling has permeated to modern-day development




Asymmetry of representation, division of narration (Global S are narrated not narrators)

Robins, 2003

Indigenous modernities: Makuleke tribe, computer lab does not diminish/devalue cultural heritage but was employed for its dissemination to a wider audience

Hassan, 2010

There are more modernities than just the Western outlook


African modernity: characterised by resistance (struggle for decolonisation)

Wright, 2002

Western modernity is associated with colonialism: projects of improvement often ran alongside or even caused destruction

Paulo Freire, 1970

Pedagogy of the Oppressed




No pedagogy which is truly liberating can treat the oppressed as unfortunates, presenting for emulation models from the oppressors




Pedagogy must be forged WITH not FOR the oppressed




Pedagogy which is routed in self interests of the oppressor (masked as generosity) embodies oppression

Goldfinger, 2006

NGOs use graphic imagery in order to shock you into giving money

Cole, 2008

Tourist desire to see authenticity is a kind of institutional racism, celebrating primitiveness