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102 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Textile Industry

-Fiber manufacturer

-Yarn spinners

-Fabric manufacturer





Look at chart for Inside Vs. Outside Shops


•FullPackage Supplier – provides sourcing, fabric, pattern, cut,sew and finish

•CMT– requiresthe product developer to take ownership of fabric

•Jobber –acts as a middleman between manufacturers& retailers – (purchases excess goods & sells to retailers)

•FOB – contractoris responsible (owns) until goods are loaded onto transporting vehicle •LandedCost – includes total production costs +shipping and duty charges

Vertical Integration

-Significantly impacts a firm’s competition advantage in getting the right product to market at the right time and the right price

-When the SAME firm is responsible for multiple steps in the production or marketing of an apparel PRODUCT

Horizontal Integration

Prioritizes the acquisition or licensing of companies or brands that make or sell similar products to expand market penetration and reduce competition.

Branded Apparel

Created under a label and sold at wholesale for distribution to retailers who also carry other brands.

Can also be sold through the brand’s own specialty store, outlet store or online

Private Label

Products developed for exclusive distribution by a retailer – using their proprietary brand = Macy’s INC.OR* Store brands that offer products exclusively available in their stores:

Examples of Retailers

Macys, Saks 5th avenue, nordstrom, belk

Whats different with retailers today?

U.S. retailers suffer as shoppers go online

International Trade

The exchange of goods between nations and all the issues associated with that exchange

Global Trade

Import - to buy goods from another countryExport - to sell goods to another country

•Exporttrading companies - (ETCs)Serveas intermediaries between the producers ofthe goods and the buyer ofthe goods in the other countries

Tariff - a tax on imported goods

Quota - an annual limit on the volume of a product that may be imported

Embargo – prohibition of importing a product

Know Definitions


Sourcing production outside of the United States may be called –

-Offshore production

-Chapter 98 production


World Trade Organization

= (WTO)

Replaced General Agreement on Tariffs ad Trade (GATT) and Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC)

Fundamental of WTO - Promotion of free trade through reduction of tariff trade barriersEqualization of trade among countries

Quality is built from conception



-Country of Origin



Look at slide 24 for

week 1

Quality to cost Ratio

How much you are willing to pay to have quality - measured against what they will give up in order to have a lower price

2 Dimensions of Product Quality

Physical Features and Performance Features

What are the regulations of Apparel Labeling?

-Textile Fiber Products Identification Act

-Wool Products Labeling Act

-Fur Products Labeling Act

-Silk Labeling RegulationCare

-Labeling RuleGuide for select Leather & Imitation Leather Products

-Feather and Down Product

Consumer Product Safety Commission

CPSC - Responsible for enforcing Flammable Fabrics Act

-Products found in violation of the law may be confiscated and destroyed

-All clothing must meet basic flammability requirements as determined by a standard test method

RN Number

RN stands for Registered Identification Number

Businesses can use this number on product labels in lieu of the company name

Care Labeling Rule

-Must state reasonable instructions about regular care

- Must be permanently legible and permanently attached

International Care Labels


2. triangle

3. Square

4. Iron


What are the physical features of fabric?



-Fabric structure


-Applied design

- Hand

Fabric Performance- the sum of its parts

Durability, Appearance, Comfort

Manufactured fiber

-Regenerated cellulosic



Natural Fibers

-Protein fibers

-Cellulosic fibers

Fiber Size

greatly affects the HAND of the fabric


a direct system; the larger the #, the larger the fiber


For international use; based on metric system

what are the three simple weave types?

Plain, Twill, Satin

Look at book for Knits and Wovens!!!!**


Dyeing and Printing

add color to undyed fabrics,called greige goods(pronouced “gray goods”)

Dyestuffs or dyes

are the liquid colorantsused to color fabrics.

Dye Applications

1. Fiber dyeing

-Solution dyeingor Dope dyeing

2. Yarn dyed

3. Piece dyed

4. Garment dyeing


The application of designs to the fabric using dyes or pigments

Fabric Performance

AESTHETIC & FUNCTIONAL performance of the end-product is achieved with selecting the correct fabric and includes:

-Garment design

-Intended use of garment

-Season of the year

-Fashion trends

-Consumer preferences

-Cost limitations

-Target market profile

Luster, Opacity, Hand

Transparent, Shiny look

Effects of Hand

drapability/flexibility – pliable/limp/fluid to firm/stiff/crispcompressibility - soft to hardextensibility or ease of stretching – stretchy to nonstretchyresilience – springy/alive to limpdensity – compact to loose/opensurface contour/texture - rough/coarse to smoothsurface friction/texture – harsh to slipperythermal character - cool to warm

Functional Performance of Fabric











Dimensional Stability

Relates to the ability to neither STRETCH nor SHRINK

Torque or skewness = fabric distortion that results when crosswise yarns of a fabric slant from one selvage to the other rather than lying at right angles to the selvage

Comfort is

Physiological & Psychological

Look up four point grading system of the ASQ and the most common method to dye in localized area to produce patterns


Know the Body Shapes Slide! refer to study guid



refers to a system that suggests to the consumer the suitability of a garment for their body dimensions


the classifications of the dimensions of garments

•Sizingis the number one complaint for apparel


Ease- The difference between the body measurements of the intended wearer and the measurements of the clothing

Design Ease- The amount added to the body measurements plus the functional ease to make the garment look and function as desired

Functional Ease- Also known as wearing ease, have to be able to move and function.

Vanity Sizing

look in book*


Metric and Sizing

United States is the only country in the world that does not use the metric system.

What is the ISO?

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has developed a set of standards for sizing of garments.

Look at slide on meaurements


Special Sizes

Petites, Plus, Tall

Types of mens suits

Continental- Contemporary

Traditional- Classic

Athletic- Muscular

What are the two measurements for mens pants?

Waist and Inseam

What is the rise?

-measurement top of crotch to top of waist -Regular or Short

5 elements of Fit

Grain- length wise runs parallel to height

Ease- The amount of difference between the body measurements and the garment

Line- Structurally the garment conforms to the body line

Set- No unwanted wrinkles

Balance- the right and left sides of the body appear to be even


•Grain reflects the direction of thethreads •Lengthwise run parallel to height andcrosswise perpendicular

Hangs evenly and symmetrically on the body, parallel to the selvage


Ease is the amount of difference between the body measurements and garment

what are the three types of ease?

Functional, Design, and Negative

Functional or Wearing Ease

being able to move, for performance

Design Ease

Ease added by the designer to product the desired look, for aesthetic

Negative Ease

The garment is smaller than the body


The structural lines of the garment conform to the lines of the body

Form and fit Models

Fit models are in the mid range or mid size of the consumer base

-Would be a size 8


Process of scaling the master size (sample size) of a garment to the range of sizes to be produced

Grade rules: The amounts added or subtracted from each measurement as it changes from one size to the next

•Pattern blocks may be graded intodifferent sizes utilizing this grading machine

•Automatedpattern grading using Lectra’s Modarispattern-gradingsoftware ]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]+++=HHHr����YYYY\\\]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]�

what are the two types of grading?

Circumference and Length

Circumference Grading

-How much the garments are to increase in overall girth from one size to the next

-The girth measurements are typically the most changed from one size to another size, as individuals tend to reflect more differences in girth than in height

Length Grading

•The measurement to be added to the lengthof garment pieces as sizes vary in height

•Critical to development of apparelin petite and tall size ranges

Sample Process

To determine if the styling and fit are truly developing as desired, sample garments are produced and placed on dress forms and/or models to evaluate the:






1. Very Specific parameters for Quality

2. Materials and findings

Perceptual Attributes

Quality indicators


-designed to be useful rather than attractive

-It Is a fact that US consumers will pay more for items that have an aesthetic value rather than a utilitarian value

More on Standards on pgs 87-91

Standards are the framework that provide decisions for businesses

Sizing Specifications

The trend toward outsourcing production means accurate measurement specifications are vital to ensure the desired size and shape are achieved


-Must be clearly communicated on specification sheets for patternmaking and sampling

-Sample garment measurements must be checked against the spec sheet before a garment goes into full production

Different types of specifications

Specifications- includes styling,methods,

Closed specifications- specific requirements for construction techniques

Open specifications- fast fashion

Technical Flat

-includes sketch of garment with details & written specifications

-Technical flat is another term for specificationdetailed measurements and specific construction methods


-anallowable variance from our specification


reflects overall quality of what we are developing

Look up production specs



formation of thread for the purpose of making a seam or stitching


a line where two or more fabrics are joined or sewn together


consists of a series of stitches, used to finish the edge of garment or decorative stitch


Configurations of interlacing thread executed in specific repeated units

They are used to form rows that produce seams, finish an edge, or generate ornamentation

The majority of stitches are made on a lockstitch or chain-stitch machine

Commercialstitches in the ASTM system are divided into sixclasses based on complexity, configuration, andthe type of machine that is required to form the stitching

A three-digit number identifies each stitch class

The first number identifies the class andthe other digits identify a specific stitch type within that class

Lockstitch Vs. Chainstitch

-Lockstitchmachinesrely on interlocking threads Usesa bobbin

-Chainstitchmachinesrely on interlooping threadsUsesa looperthread (no bobbin)

Lockstitch- flatter and less bulky and more refined

The key to lockstitches are balance and tension, usually used for top stitching on better garments

Chainstitch- flexibility


Elongation or Stretch


Standard Practice for Stitches and Seams

The BEST AVAILABLE TOOL for identifying stitchesMilitary garments needed standards for seams = apparel industry adopted & uses today.

Stitch Class 100

A single Thread, it is simple and flexible and economical

Advantages: Economical and Blind Stitch

Disadvantages: Impression of Low Quality and lack of durability

- To easy to unravel for quality apparel

Stitch Class 200

Extremely expensive if done by hand

The machine version requires special machinery and is of very limited use

For decorative and special purpose

Stitch Class 300

Composed of a needle thread interlocked with a bobbin thread

Threads interlock between the pieces of the fabrics

Lock stitches do not unwravel easily, it is very strong

Most frequently used stitch in the production of apparel Balanced Tension

•Stitch 301 most commonly used stitch, tightest and most secure stitch,used for extensively for better garments

Uses the least amount of thread

Produces the flattest stitch

Gives best hand

Allows stitches to blend into the fabric surfaceWidely used to sew seams in woven- fabrics garment

Disadvantages to 300 stitches

-Not very extensible

-Rupture easily if stretched or strained

-Can cause more seam pucker

-More costly than chain stitches

Class 300 Zig Zag Stitch

Usedto attach elastic to underwear, swimwear, to attach lace

Usedfor very functional garments

Class 300 Blindstitches

Join plies of fabric with stitches that are imperceptible or nearly so from the outside of the fabric

Class 400 Stitches

More extensible than lockstitches

Easy to UNRAVEL in case garment needs alterations

Advantages of 400 class stitches

Significantly STRONGER & more DURABLE than 101 stitches

Achieves high production speed

Can Cause Seam Puckers

100- Simple

200- not used that often, made using special machinery

300- most widely used stitch in the production of apparel

400- Chainstitch , it is prone to ravel


Disadvantages of class 400 stitches

Easiest to unravel, uses more thread

Class 500 Over edge stitch

A multi thread chain stitch, it has the ability to stretch without breaking, thus making it the work horse of the knitwear industry Serged, over cast, merrow,

Pgs 346-350

It requires balanced tension

Advantages of the Class 500 Stitch

Most extensible of all stitch class because of their many interloopings

Works well with knitwear

Prevent edges from unraveling

Cause little seam pucker

Conserves fabric because of narrow seam allowance

Reduces labor

Disadvantages of Class 500 Stitch

Prone to seam grin

Cannot be pressed open to reduce bulk

Requires more thread

Can by uncomfortable

Stitch Properties

Specified as the number of stitches per inch (SPI) May be an indicator of quality

The more SPI = more time and thread = cost

SPI: Length, Witdh, Depth

Pg 352 read about stitch length

Pg 335 read and study about stitch tension

Pgs 352-353 read about reinforcement stitches

Needle Heating

-When sewing friction heats the needle, which then fuses or melts the finishes or fibers of the thread or fabric

-Causes fabric damage as a result of the friction of too-fast sewing speeds

Thermoplastic = heat sensitive

Look at all images !!