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229 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

First region to develop appellation rules

Châteauneuf du Pape, 1920s

Mediterranean coast of France has how much of France's vineyards

About half

Impact of Vosges Mountains on winegrowing

Barrier to storms coming from the west shields Alsace, which therefore is warmer and drier (with wines that can be higher in alcohol) than Chablis or Champagne at about the same latitude

Major white grapes of France (7)

1. Ugni Blanc (trebbiano more than 200k acres, third overall. used for brandy)

2. Chardonnay (leading white of Burg and Champ, but more plantings by vol in Lang-Rous)

3. Sauvignon blanc ( leading white grape of Bordeaux and Loire)

4. Melon de Bourgogne (W. Loire Valley only)

5. Sémillon (bordeaux and SW, mostly for sweet)

6. Chenin blanc (Loire's anjou-samur and Touraine, wide range of styles)

7. Muscat (mostly S of France, used commonly in vin doux fortifieds)

Major red grapes of France (11)

1. Merlot (most planted, nearly 250k acres)

2. Cabernet Sauvignon

3. Cabernet Franc (can tolerate cooler climate of Loire, minor in Bdx)

4. Grenache (S of France, needs warm climate)

5. Syrah (warm climate, strong association with N Rhone)

6. Pinot noir (mainly Burg and Champ, minor in Loire and Alsace)

7. Carignan (warm S of France variety)

8. Gamay (Beaujolais, also sm amt in cool areas like Loire)

9. Cinsault (Cinsaut): S of France blending grape

10. Pinot Meunier (Champagne's other red grape)

11. Mourvédre (S of France)

Organization that governs French wine laws

Institut National de l'Origine et de la Qualité

(new name, still goes by acronym INAO)

French Wine Categories

Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOP/AOC)

Vin de Pays (IGP/PGI)

Vin de Table (Vin)

vin de table/ vin

Can come from anywhere in France, very few regs apart from health/safety/trade.

Can be "vin de France" if all from France

PGI catgories in France

Vin de Pays- can be labels with EU PGI, traditional name, or "IGP- vin de pays"

3 categories: regional, departmental, and zone

(6 regional categories, most well known is Pays d'Oc, the W. med coast)

52 departmenal, and 90+ zone

IGP/PGI/Vin de Pays wine must have what % of grape listed on label



Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée

AOC is the traditional name, replaced in part by Appellation d'Origine Protégée (AOP), which is the EU name for the highest wine tier

#AOCs, % of wine produced by them

Over 300, producing about half the wine of France

Nested AOCs

Appellations are often nested within each other. Generally smaller more specific AOCs have higher standards.

Regional AOC>>District>>Communal/village/parish>>vineyard/single estate

Approximate acreage of vines in Bordeaux

300,000 acres

% of AOC production Bordeaux is responsible for

1/4 = 61 million cases of wine/year

Rivers of Bordeaux

Two rivers, Garonne and Dordogne, meet to form the Gironde, a long estuary that flows into the Atlantic. The rivers demarcate major sections of Bdx.

Left Bank: river boundaries

Left bank is to the west of Gironde & Garrone

Right Bank: river boundaries

Right bank to the east and north of the

Dordogne and Gironde

Bordeaux region between the Dordogne and Gironde rivers


City of Bordeaux is on what bank?


Name of the area of the left bank north of the city of Bordeaux


Name of the area on the left bank to the south west of the city of Bordeaux


Main city on the Right bank of the Dordogne


Climate of Bordeaux

Maritime (close to Atlantic), with Gulf Stream influence, but the Landes Forest along the west coast helps to temper some of the extremes

What percent of Bordeaux is planted with red grapes


What percent of Bordeaux is planted with white grapes


Leading Grape of Bordeaux

Merlot. Especially dominant in the right bank and entre-deux-mers

Second most widely planted grape of bordeaux

Cabernet Sauvignon, esp along left bank

Third most widely planted grape of Bordeaux

Cabernet Franc

Allowed red grapes of Bordeaux (6)

Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Malbec, Petit Verdot, Carmenére

Allowed white grapes of Bordeaux (6)

Sauvignon blanc, Sémillon (major)

Muscadelle (minor, sometimes added for floral notes)

Colombard, Ugni blanc, and Merlot blanc (very rare but allowed)

Is more Sémillon or Sauvignon Blanc grown in Bordeaux?

Sémillon (17,000 acres, vs 12,000 for sauvignon blanc)


British term for red Bordeaux wine

Rosés and Crémants in Bordeaux

Rosé: Allowed under the regional "Bordeaux" appellation

Crémant: Allowed under " Crémant de Bordeaux" and "Côtes de Bourg" appellations

Rare and mainly for local consumption

Dry white Bordeaux wines mainly come from

Entre-deux-mers, but some of the best come from Graves (Passac-Léognan in particular). Some of the top tier whites are oak aged, though in moderation

The vast majority of entre-deux-mers is only under what appellation?

Bordeaux AOC

Anatomy of the Médoc appellations

Médoc and haut-Médoc district appellations

6 communal AOCs (Pauillac, St. Julien, Margaux, St. Estéphe, Moulis, Listrac-Médoc)



Graves (Red and white)

Graves Supérieures (sweet white)

Pessac-Lógnan (red and white)

Barsac (sweet white)

Cérons (sweet white)

Sauternes (sweet white)

Libourne Area (Right bank) appellations (10 % of production)





St. Émilion

St. ÉmilionGrand Cru

4 satellites of St. Émilion

Satellites of St. Émilion (4)





Entre-deux-mers sub- appellations


Côtes de Bordeaux St. Macaire



Ste. Croix-du-Mont




castle or grad manor, most famous wine producers in the médoc built on properties. Over time, used as a term for any Bordeaux wine estate

middlemen who buy juice or wine from numerous small farms and blend it under their own label. In Bordeaux, négociants played a primary role and even the famous chateaux would sell to them, but this role has diminished to a degree.
en primeur

"in futures"

means of selling wine in Bordeaux, sold several years before actual wine is bottled and drinkable. Provides cash flow to the producers, price break for brokers and retailers.

Classification of 1855

Most famous ranking in Bordeaux region, created by brokers in preparation for Universal Exposition in Paris.

Ranking based on market price of wines at the time as a proxy for quality. Right bank wines did not command the same price and were left out of the ranking.

6 red wines subdivided into 5 crus (growths), Sweet wines also ranked

First Growths (4 +1)





Mouton-Rothschild added in 1973 (still the only promotion in rankings to date)

1855 Classification- Sweet Wines

14 second growths

11 first growths

1 first superior growth (d'Yquem)

In Bordeaux, Châteaux that have achieved price levels on par with first growths and would likely be elevated if Classification were to be redone
Classified growths: Chateau or Vineyard

Ranking is for the Chateau, and they can expand their holdings and can still be ranked. Branding more important than terrior in this regard.
Classification for Graves

--Châteaux were first classified in 1953 and again in 1959

--16 properties ranked for white and/or red wine

--Only one level: cru classé

--Haut-Brion, only Graves to be in 1855, ranked here as well

St. Émilion Classification Dates

--Only classification system on the right bank

--Est. 1954, requires reclassification every 10 yrs

--New system in 2010, with list published in 2012 but challenged legally

--Two categories:

grand cru classé (great classified growth)

premier cru classé (first great) -> highest

St. Émilion Classification Levels

--Two categories:

grand cru classé (great classified growth)

premier cru classé (first great) -> highest

--Premier cru classé split into A and B sub-classes

Four Chateau in Premier cru classé A:

Cheval Blanc, Angélus, Pavie, Ausone

Cru Bourgeois

Bordeaux Classification* that lists the best Chateaux excluded from the 1855 classification.

First ranked in 1932 and renewed every 10 years,

*2003 controversy led to annulment of classification, only to be renewed in 2008, but as a consortium of producers more than a classification. May change back as there is a goal to have new classification in 2016

Cru Artisan

Classification originally drawn up in 19th century for small family estates in the Médoc. Revived in 2006 with list of 44 producers who can included "Cru artisan" on label.

Reviewed every 10 years

Longest River in France


Proprotion of Loire Wine produced at AOC level

3/4 of 45 million case total production
Origin of Loire River
In Massif Central in heart of France

Towns marking the beginning of Loire Wine region

Sancerre and Pouilly-sur-Loire

River flows north to these towns, then turns and heads more or less west to the Atlantic after this

Four Wine Regions of Loire Valley

1. Pays Nantais (AKA Muscadet. Chilly maritime climate)

2. Anjou-Samur (two adjacent areas of Anjou and Samur)

3. Touraine (to the east of Anjou-Samur)

4. The Upper Loire (area of Sancerre and Pouilly-Fumé, eastern part of Loire valley. Continental climate moderated by sea breezes)

Key white grape varieties of the Loire Valley (3 mian, 3 minor)

Melon de Bourgogne (limited to Pays Nantais)

Sauvignon Blanc

Chenin Blanc

Small amounts of Arbois, Chardonnay, Folle Blanche

Melon de Bourgogne

-originally from Burgundy, no longer grown there

-Fairly neutral white grape that produces a light bodied crisp wine

-- In Loire Valley, limited to Pays Nantais area where it is used to make Muscadet

Chenin Blanc (Loire)

AKA Pineau de la Loire

In the Loire, made into dry, sweet, and sparkling

Thin skin susceptible to Botrytis

Ex) Vouvray and Savenniéres

Sauvignon Blanc (Loire)

Planted throughout middle Loire, but most known for the wine it produces in the upper Loire in Sancerre and Pouilly-Fumé

Loire Regional name for Cabernet Franc


Loire Regional Name for Malbec

Common grapes used for rosés in Loire Valley

Usually blends, often:

Cabernet Franc, Pinot Noir, Gamay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Grolleau, or Malbec

"Fines Bulles"

Lit- "Fine Bubbles"

Name of sparkling wine produced in the Loire Valley using the traditional method.

Sparkling Wine Grapes of the Loire Valley

White- Chenin blanc, sometimes with Sauvignon blanc and Chardonnay blended

Red- Cabernet Franc, Pinot Noir, Gamay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Grolleau

Both white and rosés produced with varying sweetness levels

Does Loire Valley have a general quality wine (AOC) appellation?

No. There is no equivalent to 'Bordeaux AOC' due to the disparate terroir and varieties grown.

This is instead taken by the PGI level through the IGP du Val de Loire, one of the six new regional vins de pays

IGP du Val de Loire replaced what category?

Replaced Vin de Pays du Jardin de la France in 2007
Pays Nantais

Region of Loire Valley, home of Melon de. Bourgogne (Muscadet).

Muscadet is the only allowed grape in which appellations (4)

Muscadet AOC

Muscadet Coteaux de la Loire AOC

Muscadet Côtes de Grandlieu AOC

Muscadet Sevre-et-Maine AOC

What kind of wine does the Muscadet grape produce?

-- Neutral, high acid wines best consumed young.

--Richer fully bodied styles made using lees aging. (can use "sur lie" on label)

Gros Plant du Pays Nantais AOC

Loire Valley (Nantais sub region) appellation created in 2011.

Grape used is Folle Blanche/Gros Plant

can use "sur lie" with year of lees aging

Coteaux d'Ancenis AOC

Loire Valley (Nantais sub region) appellation created in 2011.

May be white using 100% Pinot Gris, or red/rosé using Gamay

Fiefs Vendéens AOC

Loire Valley (Nantais sub region) appellation created in 2011.

White, red, and rosés using typical Loire varieties

Two subregions of centrol Loire Valley

Anjou-Samur and Touraine
Cher river

In Loire Valley, connects to Loire river. Reuilly AOC is along this river

Order of Loire sub-regions from West to East

Pays Nantais>>Anjou-Samur>> Touraine>> Upper Loire
Anjou AOC

In Anjou-Samur region of Loire Valley.


-red wine primarily from Cabernet Franc, with some Cabernet Sauvignon.

-white wine from Chenin blanc with up to 20% SB or Chardonnay


Savennières AOC

In Anjou region of Loire

dry wine from 100% Chenin blanc

On North bank of Loire river

"the most cerebral wine in the world"

Anjou Rosé-only appellations

Rosé d'Anjou

Cabernet d'Anjou

Rosé de Loire (also in Samur and Touraine)

Anjou weather conditions favor______

botrytis. As a result, there are appellations dedicated to the production of sweet wine.

Subregions (2) or Coteaux du Layon AOC



(in 2011 Quarts-du-chaume became Loire's first Grand Cru and new appellation Coteauc to Layon Premier Cru Chaume was created)

Samur-Champigny AOC
Appellation within the Samur sub-region of the Loire valley. Makes a unique spicy red wine from Cab Franc, but allows up to 10% Cabernet Sauvignon or Pineau d'Aunis (aka Chenin Noir)
Saumur is mainly known for what kind of wine production?

Sparkling wine. The main sparkling appellation is Samur Brut (aka Samur Mousseux or Samur)

Traditional method, mostly chenin blanc but can contain any other grapes of the region.

East of Anjou and Saumur but considered part of central Loire. Home to Vouvray

Vouvray AOC

wines ranging in style, sweet to dry, some sparkling. 100% Chenin blanc


produces wine similar to Vouvray, is located across the river from Vouvray on the south side

Chinon AOC

Located in Touraine.

Must be at least 90% cab franc (can bee 100% or can have 10% cab sauv added for structure)

Considered to be the most elegant of the three Cab Franc appellations in Touraine

Bourgueil and St.-Nicolas-de-Bourgueil AOCs

Located in Touraine. Must be at least 90% cab franc (can bee 100% or can have 10% cab sauv added for structure)

Three Cabernet Franc appellations of Touraine

Chinon, Bourgueil, and St.-Nicolas-de-Bourgueil

Touraine AOC

red, white and sparkling made.

East of Vouvray, grapes grown start to resemble upper Loire and are mostly Sauvignon blanc.

Upper Loire

Sancerre (W, R, Ro)

Pouilly-Fumé (W)

Quincy (W)

Reuilly (W, R, Ro)

Menetou Salon (W, R, Ro)

Sancerre and Pouilly-Fumé AOCs

In Upper Loire Region

Sancerre: West bank of Loire, chalky limestone soil, crisp and snappy wine. Mostly Sauv blanc, some Pinot noir

Pouilly-Fumé: East bank across from Sancerre, flinty soil, smoky flavor.

Location of Quincy and Reuilly

In Loire Valley, west of Sancerre and Menetou Salon. On Cher River.

Development of Champagne as a sparkling wine region

Proximity to Paris and England. English demend for light white wines. Producers added sugar to balance the acidity, causing a secondary fermentation. English were the first to deliberately replicate this, then improved by Dom Perignon, Veuva Clicquot, et al.

Annual case volume of Champagne and % of global sparkling production

32 million cases (18% of world sparkling wine production)

Climate of Champagne

On of the coldest and most northerly winegrowing regions. Summers cool, and winters cold, with no protection from N. storms. Suited for sparkling wine. Grapes barely ripen (by other region's standards) and therefore have high acidity.

Five Zones of Champagne

Montagne de Reims

Vallée de la Marne

Côte des Blancs

Côte de Sézanne

Côte des Bar

Acres of vineyard in Champagne


Montagne de Reims

Area of Champagne, plateau between the Marne river and the city of Reims

Vallée de la Marne

Area of Champagne,forty miles along the Marne west of Épernay

Côte de Sézanne

Area of Champagne, southwest of Côte des Blancs

Côte des Blancs

Area of Champagne,ridge running southwest from Épernay in a long thin line

Côte des Bar

Area of Champagne,isolated in the South in Aube department. 60 mi SE from Épernay.

Lies on Kimmeridgian clay

Rivers in Champagne

Marne, Veslee, Aube, Seine

Kimmeridgean clay

Chalky soil formed by microscopic shellfish from ancient sea bed, mixed with clay. Extends from England (Dover cliffs). Also found in Loire and Burgundy.

Characteristics: high water retention, heat retention, heat reflection (light color).

Main Grape Varieties of Champagne (3)


Pinot Noir

Pinot Meunier

Rare permitted grape varieties of Champagne (4)

Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, Petit Meslier, Arbane

Ex) Le Nombre d'Or (Golden number) by Aubry, using all seven grape varieties

Areas of Champagne most Chardonnay is grown in

Côte des blancs

Montagne de Reims

Areas of Champagne most Pinot Noir is grown in

Cote des Bar

Montagne de Reims

Vallée de la Marne

Areas of Champagne most Pinot Meunier is grown in

Valée de la Marne

Marc (in Champagne)

traditional measurement for the quantity of grapes allowed in the press. Equivalent to 4000 kg (8800 lbs)

Volume of juice permitted per Marc in Champagne production

Max 25.5 hectoliters (675 gallons)

Champagne press fractions (2)

cuvée: majority of the juice. Free run and light press. Rich in sugar and acids. Used for premium champagne productions.

taille: later pressings from flesh closer to the seeds or skin. Lower in acid and sugar. Used mostly for demi-sec or extra-dry wines. Max 5 hL allowed per Marc.

Term for leftover grape must after pressings in Champagne


Sent to distillery

Champagne may not be bottled until _______ after the harvest

January first.

Champagne Classification

--Villages are classified, not the wines

Top villages (grand cru) are rated as 100%, 90-99% ranked villages are premier crus, the rest are ranked between 80-89%. These control the price received by growers.

--Can put grand/premier cru on label if all the wine comes from grand/premier cru vineyards

17 grand crus, 44 premier crus, 296 other crus

Champagne houses: # and % of vineyards owned

300 approximate houses, making 2/3 of region wine, own 10% of the vineyard

Grower Champagne labeling

"RM" Récolant-Manipulant

Number of sparkling AOCs in Champange region

One- Champagne AOC

Total number of AOCs in Champagne region


1. Champagne AOC (sparkling)

2. Rosé de Riceys- rosé wine from PN in Riceys commmune in far south of region

3. Coteaux Champenois AOC- covers most of region, for white, red, rosé STILL wines

Alsace has (few/many) producers with (big/small) vineyard holdings

Many producers with small vineyards

Annual case sales of Alsace region

10.1 million cases

Natural boundaries of Alsace region

Vosges mountains to the west (protecting from inclement weather) and Rhine river to the east

Alsace borders which German wine region?


Regional divisions of Alsace

Bas-Rhin: area to the north, but at a lower elevation

Haut-Rhin: area to the south, at a higher elevation

Climate of Alsace

cold continental climate. One of the driest parts of France because of Vosges rain shadow

Top grape varieties in Alsace

1. Riesling

2. Pinot blanc

3. Gewurztraminer

4. Pinot Gris

5. Pinot Noir

6. Sylvaner

7. Muscat

Appellations of Alsace

1. Alsaces AOC- most of region

2. Alsace Grand Cru AOC -gc vineyards, mostly in Haut-Rhin, with stricter yield parameters, no chapitalization.

3. Crémant d'Alsace- for sparkling wine. Only one where Chardonnay is allowed as a grape

All allowed grape varieties of Alsace (11)

1. Riesling

2. Pinot blanc

3. Gewurztraminer

4. Pinot Gris

5. Pinot Noir

6. Sylvaner

7. Muscat

8. Chasselas

9. Auxerrois

10. Kelverner de Heilgenstein (Savagnin Rose)- only grown around Heilgenstein village.

11. Chardonnay- only allowed in Crémant

Grand Cru vineyards in Alsace can only grow what varieties ("noble varieties")

Gewurztraminer, Muscat, Pinot Gris, Riesling

(Sylvaner blended in rare exceptions)

Crémant d'Alsace can be made from_____

Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, Riesling, Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, and/or Auxerrois.

Traditional Method

Is there a IGP for Alsace?

No. Wines that do not adhere to AOC rules are declassified to "wine"; there is no IGP for Alsace.

Typical Alsatian wine style

Emphasis on grape varieties (varietally labeled wines), aromatic, fresh fruit driven profiles with moderate acidity and no oak

Blended wines in Alsace

Not common, but permitted as Edelzwicker.


Alsatian blends. Those produced with at least 50% of a noble variety can have "gentil" on the label

Pinot d'Alsace

Another type of Alsatian blend, which can use any percentage of Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gris, Pinot Noir, or Auxerrois vinified as white wine.

Noble Varities of Alsace

Riesling, Pinot Gris, Muscat, Gewurztraminer

Sweetness levels of Alsatian wine

Usually fermented dry, though the dry weather and recently warmer summers have resulted in sugar levels high enough that they are not always fermented to dryness, along with high alcohol levels.

Also consciously made desert wines exist

Styles of Alsatian desert wine (2)

Vendange Tardive- late harvest grapes, may more may not have botrytis, can also be fermented dry.

Sélection de grains nobles- always sweet, botrytis infected

Main Regions of Burgundy, From North to South


Côte de Nuits

Côte de Beaune

Côte Chalonnaise


Burgundy vineyard size and history

Notoriously fractured vineyard ownership, due to French Revolution land redistribution and Napoleonic inheritance code mandating equal distribution among heirs.

Chablis location and climate

Closer to Aube in Champagne than to the rest of Burgundy. Colder, hard to ripen grapes, but grapes grown on south facing slopes in kimmeridgean clay

Chablis wine styles

Only Chardonnay, pronounced minerality and "flinty" character not found elsewhere in Burgundy. More acid than the rest of Burgundy

Chablis appellations

Petit-Chablis- circle around Chablis AOC. Sun and aspect less ideal.

Chablis AOC: within this there are

40 premier cru vineyards, and

1 Grand Cru vineyard split into seven named parcels. On a hill Northeast of city of Chablis

Chablis Grand Cru Parcels (7)

Largest to smallest:

1. Les Clos

2. Vaudésir

3. Valmur

4. Blanchot

5. Bougros

6. Les Preuses

7. Grenouilles

Give an example of a well known Premier Cru vineyard in Chablis

Montée de Tonnerre



Mont de Milieu

Côte d'Or subregions

Côte de Nuits: northern section, ideal for production of Pinot Noir

Côte de Beaune: south, ideal for Chardonnay

% of production in Côte de Nuits given to Pinot Noir


Number of Grand Cru vineyards in Burgundy

33 (32 in Côte d'Or, 1 in Chablis)

Number of Grand Cru vineyards in Côte de Nuits

24, all for red wine except Musigny which in addition to PN also makes a small amount of Chardonnay

Commune appellations of Côte de Nuits









% of production in Côte de Beaune given to Chardonnay

Only about half, though 7 of its 8 GC only produce white, and Chardonnay is what has given the region its reputation.

Corton Grand Cru produces what type of wine

In Côte de Beaune, the one grand cru that produces mostly Pinot Noir with a small amount of Chardonnay

Primary communes of Côte de Beaune








Example of well known Grand Cru of Côte de Beaune

Corton (R, sm w)

Corton-Charlemange (w)

Charlemange (w)

Montrachet (w)

Typical halmark of Burgundy wine

moderate alcohol, acidiy, and tannin

complexity in aroma and flavor


oak aging is the norm

Côte d'Or Geography

southwest of Dijon along a narrow limestone ridge (côte) that paralells the Sâone river on its west bank.

belt of hills to the nort and west provide shelter from cold Atlantic influence, resulting in a continental climate. Hail is a worry.

Name of city that is Commerical heart of Burgundy's wine trade


Top Grape varieties in Burgundy

Chardonnay (about 60% of production)

Pinot Noir



Charateristics of Côte d'Or wines

both white and red has multi-layered aroma profiles suggestive of wet earth. Age worthy. When oaked (which is the normal), additional oak aroma profile

Burgundy Classifications

1. Grand Cru- 33, each w/ an AOC

2. Premier Cru- 600+, under commune appellation (but can have vineyard name and 1er cru on label)

3. Village level- named vineyard can be on label. Villages appended names to include famous vineyards, making it confusing (ex. Griotte-Chambertain is a GC, Gevrey-Chambertain is a commune/village wine)

4. Regional AOCs

How many communes/villages are in Burgundy


Breakdown of the 100 AOCs of Burgundy

33 Grand Crus

44 Commune (village)

23 Regional

Location of Côte Chalonnaise

south of Côte de Beaune, west of town of Chalon-sur-Sâone

Classifications of wine produced in Côte Chalonnaise

Mostly regional and some village.

No Grand Crus

Serveral Premier Crus

Five Communal AOCs (biggest is Mercurey)

Majority grape of Côte Chalonnaise

Chardonnay, but only slightly more than Pinot Noir

Mâconnais location

Southernmost portion of Burgundy, overlapping slighlty with the upper poriton of Beaujolais

Majority grape of Mâconnais

Chardonnay, within a small amount of red (Gamay)

Classifications of wine produced in Mâconnais

Mostly Mâcon-Villages (43 villages, 26 of which can put name on label, and 5 of which have been awarded AOC communal status). These are for Chardonnay only.

Largest communial AOCs in Mâconnais



Name for a winegrowing estate in Burgundy


% of Burgundy wine trade for negociants

3/4, though trend towards marketing own wine, and there are several co-ops in Maconnais

Communes of Côte de Nuits

Marsannay (no PC or GC)

Fixin (9 PC)

Gevrey-Chambertain (27 PC, 9 GC)

Morey-St. Denis (20 PC, 5 GC)

Chambolle-Musigny (24 PC, 2 GC)

Vougeot (4 PC, 1 GC)

Vosne-Romanée (17 PC, 8 GC)

Nuit-St.-George (39 PC)

Define: Climat

plots of land in Burgundy, deliniated by terroir, ranked according to quality

Communes of Côte de Beaune

Pernand-Vergelesses (5 PC, 3 GC)

Ladoix-Serrigny (11 PC, 2 GC, part)

Aloxe-Corton (14 PC, 3 GC)

Savigny-les-Beaune (20 PC)


Beaune (40 PC)

Pommard (20 PC)

Monthélie (11 PC)


Volnay (32 PC)

Auxey-Duresses (8 PC)

Mersault (21 PC)

Saint-Aubin (29 PC)

Puligny-Monrachet (22 PC, 4 GC)

Chassagne-Monrachet (52 PC, 3 GC)

Santenay (13 PC)

Beaujolais shares boundaries with what part of Burgundy?
Production of Beaujolais

Has been declining, about 2/3 that of Burgundy, or 9.4 million cases annually.

Geography of Beaujolais

Directly south of Mâconnais, along the Sâone river. Warmer than Burgundy due to its southerly location, and moderation of continental climate from some of the Med influences coming up the Rhone valley. Granitic soil the defining feature, vs. limestone for Burgundy

Grape Varieties of Beaujolais (1 major, 3 minor)

Major: Gamay (about 95%)

Minor: Chardonnay, Aligoté, Pinot Noir

Beaujolais wine styles

Intended (generally) for early consumption rather than aging. bright red fruit aromas, with tropical notes from carbonic maceration. Fruity, low tannin wine with vivid purple red color.

Beaujolais Nouveau

Released the third Thursday in November within weeks of bottling.

The northern part of Beaujolais is notable because

This is where most of the granitic soil is, and therefore were the Beaujolais crus are.

Beaujolais has how many appellations?

11 (Beaujolais AOC, formerly Beaujolais-Villages...and 10 crus)

Within the general AOC there are 38 villages than can append their name to the AOC

Name the Beaujolais crus and the style associated with them

lighter style: Chiroubles, Fleurie, St.-Armour

fuller bodied: Brouilly, Côte de Brouilly, Juliénas, Réginé

Age worthy: Chénas, Moulin-á-vent, Morgon

Beaujolais crus produce about what % of the wine


Rhône Valley is the #_____ region of France in terms of case production of AOC-level wine

#2, behind Bordeaux

City and geogrpahical limits of the Rhone valley

Rhone River beginning 20 mi S of Lyon and extending downward 120 miles to Avignon.

30 mile gap between N and S Rhone

Nothern Rhône geography

Vineyards lie in a narrow strop about 40 miles in length along both banks of the river. Steep sides- must be terraced through much of it.

Continental (cold winter, hot summer). Baking sun lent name to Côte Rôtie (roasted hillside)

Souther Rhône geography

Rhone river breaks out of the mountains and into lowlands that run to Mediterranean. Med climate with lots of sun, warm temps, and little rain.

Lots of rounded large stones (galets) washed from the mountains, esp in CDP

Northern Rhone grape varieties

Red: Syrah

White: Viognier, Rousanne, Marsanne

Southern Rhone grape varieties

Over 2 dozen permitted

Main Red: Grenache, Syrah, Carignan, Cinsault, Mourvedré

Main White: Grenache blanc, Clairette, Viognier, Ugni Blanc, Rousanne, Marsanne, Muscat, etc.

Rhone Valley Wine Styles

North: Syrah is deeply colored, tannic, powerful, long lived

South: mainly Grenache based, less tannin and pigment but still lots of alcohol. Lower in acidity and concentrated.

Rhone Rosés

Only 9% of production, but a specialty, esp in Tavel.

Grenache, with low tannin and good color, is often a key grape.

Usually deep color, relatively hearty as Rosés go

White wines of Rhone

Only 5% of Rhone output, but various appellations are well regarded for still, fortified, or sparkling. (ex Viogniers of N Rhone)

The vast majority of Rhone wines are (white/Red/rosé)

Red, by a long shot

Northern Rhone appellations (8)

Côte Rotie (Syrah with little Viognier)

Hermitage (Syrah with little Mars/Rousanne)

Cornas (100% syrah)

St.-Joseph (larger, can have M/R)

Crozes-Hermitage (larger, can have M/R)

Condrieu (all viognier)

Chateau-Grillet (all viognier)

Breakdown of production between N and S Rhone

4% North, 96% South

Côtes du Rhone AOC

Covers most of the N and S Rhone, though usually comes all from the S. Half of the entire valley's output. Primarily red, can can be made from any combo of permitted varieties

Côtes du Rhone-Villages AOC

Some 90 villages within the CdR AOC can use this, and 18 of them can append their name.

Cairanne is the most well known.

Slightly higher standards than regular CdR

Grapes authorized for use in Châteauneuf-du-Pape

Grenache (3- noir, gris, blanc)







Brun Argenté (Vaccarése)



Piquepol (3- noir, gris, blanc)

Terret Noir

Muscat de Beaumes-de-Venise

Vin doux naturel of S. Rhone made from Muscat. Min 15% alcohol, min 10% RS. Usually white, but rosé and reds exist

Rasteau AOC

Vin Doux naturel of S. Rhone based on Grenache (blanc gris, noir). Generally, but not always red.

Tavel produces Rosés as well as reds (t/f)?

False. They make only Rosés using mostly Grenache and Cinsault

Clairette de Die AOC

In the middle of the Rhone valley, somewhat away form the Rhone river and other AOCs. Makes an Ancestral Methode sparkling wine variation called Ancestral Methode Dioise (kept at cool temps the whole time, to mimic submerging in the Die river.

Crémant de Die AOC

Same location of Clairette de Die AOC, but makes sparkling in the Traditional Method

Largest of the Five appellations outside the Côtes du Rhone boundaries

1. Ventoux

2. Costieres de Nîmes

Key grapes of Southwest France

Cabernet sauvignon, Cabernet franc, Merlot, Syrah, Gamay

Esoteric Grapes of Southwest France

White: Petit Manseg, Gros Manseng, Mauzec, Arrufiac

Red: Fer Servadou, Pruneland, Négrette

"Black wine"

From Cahors, malbec based. In SW of France

Madrian AOC

In the SW of France, pwerful wine using Tannat

Gaillac AOC

In the SW of France, wide range of wine styles


In the SW of France, produces dry and sweet whites

Southern France (Languedoc, Rousillon, Rhone, Provence) is home to what portion of France's vineyards?

about half

The majority of IGP wines of France come from what region?

Languedoc-Rousillon, especially IGP de Pays d'Oc which covers the entire region (50 million cases/year)

Languedoc AOC

Replaced the Côuteaux de Languedoc AOC. Covers the entire L-R area from Spain to Nîmes and lets growers move up to AOC status by using traditional grape varieties

Corbieres AOC

largest of the traditional Languedoc-Roussion AOCs in terms of production. Mostly red but allows red and rosé

Minervois AOC

large production traditional Languedoc-Roussion AOC. Mostly red but allows red and rosé

Côtes du Rousillon AOC

In Launguedoc-Rousillon. Makes mostly rosé

Newest AOC of Languedoc Rousillon

Terrasses du Larzac, approved July 2014. Red wine only.

Limoux produces______

sparkling wines

IGP area for Provence

IGP de Méditerranée....though Provance focuses mostly on AOC wine

Largest AOC in Provence

Côtes de Provence

Best known communal AOC of Provence

Bandol AOC, producing Mourvédre based Reds and rosés. Good reputation but small production

In addition to Mourvédre, these grapes are blended into Bandol AOC wines

Mainly Grenache and Cinsault

88% of the wine produced in Provence is ____

Rosé (making the region responsible for 40% of the rosé production of all of France)

Three main Rosé-centric appellations of Provence

1. Côte de Provence (largest, with four sub appellations)

2. Coteaux d'Aix-en-Provence

Coteaux Varois en Provence