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102 Cards in this Set

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Textile Industry

-Fiber manufacturer

-Yarn spinners


-Fabric manufacturer




Converters:


-Dyers


-Printers


-Finishers

Look at chart for Inside Vs. Outside Shops

Terms:




•FullPackage Supplier – provides sourcing, fabric, pattern, cut,sew and finish


•CMT– requiresthe product developer to take ownership of fabric


•Jobber –acts as a middleman between manufacturers& retailers – (purchases excess goods & sells to retailers)


•FOB – contractoris responsible (owns) until goods are loaded onto transporting vehicle •LandedCost – includes total production costs +shipping and duty charges

Vertical Integration

-Significantly impacts a firm’s competition advantage in getting the right product to market at the right time and the right price



-When the SAME firm is responsible for multiple steps in the production or marketing of an apparel PRODUCT

Horizontal Integration

Prioritizes the acquisition or licensing of companies or brands that make or sell similar products to expand market penetration and reduce competition.

Branded Apparel

Created under a label and sold at wholesale for distribution to retailers who also carry other brands.

Can also be sold through the brand’s own specialty store, outlet store or online

Private Label

Products developed for exclusive distribution by a retailer – using their proprietary brand = Macy’s INC.OR* Store brands that offer products exclusively available in their stores:

Examples of Retailers

Macys, Saks 5th avenue, nordstrom, belk

Whats different with retailers today?

U.S. retailers suffer as shoppers go online

International Trade

The exchange of goods between nations and all the issues associated with that exchange

Global Trade

Import - to buy goods from another countryExport - to sell goods to another country



•Exporttrading companies - (ETCs)Serveas intermediaries between the producers ofthe goods and the buyer ofthe goods in the other countries

Tariff - a tax on imported goods

Quota - an annual limit on the volume of a product that may be imported


Embargo – prohibition of importing a product

Know Definitions

Sourcing

Sourcing production outside of the United States may be called –

-Offshore production


-Chapter 98 production


-Outsourcing

World Trade Organization

= (WTO)

Replaced General Agreement on Tariffs ad Trade (GATT) and Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC)




Fundamental of WTO - Promotion of free trade through reduction of tariff trade barriersEqualization of trade among countries

Quality is built from conception

-Fabrics

-Findings


-Country of Origin


-Fit


-Finishing

Look at slide 24 for

week 1

Quality to cost Ratio

How much you are willing to pay to have quality - measured against what they will give up in order to have a lower price

2 Dimensions of Product Quality

Physical Features and Performance Features

What are the regulations of Apparel Labeling?

-Textile Fiber Products Identification Act

-Wool Products Labeling Act


-Fur Products Labeling Act


-Silk Labeling RegulationCare


-Labeling RuleGuide for select Leather & Imitation Leather Products


-Feather and Down Product

Consumer Product Safety Commission

CPSC - Responsible for enforcing Flammable Fabrics Act

-Products found in violation of the law may be confiscated and destroyed


-All clothing must meet basic flammability requirements as determined by a standard test method

RN Number

RN stands for Registered Identification Number



Businesses can use this number on product labels in lieu of the company name

Care Labeling Rule

-Must state reasonable instructions about regular care



- Must be permanently legible and permanently attached

International Care Labels

1.Washtub

2. triangle


3. Square


4. Iron


5.Circle

What are the physical features of fabric?

-Fiber

-Yarn


-Fabric structure


-Color


-Applied design


- Hand

Fabric Performance- the sum of its parts

Durability, Appearance, Comfort

Manufactured fiber

-Regenerated cellulosic

-Synthetics


-Miscellaneous

Natural Fibers

-Protein fibers

-Cellulosic fibers

Fiber Size

greatly affects the HAND of the fabric

Denier

a direct system; the larger the #, the larger the fiber

Tex

For international use; based on metric system

what are the three simple weave types?

Plain, Twill, Satin

Look at book for Knits and Wovens!!!!**

*****

Dyeing and Printing

add color to undyed fabrics,called greige goods(pronouced “gray goods”)

Dyestuffs or dyes

are the liquid colorantsused to color fabrics.

Dye Applications

1. Fiber dyeing

-Solution dyeingor Dope dyeing


2. Yarn dyed


3. Piece dyed


4. Garment dyeing

Printing

The application of designs to the fabric using dyes or pigments

Fabric Performance

AESTHETIC & FUNCTIONAL performance of the end-product is achieved with selecting the correct fabric and includes:

-Garment design


-Intended use of garment


-Season of the year


-Fashion trends


-Consumer preferences


-Cost limitations


-Target market profile

Luster, Opacity, Hand

Transparent, Shiny look

Effects of Hand

drapability/flexibility – pliable/limp/fluid to firm/stiff/crispcompressibility - soft to hardextensibility or ease of stretching – stretchy to nonstretchyresilience – springy/alive to limpdensity – compact to loose/opensurface contour/texture - rough/coarse to smoothsurface friction/texture – harsh to slipperythermal character - cool to warm

Functional Performance of Fabric

1.DIMENSIONAL STABILITY

2.APPEARANCE


3.RETENTION


4.COMFORT


5.EASE OF CARE


6.SAFETY


7.STRENGTH


8.ABRASION


9.RESISTANCE


10.RESISTANCE TO DEGRADATION

Dimensional Stability

Relates to the ability to neither STRETCH nor SHRINK



Torque or skewness = fabric distortion that results when crosswise yarns of a fabric slant from one selvage to the other rather than lying at right angles to the selvage

Comfort is

Physiological & Psychological

Look up four point grading system of the ASQ and the most common method to dye in localized area to produce patterns

LOOK IT UP

Know the Body Shapes Slide! refer to study guid

****

Size

refers to a system that suggests to the consumer the suitability of a garment for their body dimensions

Sizing

the classifications of the dimensions of garments

•Sizingis the number one complaint for apparel

Ease

Ease- The difference between the body measurements of the intended wearer and the measurements of the clothing



Design Ease- The amount added to the body measurements plus the functional ease to make the garment look and function as desired




Functional Ease- Also known as wearing ease, have to be able to move and function.

Vanity Sizing




look in book*

**

Metric and Sizing

United States is the only country in the world that does not use the metric system.

What is the ISO?

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has developed a set of standards for sizing of garments.

Look at slide on meaurements

**

Special Sizes

Petites, Plus, Tall

Types of mens suits

Continental- Contemporary

Traditional- Classic


Athletic- Muscular

What are the two measurements for mens pants?

Waist and Inseam

What is the rise?

-measurement top of crotch to top of waist -Regular or Short

5 elements of Fit

Grain- length wise runs parallel to height



Ease- The amount of difference between the body measurements and the garment




Line- Structurally the garment conforms to the body line




Set- No unwanted wrinkles




Balance- the right and left sides of the body appear to be even

Grain

•Grain reflects the direction of thethreads •Lengthwise run parallel to height andcrosswise perpendicular





Hangs evenly and symmetrically on the body, parallel to the selvage



Ease

Ease is the amount of difference between the body measurements and garment

what are the three types of ease?

Functional, Design, and Negative

Functional or Wearing Ease

being able to move, for performance

Design Ease

Ease added by the designer to product the desired look, for aesthetic

Negative Ease

The garment is smaller than the body

Line

The structural lines of the garment conform to the lines of the body

Form and fit Models

Fit models are in the mid range or mid size of the consumer base

-Would be a size 8

Grading

Process of scaling the master size (sample size) of a garment to the range of sizes to be produced



Grade rules: The amounts added or subtracted from each measurement as it changes from one size to the next




•Pattern blocks may be graded intodifferent sizes utilizing this grading machine


•Automatedpattern grading using Lectra’s Modarispattern-gradingsoftware ]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]+++=HHHr����YYYY\\\]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]�

what are the two types of grading?

Circumference and Length

Circumference Grading

-How much the garments are to increase in overall girth from one size to the next



-The girth measurements are typically the most changed from one size to another size, as individuals tend to reflect more differences in girth than in height

Length Grading

•The measurement to be added to the lengthof garment pieces as sizes vary in height

•Critical to development of apparelin petite and tall size ranges

Sample Process

To determine if the styling and fit are truly developing as desired, sample garments are produced and placed on dress forms and/or models to evaluate the:

-Grain


-Set


-Line


-balance

Standards

1. Very Specific parameters for Quality

2. Materials and findings

Perceptual Attributes

Quality indicators

Utilitarian

-designed to be useful rather than attractive




-It Is a fact that US consumers will pay more for items that have an aesthetic value rather than a utilitarian value

More on Standards on pgs 87-91

Standards are the framework that provide decisions for businesses

Sizing Specifications

The trend toward outsourcing production means accurate measurement specifications are vital to ensure the desired size and shape are achieved

Meaurements

-Must be clearly communicated on specification sheets for patternmaking and sampling



-Sample garment measurements must be checked against the spec sheet before a garment goes into full production

Different types of specifications

Specifications- includes styling,methods,



Closed specifications- specific requirements for construction techniques


Open specifications- fast fashion

Technical Flat

-includes sketch of garment with details & written specifications

-Technical flat is another term for specificationdetailed measurements and specific construction methods

Tolerance

-anallowable variance from our specification

Costing

reflects overall quality of what we are developing

Look up production specs

**

Stitch

formation of thread for the purpose of making a seam or stitching

Seam

a line where two or more fabrics are joined or sewn together

Stitching

consists of a series of stitches, used to finish the edge of garment or decorative stitch

Stitches

Configurations of interlacing thread executed in specific repeated units



They are used to form rows that produce seams, finish an edge, or generate ornamentation




The majority of stitches are made on a lockstitch or chain-stitch machine




Commercialstitches in the ASTM system are divided into sixclasses based on complexity, configuration, andthe type of machine that is required to form the stitching




A three-digit number identifies each stitch class




The first number identifies the class andthe other digits identify a specific stitch type within that class




Lockstitch Vs. Chainstitch

-Lockstitchmachinesrely on interlocking threads Usesa bobbin



-Chainstitchmachinesrely on interlooping threadsUsesa looperthread (no bobbin)






Lockstitch- flatter and less bulky and more refined




The key to lockstitches are balance and tension, usually used for top stitching on better garments




Chainstitch- flexibility

Extensibility

Elongation or Stretch

ASTM

Standard Practice for Stitches and Seams




The BEST AVAILABLE TOOL for identifying stitchesMilitary garments needed standards for seams = apparel industry adopted & uses today.

Stitch Class 100

A single Thread, it is simple and flexible and economical




Advantages: Economical and Blind Stitch


Disadvantages: Impression of Low Quality and lack of durability




- To easy to unravel for quality apparel

Stitch Class 200

Extremely expensive if done by hand



The machine version requires special machinery and is of very limited use






For decorative and special purpose



Stitch Class 300

Composed of a needle thread interlocked with a bobbin thread

Threads interlock between the pieces of the fabrics


Lock stitches do not unwravel easily, it is very strong


Most frequently used stitch in the production of apparel Balanced Tension




•Stitch 301 most commonly used stitch, tightest and most secure stitch,used for extensively for better garments






Uses the least amount of thread


Produces the flattest stitch


Gives best hand


Allows stitches to blend into the fabric surfaceWidely used to sew seams in woven- fabrics garment

Disadvantages to 300 stitches

-Not very extensible

-Rupture easily if stretched or strained


-Can cause more seam pucker


-More costly than chain stitches

Class 300 Zig Zag Stitch

Usedto attach elastic to underwear, swimwear, to attach lace

Usedfor very functional garments

Class 300 Blindstitches

Join plies of fabric with stitches that are imperceptible or nearly so from the outside of the fabric

Class 400 Stitches

More extensible than lockstitches



Easy to UNRAVEL in case garment needs alterations

Advantages of 400 class stitches

Significantly STRONGER & more DURABLE than 101 stitches

Achieves high production speed


Can Cause Seam Puckers

100- Simple

200- not used that often, made using special machinery


300- most widely used stitch in the production of apparel


400- Chainstitch , it is prone to ravel

***

Disadvantages of class 400 stitches

Easiest to unravel, uses more thread

Class 500 Over edge stitch

A multi thread chain stitch, it has the ability to stretch without breaking, thus making it the work horse of the knitwear industry Serged, over cast, merrow,

Pgs 346-350


It requires balanced tension

Advantages of the Class 500 Stitch

Most extensible of all stitch class because of their many interloopings

Works well with knitwear


Prevent edges from unraveling


Cause little seam pucker


Conserves fabric because of narrow seam allowance


Reduces labor

Disadvantages of Class 500 Stitch

Prone to seam grin

Cannot be pressed open to reduce bulk


Requires more thread


Can by uncomfortable

Stitch Properties

Specified as the number of stitches per inch (SPI) May be an indicator of quality

The more SPI = more time and thread = cost




SPI: Length, Witdh, Depth


Pg 352 read about stitch length


Pg 335 read and study about stitch tension


Pgs 352-353 read about reinforcement stitches

Needle Heating

-When sewing friction heats the needle, which then fuses or melts the finishes or fibers of the thread or fabric



-Causes fabric damage as a result of the friction of too-fast sewing speeds




Thermoplastic = heat sensitive



Look at all images !!

****