• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

443 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Three myths of public speaking

1. "Public speaking is a talent not a skill". In truth, practice and experience can improve public speaking.

2. "Speech is Easy; We Do It All the Time". In truth, it takes time and practice to speak well.

3. "There is no 'Right Way' to Deliver a Speech". In truth, there is a proper way to construct and deliver a speech.

Similarities between conversation and speech

- Audience-centered

- Attention to feedback

- Goal-driven

- Logic is required

- Stories for effect

Differences between conversation and speech

- Language choices

- Speeches require more organization

- Use of notes

- No interruptions

- Delivery style

- Physical arrangement

Linear Model of Communication

Theory that views communication as a one-way process in which a source conveys an encoded message through a channel to a receiver, who then decodes that message
What are the seven elements of the Linear Model of Communication?

1. Source

2. Encoding

3. Message

4. Channel

5. Receiver

6. Decoding

7. Noise

What is a "source" within the context of the Linear Model of Communication?

The person responsible for inventing the idea on which he or she intends to speak and crafting that idea to an audience.

In terms of public speaking, it is the speaker.

What is "encoding" within the context of the Linear Model of Communication?

Taking an abstract notion and providing it meaning through the application of symbols.

When the speaker converts an idea into words, he is encoding it.

What is the "message" within the context of the Linear Model of Communication?

The content or idea that the source tries to convey to the audience.

What is the "channel" within the context of the Linear Model of Communication?

The medium through which an encoded message is transmitted from a source to a receiver.

In the case of public speaking, it is the speaker's voice.

What is the "receiver" within the context of the Linear Model of Communication?

The person or audience that a message is being transmitted to.

In the case of public speaking, it is the audience.

What is "decoding" within the context of the Linear Model of Communication?

The process of drawing meaning from the symbols that were used to encode a message.
What is "noise" within the context of the Linear Model of Communication?

Anything that can change the message after the source encodes and sends it. It can be physical or psychological.
What are some types of physical noise within the context of the Linear Model of Communication?

- Other sounds

- Visual barriers

- Poor volume and projection

- Distractions in the room

- Hunger, tiredness, and other bodily limitations

What are some types of psychological noise within the context of the Linear Model of Communication?

- preoccupation with other thoughts

- emotional reaction to the topic

- prejudice or ill will toward the speaker

- unwillingness to listen

- resistance to the message

Interactive model of communication

Communication theory that views communication as a two-way process that includes feedback and the environment
How is the interactive model different from the linear model?

The linear model views the communication process as complete when the receiver decodes the sender's message.

The interactive model believes that the communication process is not complete when the receiver decodes the audience. In this model, both the sender and receiver are responsible for encoding and decoding messages.

What is "feedback" within the context of the Interactive Model of Communication?

The receiver's response to a message that is sent to the sender. It occurs after the receiver decodes the sender's message.

What is "environment" within the context of interactive model of communication?

The context in which the communication process takes place. Noise is part of the environment, but not the whole thing.

The environment is simply context.

What are examples of environmental elements within the context of the interactive model of communication?

- Beliefs

- Context

- Participants

- Relationships

- Physical setting

- Values

Transactional Model of Communication

The theory that views communication as a constant process in which all parties simultaneously play the roles of sender and receiver.

What are advantages of the Transactional Model of Communication over the Interactive and Linear models?

It is more complete than the other two. It recognizes communication is constant, making it useful when explaining the dynamic context of face-to-face communication.

It helps us understand things never go as planned, and so we constantly adapt to feedback. This dynamic model most accurately reflects public speaking as a process.

What are the three major contexts of public speaking discussed in the text?

- Politics (stump speeches, campaign events, presidential addresses)

- The private sector (business presentations, corporate earnings, state of finances)

- Our personal lives (funerals, weddings, awards ceremony, anniversary)

What is a phobia?

A persistent, irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that leads to a compelling desire to avoid

What is an example of a phobia?

Arachnophobia, social phobia, aerophobia, agoraphobia, claustrophobia, acrophobia, emetophobia, brontophobia, necrophobia

What is communication apprehension?

The fear or anxiety associated with real or anticipated communication with another or others.

It's not exclusive to public speaking; it can manifest in a variety of different speaking contexts, including one-on-one interactions.

What is a self-fulfilling prophecy?

Convincing yourself that something is going to happen before it does, thus leading to the occurrence of what you originally expected
What is a negative example of a self-fulfilling prophecy?

Convincing yourself that you will fail a calculus examination, and then failing

What is a positive example of a self-fulfilling prophecy?

Convincing yourself that you will do well in an upcoming soccer game. Although it's not guarantee, it will enhance your chances of success.
What are four physiological reactions to communication apprehension?

1. Rise in blood pressure

2. Shortness of breath

3. Galvanic skin tightening

4. Sweating, which is caused by galvanic skin tightening

What are four ways of combatting communication apprehension?

1. Practice

2. Employing relaxation techniques

3. Visualize success

4. Dialogue with the audience

What are some examples of the practice technique within the context of combatting communication apprehension?

1. Practice it alone

2. Practice in front of mirror

3. Practice in front of people you feel comfortable around

4. Practice in an environment similar that wherein you will be presenting

5. Record a video of yourself speaking and review it

What are some examples of relaxation techniques?

1. Breathing exercises like deep breathing and breath counting

2. Physical exercise, possibly structured (like a Yoga class)

3. Good night's sleep and full breakfast

What is a way to employ the dialogue with the audience technique?

Imagine you are holding multiple simultaneous dialogues with the audience instead of viewing your speech like a presentation to a large group
What is systematic desensitization?

The process whereby a person is slowly introduced to a fear such that each time he or she overcomes the fear the intensity is decreased
Public speaking is a _______ and not a _______.

Public speaking is a skill and not a talent. Talents cannot be learned, but skills can be learned and developed over time.
What is the first stage of practice?

Organization. In early stages, focus on organization and adjusting your outline of your speech. Keep in mind that what you have written and organized to this point is not set in stone.

When you have all your information, lay it out, assess it, and see which method of organization helps you best accomplish your goals. Then practice each section out loud.

What is the middle or second stage of practice?

Feedback. This should be feedback on both the outline or manuscript and your delivery. You can get feedback from a peer workshop or from others.
What are questions you can ask the audience to et useful feedback?

- Have I adequately established the significance of this topic?

- Were the main points clear and organized?

- Were there parts of the speech that were confusing or hard to understand?

- Did I cite enough sources? Did the sources add credibility to my speech?

- Did I leave anything out?

- Are there areas in which I need to elaborate more?

- What can I do to improve my delivery?

What is the final stage of practice?

Refining your speech. It usually takes close very close to the actual presentation, and is more about shaping and cleaning things up than major organizational adjustments.

What are some general guidelines about the length of the body and introduction?

65-75% of the speech should be body. 10-15% should be the introduction. Each main point in the body should take the same amount of time to get through.

What are three things you should focus on in the refining stage of practice?

You should also work on your extemporaneous delivery, focusing on things like eye contact, natural gestures, and facial expressions.

What should you focus on in the organizational stage of practice?

Focus on organization and adjusting your outline of your speech
What are good tips for practice sessions?

1. Practice orally

2. Provide questions to practice audience. Ask for feedback

3. Practice with a stopwatch

4. Keep it simple. Don't overprepare.

5. Keep the audience in the forefront of your mind. Practice with an eye toward how they will respond to parts of your speech as you deliver them.

What are three things you take note of in order to employ the direct observation technique in audience analysis?

1. Environmental cues like photos on the wall, slogans. Acknowledging the environment (e.g. school, company) and the importance of its information demonstrates your attention to detail

2. Take note of how many people will be attendance and who they might be

3. Get a feel for the emotional disposition of your audience

What are demographics?

Categories of definable characteristics of groups of people

What are some examples of categories of definable characteristics of groups of people?

- age

- race

- religion

- socioeconomic status

- education level

- sexual orientation

Demographics are used in...

- politics

- business

- education and administration

How does the federal government protect demographic categories?

The law forbids treating people differently because they belong to a particular group within one of the demographic categories
Why are demographics useful for public speakers?

- helps provide a picture of to whom you will be speaking

- allows you to know which segment of the audience to target and which message to present

- gives you knowledge of the cultural experiences and expectations of your audience

- imparts information on beliefs, values, and behaviors

Why is eye contact from the audience important?

It's a potent indicator of audience involvement. As a speaker you should try to make as much eye contact with the audience as possible.

What are nonverbal cues that gain audience interest?

- make eye contact

- vary tone, pitch, and pace

- use gestures to make a point

- use pauses effectively

- refer to someone in the crowd

- involve your audience (e.g. polling)

What are nonverbal cues that lose audience interest?

- poor delivery skills

- not varying your tone, pitch, or pace throughout your speech

- reading your speech

- taking about things that are not relevant to your audience

What are signals of audience engagement?

- head nods

- smiles

- raised eyebrows

- clapping or cheering

- eye contact

What are signals of audience disengagement?

- shifting in their seats

- talking to neighbors

- reading

- sleeping

- leaving the room

- looking at watches or cell phones

What does lack of eye contact indicate?
A lack of interest in your speech.
What is the best way to poll an audience?

Asking a question or a series of questions, and requesting that the audience members raise their hands if they agree or disagree with your statement, This can help introduce a topic and give you information about which parts of your topic might be the most relevant to cover

What is the first moment when you might poll the audience?

During the introduction of your speech. This could be a creative attention getter, give you immediate feedback, and get the audience engaged and invested in the outcome their answers produce.
What is another instance in which polling the audience can come in handy?

When you cover something complex or difficult. This allows you to determine if the audience understands the points you are making. If they are following along, then continue as planned, but if they are not, slow down and readjust your coverage of the material so the audience can understand it.
What is dangerous about polling the audience?

You cannot control the outcome of your question. The audience members could become distracted with their response to the question instead of focusing on the speech. They might not answer the way you want them to.

Because of this, making sure your questions are purposeful and get at the information you want to gather. Do not ignore what you receive from the audience but find the most effective way to use it in your presentation.

What is an intensely personal way of gathering information?

Personal interviews of potential audience members.

- allows you to gauge their interest and opinion on the topic

- also can help reduce tension and anxiety about the presentation

What is so personal about personal interviews?

- requires the interviewee to give time away from their day to speak with you

- you are asking them to share their personal attitudes, beliefs, and ideas with you

- they often occur in intimate settings, giving you access to information on their nonverbal behaviors. This conveys information about the person's personality that should not be abused

What are ways of gathering information about the audience that aren't polling?

- contact persons (specifically, the person responsible for making arrangements regarding your presentations)

- scientific surveys

- personal interviews

Scientific surveys

Allow you to gather demographic data as well as people's feelings toward particular issues or topics. You can use the Likert scales to do this, forced-choice questions, or open-ended questions (which provide an opportunity to provide reasons for their opinions)

What are Likert scales?

Scales in which individuals must choose a number on range (e.g. 1 to 5) which represents whether they feel positive or negative about a provided statement.

Answers to these questions can then be broken down by demographic category.

What is culture?

According to the OED, it's "the distinctive ideas, customs, social behavior, products, or way of life of a particular nation, society, people, or period."

Within the context of public speaking, it is the collective programming of the mind distinguishing the members of one group or category of people from another

What is co-culture?
A variety of smaller cultures that intersect in our lives. The exist alongside and inside of larger cultures.
What are the six dimensions of national culture (according to Hofstede)?

- High vs. Low Power distance

- High vs. Low Uncertainty Avoidance

- Individualism vs. Collectivism

- Masculinity vs. Femininity

- Long-Term vs. Short-Term Orientation

- Indulgence vs. Restraint

Describe high vs. low power distance

Cultures with high power distance have high levels of power inequality in organizations, families, and other institutions (monarchies, dictatorships)

Cultures with low power distance have less inequality (democratic countries)

Describe high versus low uncertainty avoidance

Cultures with high uncertainty avoidance have a low tolerance for ambiguity and minimize the possibility of uncomfortable, unstructured situations by enforcing strict rules and a belief in an absolute Truth.

Cultures with low uncertainty avoidance have fewer rules, take risks, and are tolerant of change.

Describe individualism versus collectivism

Individualistic societies have loose ties between individuals and expect each person to be responsibility for themselves.

Collectivist cultures have strong ties between individuals and communities, and often live within loyal extended families

Masculinity versus femininity

Refers to the emotional roles between genders and differences between values of men and women.

Masculine cultures feature assertive and competitive men and women.

Feminine cultures feature modest and caring men and women.

Long-Term versus Short-Term Orientation

Long-Term Orientation: Typically pragmatic and focus on future rewards, with an emphasis on saving, persistence, and adaptation

Short-Term orientation: focus on the present and past and emphasize national pride, tradition, social obligations, and saving "face" in the here and now

Indulgence versus Restraint

Indulgent cultures: freely allow gratification of desires that allow individuals to enjoy life and have fun

Restrained cultures: have strict social norms and discourage acting simply out of want

Examples of high PD culture

France (only professors asked questions)

Scores are high for Latin, Asian and African countries

Examples of low PD culture

Germany (students asked questions)

Scores are generally low for Germanic and Anglo countries

Examples of high uncertainty avoidance
Scores are higher in Latin countries, in Japan, and in German speaking countries

Examples of low uncertainty avoidance
Scores are lower in Anglo, Nordic, and Chinese culture countries

Examples of individualistic societies


Individualism prevails in developed and Western countries

Examples of collectivist societies

Indonesia (family example)

Collectivism prevails in less developed and Eastern countries; Japan takes a middle position on this dimension

Masculine cultures

United States (Miami guide gives a price for every house seen in river)


Masculinity is high in Japan, in some European countries like Germany, Austria and Switzerland, and moderately high in Anglo countries

Feminine cultures

Netherlands, Sweden, Norway

Masculinity is low in Nordic countries and in the Netherlands and moderately low in some Latin and Asian countries like France, Spain and Thailand

Cultures with a long-term orientation
Long-term orientation scores are highest in East Asia, moderate in Eastern and Western Europe

Cultures with a short-term orientation
Long-term orientation scores are low in the Anglo world, the Muslim world, Latin America and Africa

Indulgent cultures
Indulgence scores are highest in Latin America, parts of Africa, the Anglo world and Nordic Europe

Restrained cultures
Restraint is mostly found in East Asia, Eastern Europe and the Muslim world.
What is race?

Refers to a set of physical characteristics shared by a group of people, such as skin color, facial structure, and hair color

What is ethnicity?

Refers to a group of people who identify with each other based on a common experience, which might include geographic or national origin, ancestry, history, cultural and social norms, religion, race, language, ideology, food, dress, or other factors. Can be related to national heritage.
What is sex?

One's biological classification as male, female, or intersex.

Is based on one's reproductive organs and chromosomes

What is gender?

A social construction that includes all of the beliefs, attitudes, actions and roles associated with being masculine or feminine.

It is one's psychological sense of self as being male or female regardless of physical biology

Also includes societal expectations for behaviors, attitudes, and roles filled by feminine or masculine minded individuals

What is sexual orientation?

Refers to the sex and gender to whom a person is romantically and sexually attracted to.
Why is age related to culture and diversity?
It can tell you something about a person's life experiences, as well as some possible attitudes and beliefs they may hold

What are five major generations?

- The GI Generation: fought in WWII

- The Silent Generation: too young to fight in WWII but came into adulthood during the rise of the middle class

- The Baby Boomers: children of the GI generation, grew up in the 60s, focused on their careers and high expectations for childrens

- Gen X: graduated from high school in the 80s and 90s

- Millennials: graduate high school after 2000, tend to have high expectations set for them and are coddled by parents

Cognitive diversity examples

IQ, learning styles and preferences, interests, memory, and experience

Dyslexia, ADHD, Alzheimer's or memory loss

Physical diversity examples

Athletic ability, physical handicaps, blindness, deafness

A set of ideas, beliefs, and ideals that form our worldview and provide a basis for action
3 practices for understanding and respectingdifferences as a speaker

1. Make the message accessible.

2. Don't highlight differences in others. Everybody is the same!

3. Avoid "ist" language (demeaning badthink)

Physical location or just location

Refers to the immediate environment in which the speaker will be speaking. Specifically, location is the physical environment.

What's the difference between location and a medium?
The location is where the speech is made, whereas the medium is how it is delivered.
What are the advantages of indoor locations?

- minimizes distracting noise

- lighting and air temperature can be adjusted to comfort

- more intimate and more comfortable

What are the advantages of outdoor locations?

- opportunity to adjust the setting in advance of the presentation (can knock down a wall or create more space)

What the disadvantages of outdoor locations?

- many distracting noise

- can't control the weather

- must have back-up plans

- no electricity, so may have to project your voice louder and be unable to show media to the audience

What is a speaking tool?
A device that assists speakers, such as a microphone, podium, lectern, or lighting
What is the most common speaking tool?

A microphone.
What are the three types of microphone?

- fixed microphone (may be attached to a podium)

- portable and wireless microphone

- a lapel microphone (portable but not handheld microphone)

What the advantages and disadvantages of a fixed microphone?

Often are placed on top of a stand and can be adjusted to the height of the speaker. It's important to adjust the height before the presentation in order to avoid taking up time during which you could speaking to the audience
What are the advantages and disadvantages of a portable, wireless microphone?

Can be carried around the room, allowing easier interaction with the audience. Passing the microphone to the audience limits the speaker's control though. Person could go on a rant (very dangerous!)

What are the advantages and disadvantages of a lapel microphone?

Very useful when the speaker wants to present visual aids or make demonstrations with products

What is a podium?


What is a lectern?

A stand behind which people speak and on which they place their notes. They can be placed on a podium or a dais

What is a dais?

A table at which people sit in the front of a room
What are the three major speaking tools?

- the podium

- the microphone

- the lighting of the area

Why is the lighting of the area a speaking tool?

It can create a particular mood, spotlight the speaker or someone in the audience, or can be dimmed so that visual aids are more apparent to the audience.
What are three components of your speech that affect how your speech is received?

- how you carry yourself

- your posture

- your dress

What are the artistic proofs?
Ethos, logos, and pathos

What is ethos?

The credibility of the speaker

What is pathos?

The emotional dimensions of the appeal that can influence an audience's disposition toward a speaker, topic, or occasion

What is logos?

The logical dimension of the appeal
What are inartistic proofs?

All the evidence, data, and documents that exist outside the speaker and the audience, but nevertheless can aid in persuasion

What are general guidelines that help you choose what you should and should not wear during your presentation?

Dress as formally as your audience. Don't dress distractingly or inappropriately, which will shift attention to your attire instead of the message. Make sure your clothes fit well and are comfortable, avoid clothing with busy patterns
______ is a Voice Over Internet Protocol (VOIP)

How does VOIP work?

Voice and images are sent live over the Web to another person, via the internet. You need webcam for it to work.
What are two programs that assist in videoconferencing?
Illuminate and Adobe Connect

What is a popular means of videoconferencing? Why is it useful?

A webinar. They are valuable in situations in which someone wants to demonstrate a product or provide an interactive online education seminar
What are the three types media tools used for communication and presentations listed in the text?

- Voice Over Internet Protocol (VOIP) like Skype

- Conference calls/telephone

- Video conferencing/webinars

What are two types of indoor scenarios with regard to room ratios?

Small rooms and large rooms
Describe small rooms w/r/t room ratios

Generally more intimate with the audience members. A microphone is probably unnecessary. Can be more informal and conversational. Small settings with small audiences create opportunity for more audience interaction
Describe large rooms w/r/t room ratios

When the audience is large, formal delivery required. Less intimate and easier for audience to drift away. You must be well prepared and enthusiastic or your risk losing the audience.

Large rooms with small audiences are difficult. The size of the room can be intimidating and the number of attendees can be disappointing. The audience is often scattered throughout the room. You can ask the audience to move in and sit as a group, and acknowledge the discrepancy between room size and number of attendees.

Informative speeches
Presentations in which the speakers explain a topic to an audience without trying to convince them of anything.
Speeches about objects

A type of informative speech that always concerns a tangible item, like a country or person.

Speeches about processes
A "how-to" type speech. They pertain to a sequence of events presented in a chronological fashion, like baking a cake.
Speeches about events

Informative speeches that focus on something that has happened, that is happening, or might happen in the future.
Speeches about concepts

Types of informative speeches that are about ideas rather than concrete constructs. The speaker's task is to take something abstract and ground it in reality. Ex. preachers explaining religion, lawyers arguing about law, philosophy

Chronological pattern
A way to organize informative speeches. You sequence events in the order in which they occur in time. They can be about processes, or objects if you're explaining their historical significance.
Cause-effect pattern

A specific form of chronological organization that involves causes and effects. It discusses one or more causes that result in a specific event.
Problem-solution pattern

An informative speech organizational pattern that involves focusing your explanation around a problem and its solution. YOU ARE NOT PROPOSING A SOLUTION. You are explaining how a past problem was solved
Spatial pattern
An organizational pattern that explains material to the audience by emphasizing how things are physically related to one another in a defined area of space and time. For example, a speech on the geography of New Orleans which is organized around regions of the city
Tips for informative speeches about objects
Using a model is useful if it's difficult to precisely describe an object.

The less familiar your audience is with the object, the more description you will need to provide

Ex. model of teeth in dentist's office

Tips for informative speeches about processes

Process speeches consistently use a chronological sequence.

These speeches are generally easy to understand, and easy for the speaker to keep on track as one thing follows another.

Tips for informative speeches about events

The primary tip in developing a clear and effective explanation of an event is to choose your focus and explain that focus to the audience early in the speech.

You should also lay out the details of the event to the audience. Let them know if the speech is spatially, chronologically, or topically organized

Tips for informative speeches about concepts

Concepts are abstract, and the most effective way of explaining them is using concrete and hypothetical examples.

E.g. the apple falling on Newton's head explains gravity

Phil is giving a speech about President Barack Obama's inauguration as the first biracial President of the United States. What type of informative speech is Phil giving?

Speech about an event

In his show Good Eats, Alton Brown often gives presentations about how to cook a variety of foods. For example, in one episode, he talks about how to brine and cook a perfect Thanksgiving turkey. What type of informative speech is Alton Brown giving in each of these episodes?

Speech about processes

Eli is giving a speech about recycling. First, he plans to talk about how different materials are recycled. Second, he plans to talk about where to find recycling centers throughout the region. Finally, he plans to talk about how recycling regulations vary in other countries. Which pattern of organization is Eli using?


Fred is giving a speech about legal decisions that were important in the U.S. civil rights movement. First, he plans to talk about Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme Court decision in 1896 that required racial segregation in public facilities. Second, he plans to talk about the Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court decision in 1954 that declared that separate public schools for black and white students were unconstitutional. Finally, he plans to talk about the Civil Rights Act of 1968, which provided for equal housing opportunities regardless of race, creed, or national origin. Which pattern of organization is Fred using?


Chris is giving a speech about how to build a coffee table, starting with how to turn a tree trunk into flat wood planks, and finishing with how to apply the final coat of lacquer. Which pattern of organization should Chris use for his speech?


What are you doing if you create a list of possible topics and keep adding to this list as you think of new ideas?


In his speech, George plans to convince his audience to buy a refillable water bottle instead of disposable water bottles. What is the general purpose of George's speech?


"To ensure success in college, you should meet with an advisor often to make a clear plan, set aside time to prepare for each class every week, and proofread all papers before turning them in" is an example of a

thesis statement

In her speech, Gina plans to teach her audience how to dance salsa. What is the general purpose of Gina's speech?

To inform

Tara decides to give a speech to convince people to stop eating food that contains high fructose corn syrup. What is Tara's speech topic?

High fructose corn syrup

General purpose statement

A brief statement representing what you aim to do with the speech; there are three types:

Informative, persuasive, and commemorative

Informative general purpose statement

"to inform...", "to describe...", or "to demonstrate..."

Persuasive general purpose statement

"To persuade" or "to convince"

Commemorative general purpose statement

"To honor", "to celebrate", or "to commemorate"

What are the three ways to choose a topic?

1. You could be dictated your topic choice

2. You might be called upon to speak based on your knowledge or expertise

3. Your topic is something that interests you, but not very familiar to you, thus requiring research

What are the three ways to narrow the topic?

1. Brainstorm

2. Concept map

3. Choosing what to cut


To create a list of possible topics and keep adding to this list as you think of new ideas

Concept map

Also know as a mind map. Is a visual representation of the potential areas that you could cover in your speech.

Choosing what to cut

Find the most essential elements of the topic, or combine others.

Specific purpose statement

A narrower version of the general purpose statement that identifies what you will take about, what you will say about it, and what you hope the audience will take away from the speech

Example: "My speech will inform my audience that the process of hosting a dinner party requires a focus on detail that begins with determining when the party will occur, who will be invited, and what will be served."

Guidelines for specific purpose statements

Ensure that it one statement, not a paragraph.

The statement must be declarative in nature.

Understand that the specific purpose statement is not rigid; it can be changed based upon how the rest of your speech is coming together

What are the five characteristics of information literacy?

1. Know why you want certain information for the speech

2. Know where to get the information you seek

3. Know how to assess the quality of the information you have found

4. Create new knowledge

5. Be accountable for your use of information (don't plagiarize).

Background information

Information that provides context for your speech. It will help you refine your topic and could be useful when explaining the topic to your audience

Unique information

Data that is unique. It could be statistics, quotations, or stories about people and events that are not common knowledge but are nonetheless fascinating. It gives your topic personality

Evidentiary information

The core of your research. It's information that lends direct support to your thesis and main points of your speech


an online system that can connect you to databases and indices for specific disciplines, providing easy, quick access to years of research. It can also provide you with source citations, abstracts, and full-text copies of articles you're looking for


a search engine that combs through newspaper and magazine articles from around the globe and pulls up a news article or Op-Ed piece in a local paper


a database that focuses on education

Three sources of information

1. Libraries

2. Internet

3. People

Internet domains in order of credibility

.gov (MOST)




.net (LEAST)

Boolean operator

using words such as "and", "but", and "or" when tping in search terms to focus the results

Search terms

keywords that you type into the search engine to help locate material

Ways to conduct interviews

1. face-to-face meetings

2. over the telephone

3. through e-mail

4. using technology such as Skype

Peer testimony

Provided by a nonexpert who gives an opinion or story regarding a particular topic

Expert testimony

Someone with credibility and professional experience directly relevant to the topic you plan to discuss

Steps to conducting an interview

1. find some willing to be interviewed

2. decide exactly what you want to learn from the interview

3. compile a list of questions to ask in order to get at that information

4. ask the person how much time the person has for your questions

5. when you finish, thank the person

6. transcribe your notes

7. clarify what the person said, if needed

What are the two places that sources should be cited in a speech?

The outline or manuscript, and orally during the actual presentation

What are three ways to keep track of your research sources?

1. Place notes on each piece of information you collect that lists the proper bibliographical citation for that piece of data.

2. Keep a notebook in which you log all your information and where you found it

3. Keep an ongoing bibliography within the document itself. You can take out extraneous sources later

MLA style

generally prefers to use in-text citations that contain the author's last name and the page number where the information can be found. The year of the publication is not required for the parenthetical citation

Example MLA parenthetical citation

In the United States, having a standardized time became important when the railroad made faster travel possible (Gleick 44).

Example MLA "Works Cited" entry

Smith, John. "Form and Style." /i The Detroit Free Press /i 8 Nov. 2010: A8. Print.

American Psychological Association Style Guide (APA)

Favored by the social and natural sciences. Year of publication included in the parenthetical citation

Example APA in-text citation

In the United States, having a standardized time became important when the railroad made faster travel possible (Gleick, 1999).

Example APA "Works Cited" entry

Smith, J. (2010 November 8). Form and style. /i The Detroit Free Press /i, A8.

Chicago Manual of Style

Accepted in parts of academia and business. Does not use in-text parenthetical citations but requires footnotes in the text.

Example Chicago Manual of Style footnote

1. John A. SMith, "Form and Style," /i U.S. News and World Report /i, April 12, 2006, 30.

Example Chicago Manual of Style bibliography entry

Smith, John A. "Form and Style." /i U.S. News and World Report /i vol. 189, issue 6 (April 12, 2006): 30.

What does it mean to verbally attribute a source?

It does not mean that you read off the entire bibliographical reference. It means that you let the audience know the information came from someone other than you.

What four things should an oral citation include?

1. The author or person who was the source of information

2. that person's credentials

3. the name of the publication

4. the date that the source was published

Two benefits of verbal attributions

1. Help increase credibility

2. Let the audience know where they can find the information you used

When verbally citing sources during your speech, which information is unnecessary to include in your oral citation?

The page number of the quotation

When using information, you may want the information to catch the attention of the audience, to provide background facts, or to make an argument and try to persuade an audience. Which characteristic of information literacy is this?

Know why you want an area of information for the speech

Speakers often pull together information from various sources to create a coherent explanation of how those pieces of data fit together, thus helping the audience see something in a different, more complex light. Which characteristic of information literacy is this?

Create new knowledge

The unfair preference or distortion of information, particularly if the source will gain sometime by getting the audience to believe a certain way, is called


Janis is looking for information that lends direct support to her thesis and the main points of her speech, such as statistics, testimony, and examples. What kind of information is Janis searching for?

Evidentiary information

While giving his speech, Jaime watches his audience members' facial expressions, head nods, yawns, and smiles to find out whether his audience is engaged and interested in his speech. Which method of audience analysis is Jaime using?

Direct observation

Which method of audience analysis can be done while giving a speech?

Polling the audience

Categories of definable characteristics of groups of people, such as age, race, religion, socioeconomic status, education level, and sexual orientation are included what kind of data about your audience?


Javier has been asked to deliver the keynote speech at a Young Entrepreneurs Convention. As part of his preparation for his speech, he asks the conference planner how big the room is, how it will be set up, how many people will be in attendance, and whether there are any special guests or audience characteristics that he should keep in mind. What method of audience analysis is Javier using?

Contact person

Which of the following is a strategy for gaining audience interest?

Make eye contact

Which of the following can be defined as "a social construction that includes the attitudes, feelings, and behaviors that a given culture associates with a person's biological sex?"


___________refers to a group of people who identify with each other based on a common experience, which might include geographic or national origin, ancestry, history, cultural and social norms, religion, race, language, ideology, food, dress, or other factors.


Which generation graduated from high school after 2000, tended to be very protected by their parents, and had high expectations set for them?


Which dimension of national culture involves the degree to which individuals are integrated into strong, cohesive groups versus having loose ties to others?


According to Hofstede, which of the following nations is highly masculine?




United States

United States

Which tool should a speaker use if he or she does not have a powerful enough voice to project through the entire room or is speaking in a room that is too large for a voice to carry well?


Which aspect of the speaking environment is concerned with how you carry yourself, your posture, and how you dress?



Which of the following is NOT a question that is concerned with the physical location of your speech?

What is the lighting like? Are you on the same level as the audience? Are you on an elevated platform? What does your audience already know about your topic?

What does your audience already know about your topic?

Which one of the following would NOT be recommended if you have a very small audience in a very large room.

Acknowledge the discrepancy between the room size and audience that is present. Engage with your audience the same way that you would if they were in a smaller room. Give your speech exactly the same way you would if the large room were completely full. Invite the audience members to move to the front and sit together as a group.

Give your speech exactly the same way you would if the large room were completely full.

Which element of the speaking situation is usually the only one over which the speaker has complete control?

The speaker's clothing. The size of the room. The availability of microphones and other tools. The lighting in the space

The speaker's clothing

One of the most prominent Roman politicians from the first century CE to offer a theory of rhetoric and public speaking was:


One of the unique contributions made by Aristotle to the study of rhetoric and public speaking, according to the authors of our textbook was:

His concern for the ethics of persuasion that was rooted in principles of clarity, correctness and propriety*

Among the teachers of rhetoric and public speaking in the Greek city state of Athens, one group of travelling teachers who tutored students in public speaking were called:


A key element of Kenneth Burke’s theory of rhetoric and public speaking is his emphasis on:

How researchers can analyze a speaker’s motives using the terms of the pentad

Teachers of rhetoric and public speaking in the Athenian classical period emphasized different aspects of the process of communication. The teacher who gave the most emphasis to how public speakers can use their delivery techniques to “bewitch” an audience was:


Amelia lives far from her granddaughter but wants to be an active part of her life, so she has a Skype conversation with her granddaughter every weekend. When Amelia and her granddaughter talk, which part of the communication process would Skype be considered?


Jerome is having trouble hearing the speaker because there is a loud air conditioner in the room. What is Jerome experiencing?

Physical noise

Which component of the linear model of communication can interfere with or change the message after the source encodes and sends it?


The process of drawing meaning from the symbols that were used to encode a message is called


Which component of the communication process includes beliefs, values, the physical setting, history, and relationships?


The strategy in which you reduce communication apprehension by relaxing, closing your eyes, and imagining yourself giving your speech confidently and effectively from beginning to end is called

NOT Employ relaxation techniques

Visualize success

Which of the following is usually true for people who have high levels of communication apprehension?

They tend to procrastinate when preparing speeches.

Andrew gets nervous when speaking in front of others, so he decides to try to gradually expose himself to speaking situations to help overcome his fear. First, Andrew asks his roommate to listen to his speech. Then, he asks two or three friends to listen to his speech so that he has a slightly larger audience. Finally, he asks a dozen or so people living on the same floor to listen to his speech. Which communication apprehension reduction technique is Andrew using?

Systematic desensitization

The fear or anxiety associated with real or anticipated communication with another or others is called

Communication Apprehension

Convincing yourself that something is going to happen before it does, thus leading to the occurrence of what you originally expected, is called

Self-fulfilling prophesy

Which of the following is NOT a recommendation to consider when practicing?

Give your practice audience no guidance on for the kind of feedback you want. Practice your speech out loud. Practice with a stopwatch. Keep the audience in the forefront of your mind.

Give your practice audience no guidance on for the kind of feedback you want.

Approximately how much of your total speech should be constituted by the body of your speech?


When you are in the final stages of practice, which part of the speech should you be primarily focusing on?


After you have practiced your speech enough that you are comfortable with the overall organization and outline, what kind of practice should you emphasize next?

Get feedback from others on the outline, manuscript, and delivery of your speech

Which of the following is true about practicing with a stopwatch?

Timing your speech is optional. You should never practice with a stopwatch. You should practice with a stopwatch once before you give your speech to make sure you are close to the time limit. You should practice with a stopwatch every time you practice out loud so that you know how long your speech is each time you adjust it.

You should practice with a stopwatch every time you practice out loud so that you know how long your speech is each time you adjust it.


A useful and attention getting supporting material. Often used at the beginning of the speech, they can help explain how data connects to the everyday experience of the audience. Good examples can enhance your credibility and help connect your audience with the topic.

Real example

An example that is factual. If used for evidence, they should be coupled with other forms of information

Hypothetical example

An example that is fictional. Get attention and can be used as supporting evidence

Brief example

An example that makes a very quick point and can be effective at any point in a speech. Useful for connecting to the audience and humanizing your topic

Extended examples

An example that takes time; the importance lies in the details. Require more information and provide the audience with an opportunity to visualize what you are saying

Three types of supporting material

1. examples

2. statistics

3. testimony


Summarize and organize sets of numbers to make them easier to understand or visualize

Measures of central tendency

Statistics that indicate where the middle of a distribution lies, including the mean, median, and mode


A measure of central tendency. It is an average of all the scores in a distribution; calculating by adding all of the scores and then dividing by the total number of scores


A measure of central tendency. It is the middle number of a group of numbers. In case there is an even number of numbers, compute the median by combining the two middle numbers and then dividing by two.


A measure of central tendency. It is the score that most often appears in a distribution of numbers

Standard deviation

A measure of variability that indicates how spread apart the numbers are in a distribution


using the words of other people as evidence

Expert testimony

Testimony from somebody who has conducted extensive research on the topic, has significant experience with the topic, or holds a position that lends credibility to his or her ideas on the subject matter

Peer testimony

Testimony from someone who is in the same peer group as the audience, but not necessarily someone who is an expert on the topic

Guidelines for Using Supporting Materials

1. Be sure to have balance between your types of supporting materials

2. Only use supporting materials relevant to your topic and argument

3. Make sure you stay focused when using examples

4. Choose the type of testimony to use based upon the goal you are trying to achieve

5. Use supporting materials ethically

An example that makes a very quick point and can be effective at any point in a speech is called a(n)

Brief example

In her speech, Rensi said, "To learn more about superconductors, I talked with Dr. Stephen Blundell, a professor of Physics at the University of Oxford who is one of the most respected superconductor researchers in the world. He told me that superconductors hold promise for even greater technologies." What kind of support material is Rensi using?

Expert testimony

In his speech, Jerome says, "As you can see in this chart, the fruit that is most often identified as someone's favorite fruit is the apple." What type of statistic is Jerome using?


Which type of support material involves using the words of other people to lend support to an argument?


In his speech about the rising cost of textbooks, Eli said, "For example, let's imagine that there is a college student named Joe. Joe is taking public speaking, composition, algebra, and biology this semester. If Joe had walked into the book store to buy his textbooks in 1985, he probably would have paid around $400 for his books, but today, Joe's books would probably cost around $800." What kind of support material is Eli using?

Hypothetical example

What is an outline?

A systematic method of organizing your ideas. All outlines work to create what is essentially a hierarchy of ideas through the use of symbols and indentations.

What are the three key principles of outlining?

1. Subordination

2. Coordination

3. Division


The process of creating a hierarchy of ideas in which the most general ideas appear first, followed by more specific ideas


All information on the same level has the same significance


A principle that if a point is divided into subpoints, there must be two or more subpoints

What is a preparation outline?

A tool that facilitates changes to your speech in a smooth fashion by visually illustrating the information you collected and the arguments you wish to make

What are the rules of preparation outlines?

1. Each symbol of the outline is followed by a full sentence

2. There is only one sentence allowed per symbol. The exception to this is when you directly quote a source that contains multiple sentences

3. Preparation outlines should contain proper citations for material drawn from sources

4. Don't write the outline like a speech

What is a speaking outline?

A truncated form of the preparation outline. It does not have full sentences, unless you are citing a direct quotation from a source.

What reasons are there for creating a speaking outline?

1. If you speak from a preparation outline, it quickly become a manuscript speech

2. Speaking from a preparation outline encourages reading to and basically the same exact same thing as point one

3. You are more likely to stare at the outline, thus dramatically cutting back on time you could spend eyefucking the audience

What are other forms of speaking materials?

Note cards and a teleprompter


Used when speakers do have time to practice long speeches. Used to deliver manuscript speeches and have little to no room for adapting to audience feedback or going off script. Very expensive and can fail

Note cards

Allow you to put a finite portion of your speech in one easy-to-find place. Important to use Roman numerals or hierarchy to organize them and can be seen as less professional than a speaking outline on a regular sized paper

Which of the following should NOT be included in a speaking outline?

Outline symbols. Source citations. Paragraphs of text. Delivery cues

Paragraphs of text

When Zeneida is preparing her persuasive speech about why we should use a refillable water bottle instead of buying disposable water bottles. She makes sure that all three of her main points are equally significant and are given approximately the same amount of emphasis. Which outlining principle is Zeneida following?


When Mark is preparing his outline, he makes sure that each main point has at least two subpoints. Which tenet of outlining is Mark following?


Which type of outline utilizes symbols and full sentences and includes everything that you plan to say?

Preparation outline

When outlining, the process of creating a hierarchy of ideas in which the most general ideas appear first followed by more specific ideas is called


How should the introduction be structured?

1. Get the audience's attention

2. Clearly state the relevance of your topic

3. Establish your credibility

4. State your argument

5. Preview main points

6. Transition to the body

Get the audience's attention

1. ask a question, usually a rhetorical question

2. ask a question that requires a verbal answer from the audience

3. a famous quotation

4. use of startling statistics

5. Tell a story

6. Tell a joke (risky)


Connection statements that signal you are finished with one point and moving on to another

Internal summary

A statement that summarizes what you already have covered and precedes transitions.

Ex: "I just discussed the second stage of wine-making, which was testing with a hydrometer, adding chemicals and stirring, then allowing the wine to set for a period."


Key words that signals to the audience that you are moving from one part of the speech to another

"next", "additionally", "secondly"

Internal previews

Serves as an outline of what is to come next in a speech and is often combined with transition statements

"Now that we have seen the initial stage of making wine, let's move into the second stage, which includes taking tests with a hydrometer, adding some chemicals and stirring, then letting the wine sit for an extended period of time."

Structure of the conclusion

1. Signal the conclusion

2. Provide a summary

3. Clinch the speech

Signal the conclusion

After explaining your main points in detail and connecting them to your overall argument, you need to indicate to the audience that the conclusion is approaching. Using a concluding signpost like "To summarize" or "Finally"

Provide a summary

After the signpost, revisit the main ideas and central argument of your presentation. Restate your main points and restate your thesis


the final statement of your speech. It should be something witty and closing

Which of the following is NOT part of the introduction of a speech?

Announce your name and topic. Get your audience's attention.Preview main points. Establish your credibility

Announce your name and topic.

A connecting statement that lets the audience know that you are leaving one point and moving to another is called a(n)


Which part of your introduction provides a roadmap of your speech for your audience?

Preview your main points

What should be included in a transition between main points?

Internal summary, signpost, and internal preview

A carefully worded one-sentence encapsulation of exactly what you will cover in your speech is called the

NOT Preview of main points


Memorized speech

When a speaker commits an entire speech to memory and delivers with no notes in front of him/her

Reasons to not memorize a speech

1. you might forget what you are supposed to say

2. unless you are trained in how to deliver it properly, a memorized speech will sound unnatural and awkward

3. they leave no room for adapting to audience feedback

Manuscript speech

When a speaker has an entire speech written out word-for-word in front of him/her as he/she speaks

Advantages to manuscript speaking

1. allows you to plan exactly what you will say and exactly how long it will take

2. useful when exact speech is necessary

Disadvantages to manuscript speaking

1. requires careful training and preparation

2. sounding natural is hard, same thing as before

Impromptu speech

A presentation done with little or no preparation

Advantages of impromptu speech

no research necessary, more likely to make eye contact with your audience

Disadvantages of impromptu speech

Extremely nerve-wracking

Extemporaneous speeches

A speech delivered with notes but without the entire speech in front of the speaker

Advantages of extemporaneous delivery

The most natural sounding of all the delivery styles , allows you to make eye contact, the combination of the best of all delivery styles


The accepted standard of how a word sounds when spoken


Physically producing the sound needed convey the word


How loud your voice it. You should speak with enough volume so that the person farthest away from you can easily hear you


How high or low your voice sounds, along with the rise and fall of your voice.


The pattern of movement or cadence of your voice, Make it natural


the speed at which you speak


The variable level of your voice. It helps convey emotions and interest. If you have low variance in tone, you are monotone

Vocalized pauses

Occur when the speakers feel the need to utter some sort of sound but do not have anything to say. Sometimes to referred to as filler words. Too many will distract your audience, hurt your credibility, and likely increase your anxiety

Physical delivey

The signals delivered by your body rather than your voice, as in verabl delivery


Your appearance. Consider the occasion when you speak, you should ensure what you wear is neat, pressed, and not torn or stained. Hair should be groomed. It's better to over rather than under dress.


How your body is positioned when speaking to an audience. Should be relaxed and natural, but straight

Facial expressions

Should reflect the emotions associated with what you are saying.

Eye contact

Maintaining eye contact establishes rapport with the audience. The majority of your time should be spent focusing on them


The movement of your hands and arms, they can accentuate points that you wish to emphasize. If done improperly, the can distract the audience

Functions of physical delivery

1. Repeating

2. Accenting

3. Complementing

4. Substituting

5. Regulating


when physical actions restate verbal messages

e.g. pointing at the audience when you call them by name


nonverbal behaviors that augment a verbal message


when the action demonstrates the message contained in the verbal content

e.g. shrugging when you say "I don't know"


Physical actions that take the place of verbal messages. e.g. waving instead of saying "hello"


nonverbal actions that help govern the course of a speech or interaction. e.g. to indicate you want the audience to respond to a question, lean back in your chair or raise your eyebrows and look at members of the audience

Tips for good delivery

1. Practice your delivery

2. discover your own speaking rhythm

3. put delivery cues on your outline

During a speech honoring a retiring teacher, James points his hand toward the teacher being honored while saying, "I think that we all owe Mrs. Garrett a tremendous thank you for the impact that she has had on each of our lives and for her many, many years of service to the students and families in our community." Which function of physical delivery is served when James points at Mrs. Garrett while also saying her name?


Which aspect of vocal delivery involves how high or low your voice is, along with the rise and fall of your voice?


When words such as "ah," "umm," "like," and "uh" are used as filler words in a speech, they are called

Vocalized pauses

Which of the following is a good recommendation for the physical delivery of your speech?

Let your facial expressions mirror the tone of your speech.

With which type of delivery does the speaker prepare and practice the speech in advance and then deliver the speech with limited notes in front of them?

Extemporaneous speech

Traditional aids

Aids that do not necessarily appear in electronic form


A three-dimensional representation of an actual object. Used so that the audience gets an idea of what they are looking at and how it might function


a visual depiction of summaries of numeric data. Help audiences quickly identify key points about data that would normally take a longer time to explain


A type of chart that illustrates numeric data by using a visual diagram

Line graph

A graph that uses lines drawn along two axes that show growth, loss, or flat developments over time

Bar graph

A graph which shows two axes and bars going either horizontally or vertically to represent total achievement


A visual representation of a frequency table in which the categories are placed on the horizontal axis and vertical bars used to represent the number (or frequency) of individuals that fit into that category

Pie graph

A graph that shows circles that are "sliced" apart to represent percentages of the total "pie" for particular groups or categories


the thing being discussed, not a model or representation of that thing



a picture of the object about which you are speaking


can be effective in short bursts but you must remember that you are giving a speech and that the video is an aid, not your entire speech


clips allow audience to hear expert and peer testimony straight from the source, rather than paraphrased or quoted by you. Can also provide sound effects that illustrate key sounds. It's usually not used on its own


Wordiness is bad. Don't put too much infor on it

Embedding video and audio

better than going to an external web site if you want to see a video

Color schemes

make sure things can been seen clearly. Color can contribute to the mood and emotional dimensions of your speech


can be distracting and even cause headaches. No animation is general better, unless bringing attention to an important point

"Do"s of slideshow usage

- prepare slides carefully

- make sure slides are of the proper size

- practice with your slides

- ensure slides are visually pleasing

- have a backup plan

- ensure slides are relevant

- refer to slides when discussing them

Don'ts of slideshow usage

- use if unnecessary

- speak to the aid

- look too much at the aid

- trust technology

- use slides as note cards

- use as an outline

- depend upon them too much

Three guidelines for using presentation aids

1. they should be used to help you accomplish the goals of your speech

2. your focus should be on the audience rather than the aid

3. practice your speech with the presentation aids

What type of chart is depicted?

What type of chart is depicted?


Maureen is giving a speech about Kendo, a modern form of Japanese swordsmanship that uses a bamboo sword called a shinai. For her speech, Maureen brings her bamboo shinai to show the class and to use to demonstrate some of the traditional techniques. What type of presentational aid is Maureen using?


If a speaker brings the actual thing being discussed, what type of presentation aid is he or she using?


What type of chart is depicted?

What type of chart is depicted?

Bar graph

What type of chart is depicted?

What type of chart is depicted?

Pie graph

4 stages of the persuasive process

1. Issue awareness

2. comprehension

3. acceptance

4. integration

issue awareness

first stage of the persuasion process in which you focus the audience's attention on the aissue and show why the issue is important


stage of the persuasion process in which the audience understands the relevant components of the issue and the position you want them to take


third step of the persuasion process in which the audience accepts that the issue is relevant to them


the ability of a person to inspire belief or trust in others

initial credibility

the credibility that you have with the audience before you begin your speech, based on your experience and the audience's prior knowledge about you

derived credibility

the form of credibility that manifests during your presentation

terminal credibility

the level of credibility that you have when your speech concludes which is the sum of your initial credibility and derived credibility

Four types of persuasive speeches

1. questions of fact

2. questions of value

3. questions of policy

4. refutation

questions of fact

when a speaker seeks to persuade people about how to interpret facts

question of value

a persuasive speech about the rightness or wrongness of an idea, action, or issue

question of policy

when a speaker takes a position on whether an action should or should not be taken


response to potential opposition to your argument

five ways to increase/decrease your derived credibility

1. your perceived level of preparation

2. your delivery

3. the organization of your points

4. the quality of your evidence and information

5. the way you speak to the audience, regardless of whether they agree with you

4 persuasive speech organization patterns

1. problem-solution

2. problem-cause-solution

3. comparative advantages

4. monroe's motivated sequence


typically only two main points.

1. explains the issue in great detail, and how the problem affects them

2. the solution to the issue


1. the problem

2. root cause of the problem

3. the solution

comparative advantages

a comparison of your solution with those proposed by other people. useful in business settings and politics

monroe's motivated sequence

1. get audience's attention

2. establish a need

3. satisfy that need

4. help the audience visualize themselves adopting your solution

5. a call to action

adapting to a favorable audience

if you notice nods or clapping and cheering, capitalize on this by increasing the volume and tone of your voice. mirror enthusiasm

adapting to a neutral audience

do absolutely nothing different whatsoever

adapting to a hostile audience

establish common ground, call them racial slurs, alter your delivery, change your style of speech to become more engaging and relaxed.

Which type of persuasive speech in concerned with the occurrence or existence of something?

Question of fact

Eliza is giving a speech in which she argues that recreational use of marijuana should be legalized because it will reduce crime, save money, and reduce the number of people in prison. What type of persuasive speech is she giving?

Question of policy

Cassie is giving a speech about the rising cost of higher education. In her first main point, she talks about how high the cost of a college education has become and explains why this has made college unattainable for many students. In her second main point, she talks about the reasons that college has become so expensive. In her third main point, she provides recommendations for reducing the cost of a college education and making it accessible for all students. Which pattern of organization is Cassie using?


What kind of credibility do you have with the audience before you begin your speech that is based on your experience and the audience’s prior knowledge about you?

Initial credibility

The first stage of the persuasive process in which you focus the audience’s attention on the issue and show why the issue is important is called

Issue awareness

Deductive reasoning

An argument that reasons from known premises to an inevitable conclusion

Major premise: All men are mortal

Minor premise: Socrates is a man.

Conclusion: Socrates is mortal

Categorical syllogism

A syllogism in which the argument is based on membership in a group. Socrates is a member of the "human" group

Disjunctive syllogism

A syllogism in which the major premise includes two or more mutually exclusive alternatives. Basically, "either-or" scenarios

Major premise: this key will unlock either my house or my car

Minor premise: the key does not unlock my house

Conclusion: ergo, this key unlocks my car

The conclusion is reached by disproving the only potential alternative

Conditional syllogism

Syllogism in which the major premise contains a hypothetical condition and its outcome

Major premise: If I take the bus home, then I will save money.

Minor premise: I will take the bus home

Conclusion: I will save money

Inductive reasoning

An argument that comes to a probable, instead of an absolute, conclusion.

Deductive reason conversely begins with general certainties

ex: if 75% of students support legalizing crack, then 15 members of your class PROBABLY support legalizing crack

Reasoning by cause

arguments that claim one event or factor produces an effect

it must be lower than 32 degrees F for water to freeze.

often used in superstitious reasoning

necessary cause

a cause that must be present for an effect to be happen. Used in reasoning by cause

Sufficient cause

a cause that CAN produce the effect in question. Isn't REQUIRED like necessary cause

Reasoning by example

the process of inferring general conclusions and making general claims from specific case


Reasoning by analogy

When you compare two similar cases in order to argue that what is true in one case is also true in the other.

Hitler was very popular. Also, so is Donald Trump

Literal analogy

When the two cases being compared are classified the same way

Example: crime prevention techniques at one school should be adopted at another, because the schools are similar

Figurative analogy

when the two cases being compared are from completely different classifications

example: the argument that successful bussinesspersons would make good politicians

They aren't the same, but business people do make similar decisions from time to time

Reasoning by sign

occurs when the presence of one thing indicates the presence of another. If there's smoke, there's a fire

Ad hominem

Attacking the opposing person's character instead of his or her argument

Ad vercundium

Appeal to authority

The slippery slope

If we legalize gay marriage, then horses will marry children

Non sequitur

Not in sequence. Moving from one idea to an unrelated one.

Straw Man

The speaker distorts the actual position of the opponents and attacks that instead

Hasty generalization

Drawing broad conclusions based on a small sample of evidence


Saying there are only two alternatives, when actually there are more

False cause

The assumption that one event causes another unrelated even to occur

The red herring

The speaker introduces irrelevant ideas to focus attention away from the real issue.

Begging the question

When we assume certain facts are true that have not been proven.

Because x, this begs the question...

Which kind of argument uses specific premises to reach an unavoidable and certain conclusion?

Deductive reasoning

Andrew has taken several math classes. He did very well in his algebra class and his geometry class. He is also doing very well in his calculus class and finds that the concepts are easy to understand as long as he does the work. Therefore, Andrew concludes that he is good at math. What kind of reasoning is Andrew using?

Reasoning by example

In a discussion about gun control policies, Aaron says, “Well, if you let politicians ban automatic assault rifles, pretty soon they’ll want to regulate all guns. And if you let them regulate all guns, pretty soon they’ll try to ban all guns. And once you ban all guns, then only the criminals will have guns and then there will be school shootings every day because the criminals won’t have to worry about else shooting them when they pull a gun.” What kind of reasoning fallacy is Aaron using?

Slippery slope

What kind of syllogism is illustrated in the following set of statements?

Each speech will earn a passing or failing grade. Juan’s speech did not earn a failing grade. Therefore, Juan’s speech earned a passing grade

Disjunctive syllogism

Philipe looks out the window and sees people walking with umbrellas. He concludes that it is raining. What kind of reasoning is Philipe using?

Reasoning by sign

Four characteristics of language

1. arbitrary

2. ambiguous

3. abstract

4. hierarchical


symbols used to represent things that are not intrinsically connected to those things. The labels we assign to words have no inherent tie to the object they represent


language does not have precise concrete meanings


words are not concrete or tangible items; they are only representations.


Language allows us to order things from larger to smaller, top to bottom, more to less. It creates structure and value by ordering things along a continuum

Four ways to structure language

1. Repetition

2. Alliteration

3. Parallelism

4. Antithesis


repeating words or phrases

also creates rhythm


repeating the same consonant or vowel at the beginning of subsequent words.

Bitter batter build a brain to buy a big boy


similarly structuring related words, phrases, or clauses of speech.

Who we are is who we were, and everything we will become.


When two ideas that sharply contrast with one another are but side by side in a parallel structure

It was the best of times, it was the worst of times.


linguistic device that compares two things through the use of like or as


linguistic devices that allows for comparisons between two objects by highlighting qualities of each object in explicit comparison


using one part of something to represent the whole thing.

We watched a number of sails pass through the strait.

The sail is not the entire boat, but rather part of the boat used to represent the entire thing.


Using a tangible object to represent an otherwise intangible thing

Hard work being "blood, sweat, and tears"

Archetypal metaphor

Metaphor that uses common human experiences to describe another object.

"twilight of their days"

Mixed metaphor

metaphor that compares two objects that have no logical connection to one another. "Wolf in sheep's clothing"


a story

bookend story

a narrative in which the speaker tells the first part of a story as an attention getter in the introduction of the speech and then finishes the story in the closer at the end of the story

Four things to avoid in your language in presentations

1. profanity

2. hate speech

3. wordiness

4. passive voice

For tips for using language in presentation

1.judicious use of metaphores

2. use vivid language when telling a story

3. use language with which you are familiar (don't f.uck up the pronunciation of Turgenev)

4. adapt your language to the audience

5. use PC language

Charles Dickens’ opening to A Tale of Two Cities reads, “It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishnesss….” Which language structure is Dickens using?


Which characteristic of language refers to the idea that language is intangible and that some words are less precise, or concrete, than others?


In her speech, Andrea says, “Do we care more about protecting guns than protecting children and families? Do we care more about protecting guns than protecting our schools and parks and streets? Do we care more about protecting guns than protecting our theaters and malls and other community gathering places? What do you really want to protect?” Which language structure is Andrea using?


Which characteristic of language means that symbols are used to represent things that are not intrinsically connected to those things?

Which characteristic of language means that symbols are used to represent things that are not intrinsically connected to those things?

Which of the following is an example of inclusive language?

Significant other. Mailman. Congressman. Stewardess

Significant other


Involve morals and the specific moral choises to be made by a person

Words matter in a public stteing because

Public speaking is planned and formal. People believe you say what you mean, and slips cannot be taken back.

Interpersonal communication is more______________________________________ while public speaking is more____________________________________________.

Interpersonal: Spontaneous

Public speaking: planned and formal

Two things you should avoid in choosing a topic

Self-serving messages

Crafting messages in a way that is designed to manipulate an audience

Four idiotic personal duties

- a duty to ourselves to do the best we possibly can

- a duty to our families to provide for them by keeping our jobs

- a duty to the audience and the greater public to seek the common spook

- a duty to our employers to achieve money for them

What questions should you ask to determine the trustworthiness of a source?

1. Will this person benefit from getting me to believe that this information is true?

2. Is this person an expert in this area or in a position to know this information?

3. Are the claims made by this source substantiated by other credible sources?

4. Is this source recent enough to be relevant?


taking intellectual achievements of another person and presenting them as your own

Global plagiarism

taking an entire piece of work and saying that it is your own

Incremental plagiarism

using part of someone else's work and not citing it as a source

patchwork plagiarism

taking ideas from more than one piece of work and putting them together into a new piece of work, and then presenting them as original work without giving due credit to the sources


taking original source material and changing a few words in it, but not enough to consider it a paraphrase, all the while not citing the original source material

four parts of an oral citation

1. the name of the publication

2. the date the source was published

3. the author of the work and/or name of the person who is providing the information used in the source

4. the credentials of the source

An example of a complete oral citation

"According to the Gebruary 10, 2012 issue of ime, Dr. Gary Landreth, a sceintist at Case Western Reserve University, has discovered that a drug called bexarotene can reverse Alzheimer's disease in mice."

Five guidelines for making good choices regard language and delivery

1. Maintain compuse

2. Describe people with respect

3. Avoid profanity

4. Balance simplicity and complexity

5. Balance emotion and logic

Three things you should do as a responsible audience member

1. Keep an open mind

2. Do not heckle

3. Pay attention

As soon as he hears that his classmate is speaking about marriage equality, Andrew becomes defensive and immediately dismisses all of the arguments in the speech instead of concentrating on the message. Which responsibility as an audience member is Andrew failing to fulfill?

Keep an open mind

Taking ideas from more than one piece of work and putting them together into a new piece of work, and then presenting them together as original work without giving due credit to the sources is

Patchwork plagiarism

When one of the candidates for President came to campus to speak, there were a few students who supported the candidate’s opponent attending the speech. In the middle of the candidate’s speech, they started yelling demeaning things at the candidate. Which responsibility as an audience member did these students violate?

Do not heckle

Which ethical responsibility requires speakers to choose to create messages that they firmly believe are in the best interests of the audience rather than choose messages that are self-serving or crafted in a way that manipulates the audience?

Ethics of choosing a topic

Which of the following is NOT a question that you should ask when evaluating whether a source can be trusted?

Does this source say what I want it to? Is this source recent enough to be relevant? Are the claims made by this source substantiated by other credible sources? Is this person an expert in this area or in a position to know this information?

Does this source say what I want it to?