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171 Cards in this Set

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Define a Non-alcohol beverage
A drink that would normally contain alcohol but is made with no more than 0.5% abv.
Define Alcoholic beverage
A drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol
What are the 3 types of Beverage Alcohol produced by man?
Wine, Spirits, Malt
What are the main classes of spirits?
Whiskey, Brandy, Vodka, Liqueurs, Gin, Rum, Tequila
Define a Spirit
A potable alcoholic beverage obtained from the distilation of a liquid that contains alcohol
At what temperature is the "Proof" measurement taken?
60 degrees fahrenheit
Define Distillation
The process whereby a liquid of 2 or more parts is seperated into smaller parts by adding heat
What is the boiling temp difference between ethyl alcohol and water?
Ethyl Alcohol boils at 173 degrees F
Water boils at 212 degrees F
This is how distillation is possible
What is the highest proof/ABV that commercial distilling will result in?
191.2 proof
95.6% ABV
Describe Washing/Mashing/Milling
- A starch source is coverted to sugar by exposure to heat or water in a wash or cook process
- A readily fermentable sugar source is pressed from its resource (fruit, sugar cane, etc) and possibly cooked.
Define Fermentation
A sugar source is converted to alcohol, carbon dioxide and heat by the addition of yeast.
Define Maturation
Storing spirits in charred oak barrels to devlop a distinct taste, aroma, and color
Define Congener
Other alcohols and materials that come through in the distillation process. Technically impurities, but these add flavor, smoothness aroma and character to the alcohol
What are the 4 key reactions involved in the maturation process?
1. Evaporative
2. Extractive
3. Oxidative
4. Concentrative
In Maturation, describe Reactive Oxidation
Oxygen enters the barrel to fill the "head space" open from evaporation and turns alcohols and acids into flavors
What does Concentration mean in the Maturation process?
All the flavors being created during maturation are concentrated in the remaining liquid
Describe Extraction in the Maturation process
The compound soaks approximately 1/2 the thickness of the oak barrel extracting flavor and color.
How does Lignin affect alcohol in Maturation?
The heating of Lignin yields methoxy phenols such as vanillin and syringol which contribute smell and taste like vanilla.
What does Hemicellulose bring to the Maturation process?
When charred, Hemicullulose will carmalize and create a "red layer" which will be easily dissolved into the alcohol giving it sweet flavors such as caramel, chocolate and butterscotch.
What is a Potable Spirit?
A spirit fit or suitable for drinking.
Whiskey by definition must be crafted from _____ exclusively.
How does the USA TTB define Bourbon
1. More than 51% corn
2. Distilled under 160 proof
3. Stored under 125 proof in charred new oak
4. Bottled at NO LESS than 80 proof adding nothing but pure water during process
5. Product of the USA
What are the 5 primary whiskey families?
American, Canadian, Irish, Scotch, Japanese
What are some of the standards for producing Canadian Whiskys?
- Mashed, distilled, aged in canada
- Must be obtained from a mash of cereal grain or cereal grain that has been saccharified by malt or other enzymes
- Fermented by yeast or yeast/micro-organism mixture
- Aged in small wood for minimum 3 years
- Must be at least 40% ABV
- May contain caramel and flavoring
What are the 2 rules of producing Irish Whiskey?
- Must be distilled in Ireland from mash of malts and cereals
- Irish Pot Still Whiskey is distilled solely in pot stills in Ireland from grains found in Ireland saccharified by the diastase of malted barley
What are the standards for producing Scotch Whisky?
- Distilled at a Scottish distillery from water and malted barley where only other whole grains may be added, and processesed at the distillery into a mash, converted to a fermentable substrate only by endogenous enzyme systems
- Fermented only by yeast
- Must be distilled to no less than 94.8% ABV to retain flavors of the raw materials
- Matured in Scotland in oak casks for minimum 3 years
- May not contain added substances beyond water and caramel coloring
- Bottled at minimum 40% ABV
Describe "Light & Gentle" in regards to a whiskey flavor profile
A style of whiskey that is simple and uncomplicated. Light bodied/easy to drink. Fresh and interesting without being overpowering
Describe "Flavorful & Spicy" in regards to a whiskey flavor profile
Whiskey that exhibits a more developed degree of fruit and confectionary notes with bigger spice and wood notes. More important finish.
Describe "Full-Bodied" in regards to a whiskey flavor profile
Having advanced maturation notes in a robust manner. A high degree of spicy and fruity notes with notable wood effects and a strong confectionary presence. Intense flavors should be detected on different parts of the palate.
What are the 5 major sources for imparting flavor into whiskey no matter where it is produced?
1. Grain Recipe
2. Water
3. Fermentation Process
4. Distillation Process
5. Maturation Process
What are the 4 primary cereal grains used to produce whiskey?
1. Corn
2. Rye
3. Wheat
4. Barley
What is Peat?
A natural fuel that forms when plant matter decomposes in water
Describe how the use of Peat affects malted barley.
Peat is used as fuel to dry the malted barley. The smoke from the peat imparts this "smoky" flavor into the barley which stays with it through the distillation process.
When yeast is added to the "wash/wort/cook", what is the general alcohol % range that will result?
Do New World Whiskeys use a fermenter or a wash back/fermenting vat
New World Whiskey = Fermenter
Old World = Fermenting Vat/Wash Back
Define "Low Wine" in reference to whiskey
The initial distillate of alcohol removed from the wort during the first distillation
Define "High Wine" or "New Make Spirit" when referencing to whiskey
The product of a 2nd distilling to transform low wine into a more refined alcohol.
What are the 5 natural processes that take place during barrel maturation of whiskey?
1. The New Spirit (water, alcohol, congeners) all react with each other over time
2. Water and or alcohol evaporates the the walls of the barrel (angels share) resulting in volume loss
3. Alcohol and congeners react with the oxygen that enters barrel after evaporation creating new aromas and flavors
4. Oak imparts flavor, color, and aromatic attributes
5. The flavors remain as liquid is evaporated meaning the remaining liquid is more concentrated.
Name 5 or more things that will affect whiskey maturing in a barrel other than the process itself - Think building structure/barrel itself/location-
1. What type of oak was used? American/EU?
2. Was the oak dried naturally or in a kiln?
3. Was the barrel charred or toasted at all?
4.Was the barrel used preciously? Wine, Whiskey, or something else?
5. Was the storage house made of stone, brick or metal siding?
6. Was the storage house heated or ventilated?
7. Was the storage house located on a hill, in a valley or glen?
8. Was the storage house a single floor building or multi-story? ...etc
Will alcohol content generally increase or decrease in Old World whiskeys after evaporation (angels' share) occurs?
What about New World?
Old World = Decrease. The general cooler temps in old world regions cause more alcohol to evaporate than water.
New World = Increase. The generally warmer temps cause more water than alcohol to evaporate.
Why is it that Old World whiskeys will generally take longer to age in barrels?
- Climate is cooler.
- Barrels are stored and stacked in cool, damp environment with little circulation
- Many maturation warehouses are 1 story and stone buildings shielding off many external effects
Does a Straight Whiskey have to come from one single distillery?
What is added to whiskey during the Vatting process to bring it down to bottling strength?
Purified Water
What is Single Cask or Single Barrel bottling?
When whiskey is not disgorged with other barrels, but brought down to a bottling strength and bottled by individual barrel.
What is meant by Cask Strength or Barrel Proof Whiskey?
Whiskey that is bottled without the addition of purified water to retain its significantly higher alcohol content.
If a whiskey is labeled as a "Pot Still Whiskey", what does this mean?
Made of 100% barley, mixed malted and unmalted and distilled in a pot. Irish Whiskey only.
If a whiskey is labeled as a "Single Grain", what does this mean?
Distilled at a Single distillery from malted barley with or without the addition of other grains or cereals malted or unmalted.
If a Whiskey is labeled as "Vatted Whiskey", what does that mean
A blend of Single Malt whiskeys that were distilled in different locations
What are the 2 classifications of Japanese whiskey?
- Single Malt
- Blended. Will generally only contain malt whiskey from distilleries owned by the same company
What is the main component that sets Tennessee Whiskey apart from Kentucky Whiskey?
Tennessee Whiskey adds a step of Charcoal-Mellowing,
What defines a Canadian Blended Whiskey?
It blends component whiskeys (mostly grain whiskeys) with a blender that may contain sherry, sweetener, concentrated fruit juice or caramel coloring.
What defines a Bottle-in-Bond Bourbon?
- Produced at 1 distillery during 1 distilling season
- Aged min 4 years
- Bottled at 100 proof

(Applies for Bottled-in-Bond Rye Whiskey as well)
How long is Straight Bourbon aged for and in what kind of barrels?
- Min 2 years
- Charred, white oak

(Applies for Straight Rye, Straight Corn and Straight Wheat as well)
What is the difference between Rye Malt and Rye Mash Whiskeys?
- Rye Malt = Made from 100% rye
- Rye Mash = Rye Whiskey aged in used barrels
What separates Bourbon from Corn Whiskey?
Bourbon = Made from at least 51% corn and MUST be aged in charred new oak barrels
Corn Whiskey = Made from at least 80% corn and IF aged in oak barrels, barrels MUST be used or new uncharred oak.
How many gallons is a full size barrel?
53 gallons
What is Charcoal Mellowing?
A process that filters Tennessee Whiskey through at least 10 feet sugar maple charcoal which takes between 7-10 days.
What is the definition of Brandy?
A spirit distilled at less than 190 proof and bottled at less than 80 proof, often aged in wood and obtained from distilling wine or fermented mash of fruit.
If Brandy is not made from wine, what will it generally use as a based for distillation?
Grape, pomace or fermented fruit juice.
According to the European Union, how long must Brandy be aged and what can/cannot be added to it?
Aged for 1 year in oak recepticals or 6 months in oak barrels.
Cannot add flavor enhancements or alcohol.
Can add caramel coloring to maintain color consistency
What are the 4 main flavor sources that craft Brandy no matter where it's made?
1. Wine/Fruit base
2. Fermentation Process
3. Distillation Process
4. Maturation/blending process or lack thereof.
Will a pot still and/or column still affect the flavor profile of Brandy?
Yes. Hot conditions and copper compounds generally found in stills cause chemical reactions during fermentation. Pot still = more complex/full bodied. Column = lighter/less complex
Describe the Solera process for maturing Brandy.
The proccess by which the last barrel of a batch is bottled and the next batch moves into that empty barrel and so on. This process is repeated between barrels to the point where a fresh batch will move through multiple barrels each containing a bit of the last batch. This cannot be vintage brandy but can boast a minimum age.
Describe Brandy de Jerez
Brandy made in Jerez Spain originally, but now is made in other regions. It is used to fortify Sherry, but is also available on its own.
What is Immature Brandy
A US term for grape brandy that is matured less than 2 years.
What is Lees Brandy?
Brandy made from the lees and sediments from the fermentation of grape wine.
What is Pomace Brandy?
Brandy produced from the pulp, seeds and stems that remain after grapes are pressed for juice. I.E. French Marc and Italian Grappa.
Where is Pisco produced?
South America
What are the 3 AOC designation allowed for Cognac?
1. Cognac
2. Eau-de-vie de Cognac
3. Eau-de-vie de Charentes
What are the 3 primary grapes used for Cognac?
1. Colombard
2. Folle Blanche
3. Ugni Blanc (Trebbiano in Italy)
- Other varitals may be used in a small percentage
What are the 6 Production areas for Cognac AOC's?
1. Grand Champagne
2 Petite Champagne
3. Borderies
4. Fins Bois
5. Bons Bios
6. Bois Ordinaires or Bois 'a Terrior
- "Fine Champagne" will be a blend of Grand/Petite Champagne cognacs with at least 50% from Grand Champ
What are the specifications for Cognac distillation?
- No Sugar allowed in cognac from Charentes and Charentes-Maritime zones
- Brouillis (first distillation) and Repasse (second distillation is done in traditional Charentais Stills (copper alembic) and doesn't exceed 30HL for first and 25HL for second distillations
- Max ABV is 72% at 59F degrees
- Distillation must be complete by March 31st following the harvest
What does BNIC stand for?
Bureau National Interprofessional du Cognac
What's the minimum age requirement for Cognac?
24 months following the end of the distillation
What, if anything, can be added to Cognac between aging and bottling?
1. Distilled or Demineralized water
2. Sugar/Caramel/Oak infusion for final adjustment
Where must Cognac aging take place?
And In what style barrels?
- A facility with a certification of registration approved by the BNIC
- Limousin or Troncais style barrels
Who inspects, approves and certifies all inventory and aging of Cognac?
What are the BNIC ageing designations?
- V.S. (Very Special) or *** (3 Stars). Where the youngest brandy is at least 2 years old
- V.S.O.P (Very Superior Old Pale), Reserve. Where the youngest brandy is at least 4 years old.
- Napoleon or X.O. (Extra Old) or Hors d'Age. Where the youngest brandy is at least 6 years old (in 2010, minimum age will be 10 years)
What are the 3 regions under Armagnac designation?
- Le Bas Armagnac (Lower Armagnac)
- Le Haut Armagnac (Upper Armagnac
- Le Tenareze
What are the 4 primary grapes used in Armagnac?
1. Ugni Blanc
2. Folle Blanche
3. Colombard
4. Baco Blanc
What is an Alambic Armagnacais?
A rudimentary type of column still that produced a heavy vinous aroma and flavor
In Armagnac, how long after fermentation does does distillation take place and what is the time limit on distillation?
- Distillation immediately follows fermentation
- Must be fully distilled by the following February. Most Armagnacs are single distilled, but some do double distill.
What is the BNIA?
Bureau National Interprofessional du Armagnac
What are the specifications of Armagnac according to the 1999 revisions by the BNIA?
- Armagnac: Less than 6 years old.
- Vieil Armagnac (Old Armagnac): Blends aged more than 6 years in barrel
- Vintage: Vintage dated harvest year, minimum 10 years aged in oak and may be cask proof.
- Blanche d'Armagnac (White Armagnac): Distilled spirit with no aging
Brandy as we know it today, first appeared and became popular in which centuries?
12th and 16th respectively
What are the four flavor areas of Brandy?
1. Fruit
2. Spice
3. Wood
4. Sweet Aromatics
What are the 3 flavor presentation styles of Brandy?
1. Light and Gentle: Typically unaged where the original fruit comes through
2. Flavorful and Fruity: Fruity flavors, oak complexity due to more advanced maturing.
3. Full Bodied and Robust: Advanced oak features with vanilla and caramel, ripe fruit notes. typically pot stilled.
What is Lourinha?
Located in western Portugal's Estremadura region, it's one of the few brandy making areas that takes on appellation status (i.e. Cognac, Jerez, Armagnac)
What seperates South African Brandy from Cognac?
Very little aside from regional appelation status.
What is the U.S. standard definition of Vodka?
What about the European Union definition?
U.S.- A neutral spirit without distinctive charateristic, aromas, taste or color. No additives are allowed that will impact these and must be bottled at a minimum of 40%ABV

E.U. - Characteristics of the raw fermentable materials must be selectively reduced. Flavoring can be added to provide special organoleptic characteristics and must be bottled at a minimum of 37.5%ABV
What proof/ABV is Vodka distilled?
190 proof
95% ABV
In Vodka, what are the 3 flavor presentation styles?
- Crisp & Clean: Dry, clean flavors with a delicate hint of citrus and spice. Should closely resemble pure Ethanol
- Medium: Hints of original fermentation base (rye, wheat etc.) are evident.
- Creamy: Very textural with bold flavor notes
When describing characteristics of flavor and aroma profiles in Vodka, what are the 3 main classifications?
1. Natural
2. Fermentation derived
3. Processed
When tasting Vodka and assessing the flavors/aromas, what characteristics will you find to be Natural? Processed? Fermented?
Natura l-
1. Fruity
2. Floral
3. Citrus
4. Sweet

Processed -
1. Waxy
2. Coffee
3. Soapy
4. Solvent

Fermented -
1. Wine
2. Rum
3. Whiskey
Describe one of the two ways to make vodka "neutral" after distillation.
The distillate will flow continuously through tanks containing no less than 1.5 LBS of vegetable charcoal per gallon of spirit. This assures the spirits are exposed the the charcoal for a minimum of 8 hours. At least 10% of the charcoal will be replaced after each 40 hours of operation.
Describe the 2nd of the two ways to make vodka "neutral" after distillation.
The distillate is agitated for at least 8 hours in contact with no less than 6 LBS of new vegetable charcoal for every 100 gallons of spirit. The type of charcoal and how it's processed will help determine the taste/lack there of in vodka.
Do filtration systems have to use charcoal to filter vodka?
No. Some producers use fine sand made from ground silicon dioxide. Reyka uses Lava Rock from Icelandic lava fields.
What is the definition of Flavored Vodka?
Vodka flavored with natural flavoring materials with or without the addition of sugar and bottled at no less than 30% ABV. The name of the predominant flavoring agent will appear as a part of the classification and type designation.
Can wine be added to flavored vodka?
Yes. If the addition of wine exceeds 2.5% by volume of the finished product, the wine must be stated as part of the classification or type designation.
What are the 3 primary groups that flavored vodka classifications?
1. Fruit Flavored
2. Spiced
3. Cafe expressions
What happened to Vodka in the early 1800s that changed the way it was produced?
It was discovered that charcoal could be used to remove the flavors and aromas. This brought about the general standard of vodka today.
When was vodka introduced into the United States commercially?
What is the recognized origin of Vodka?
There is no agreed upon history of origin. It is believed to have first appreared in Poland or Russia around the 12th century. By the 14th century it was used as a beverage instead of in medicine, perfumes, and cosmetics.
What is the definition of a Liqueur?
A flavored spirit containing no less than 2.5% suger by weight, made my mixing or re-distillingor type of spirits with or over fruits, flowersm plants or pure juices there from, or other natural flavoring materials or with extracts derived from infusions, percolation or maceration of such materials.
The word Cordial is substituted widely for liqueur. What is the words origin?
Technically, its definition is an invigorating and stimulating preperation meaning it was medicinal and benificial to health. Since the heart is the most important organ, it derives from the Latin term for heart, "Cordialis"
Are Eurpoean cordials alcoholic or non-alcoholic these days?
What are the 4 main flavor groups for classifying Liqueurs?
1. Fruity - Dominant flavor is fruit based
2. Nutty - Flavored with almond, hazelnut, etc
3. Spicy - Flavors from sources such as anise, peppermint, etc
4. Spirit - The base spirit provedes the dominant sensory impression
What are the 2 primary recipe types when referencing Liqueurs?
1. Proprietary - When a Liqueur or its producer have private ownership or control over a specific recipe or flavor profile that are unique to that brand (SoCo, Tuaca)
2. Generic - When the product is identified by flavor name rather than brand that can be produced by any number of companies (Amaretto, Triple Sec, etc)
What are the 4 flavor sources utilized for all Liqueurs?
1. Base spirit selection
2. Flavor source
3. Flavor extraction method
4. Sweetener
When extracting flavor from items like caraway, anise, orange peel, roses and mint, which method would you use and why?
The Hot Method. These sources can take a little heat and the process is quicker which benefits these flavor profiles.
When performing the Hot extraction method, What are the benifits to distilling via the base spirit? What about using Water?
Using the base spirit is normal for plants, seeds, roots or herbs generally. They soak for hours and the vapor will retain a lot of this flavor.
Using Water is beneficial for more delicate sources such as flowers, mints, roses, and some herbs because the spirit immersion would be damaging. This happens in a vacuum at a lower temperature to preserve the flavors and aromas
Which method of extraction is quicker for flavoring Liqueurs?
The Hot Method
How different methods make up the Cold Method for flavor extraction?
1. Infusion
2. Maceration
3. Percolation
How does the Infusion process work in creating a Liqueur?
The flavor source(s) steep in the base spirit or water until the desired amount of flavor is reached. If steeped in water, this will be added to the base spirt
How does the Maceration process work in creating a Liqueur?
This method is used on materials that don't easily exude thier flavor characteristics. The flavor source is first pressed, crushed, cut, etc before being infused into the base spirit or water.
How does the Percolation method work when creating a Liqueur?
Much like making coffee without heat, the water or base spirit is pumped over the flavor source and allowed to percolate through it. This is done repeatedly until most of the flavor is extracted or the degree of flavor is reached. The saturated flavor source may also be distilled to extract the last flavors and then mixed with the percolate in the end.
What is a Compound Liqueur?
Generally produced by mixing flavorings with high-proof neutral spirits, but can also come from whiskey, tequila, rum, brandy or gin. The flavor may be natural or 100% artificial and many generic liqueurs are produced this way.
What is the % range of sweetness that may be added to Liqueurs by weight?
2.5% - Just around 35%
How can you create a Rye Liqueur or Bourbon Liqueur?
This happens when the main flavor charateristic is Rye Whiskey or Bourbon. It is still made from no less than 51% rye whiskey (bourbon), straight rye or distilled from rye mash, but is instead used as the flavoring agent and bottled at no less than 30% ABV
What is a Rock and Rye Liqueur?
A Rye Liqueur that is sweetened with Rock Candy. It can also have fruit, fruit juices or natural flavoring materials added, and bottled at no less than 24%
Where does the term Liqueur come from?
The Latin word "Liquifacere" which means to dissolve or melt
What is the definition of Gin?
A flavored spirit obtained by redistilling a high proof spirit in the presence of juniper berries and other flavoring agents or by adding essential oils of Juniper and other agents and bottled at no less than 80 proof.
What are the 3 styles of flavor presentation in Gin?
Light and Crisp: Dry botanical notes with minimal juniper influence
Aromatic and Flavorful: Spicy and/or sweet notes, with distinct juniper
Full-Flavored: Intense juniper and botanical influences.
What are some of the botanical flavors to look for in Gin?
1. Juniper = Earthy Pine
2. Angelica = Peppery and Pinene
3. Coriander = Peppery and Citrus
4. Cardamom = Grapefruit and Floral
5. Cassia = Cinnamon
6. Fruit
7. Citrus = Citrus Blend
8. Lemon
9. Orris = Violet
10. Anise = Licorice
What are the 4 primary aroma/flavor combinations used when describing Gin?
1. Juniper, floral, fruity with a lack of citrus
2. Citrus and floral
3. Predominant floral
4. No dominant attributes
Aside from Juniper, how many flavor sources can be used to craft Gin? What are some of the "backbone" flavors?
Over 100 flavor sources.
Juniper, Corriander, Orris Root, Lemon and Orange peel. Angelica and Cardamom are usually put in this category as well.
What are the 6 primary areas of flavor when disecting Gin?
Gin Resin
Citrus Blend
What are the 6 primary Gin producing nations and what styles do they produce?
UK = Mostly London Dry Gin but also produced Old Tom, Plymouth and various flavored gins
US = Mainly Dry Gin and flavored gins
Spain = London Dry Gin from column stills
Holland = Genever-style gins mostly pot still. Spirit is malt based and will exhibit earthy aroma/flavor. Distilled at 120 proof
Belgium = Genever-style Gin
Germany = Genever-style Gin but with a lighter body and more delicate flavor than London Dry or Holland Gins.
Gin can be made from many different fermentable sources that include...?
- Cereal Grains
Any starch or sugar based vegetable and root vegetables such as
- Potato
- Sugarcane
- Sugar beet
What are the 2 types of Gin defined and acknowleged by US government standards? These are recognized by the European Community Regulation as well.
1. Distilled: An original distillate of mash or redistilling a spirit with juniper berries and other aromtics and botanicals
2. Compound Gin: Mixing high proof neutral spirits with essences and oils of juniper berries and other botanical flavorings. There are 2 ways to produce Compound Gin.
What are the 2 different ways to produce Compound Gin? Define them.
1. Cold Compounding: A distilled gin concentrate is added at ambient tempurature to a high proof spirit. It is mixed or compounded and processed for bottling.
2. Compounding Essence: A pre-determined recipe of essintial oils and botanical essence are added directly to high proof spirit, mixed and processed for bottling.
According to the EC, a _____ gin is considered to be produced in the traditional method.
What are the regulations for the base spirit of Gin according to the EC? How does the EC define compounding gin?
Gin can be made from any spirit alcohol that meets the requirements of original (agricultural) strength (at least 96% ABV) and purity (maximum levels of congeners) or the EC Regulations.
Compound Gin can be made by simply flavoring this base spirit with natural flavoring substances which give a predominant juniper profile.
At what proof is Gin distilled at?
Between 180-190 Proof
In Gin, what is the Original Distillation Method?
Suspending mesh trays or baskets (gin head) of crushed and cracked juniper berries during the first distillation process. This allows the vapors to pass through and collect the essence and oils and this will stay with the condensed distillate.
Original Distillation Method aside, what is another way to produce gin distillate?
Very similar to the Original Method, but in this case you take the original distillate at 190 proof and Redistill it in the presence of the gin head.
When adding the other flavoring botanicals to Gin, what are some of the ways impart their flavor?
Dilute the original spirit by adding pure water to reach about 45% ABV. Pump into a copper still and add the flavoring botanicals to the mixture and let steep. Some producers place the botanicals in a tray over the spirit. The still is then heated for another distillation process.
What does the heating of the still do to the botanicals in Gin?
This will release the essential oils into the distillate. These oils make up less than 5% of the total botanical weight.
Decribe the final distillation process of Gin? What parts of the distillate are used, what are the ABV targets?
The first distillate runnings are re-ciculated to reach the correct standard and strength (over 90% ABV). The first (Foreshots) and end (Feints) portions of the run are judged by the Stillman and are run off to be redistilled. Only the Middle-Run is used and is targeted at 80-85% ABV. This is then brought to a Tasting Panel and analyzed to meet required specifications and consistency.
Define "London Dry" gin.
A type of gin that originated in late 1800s in London. It is distilled to a high proof and then redistilled in the presence of juniper and other botanicals. Generally light, crisp and balanced where Juniper is the dominant flavor. Ideal for drinking straight and this type is produced all over the world now.
Define "Plymouth" gin
A relatively full-bodied gin compared to London Dry. Slightly fruity and very aromatic. This originated in the Port of Plymouth on the English Channel, but now only 1 distillery has the right to produce this type. Plymouth, Coates & Co.
What is the story behind "Old Tom" gin?
A lightly sweetened gin that was popular in 18th century England. In the 1700s, some pubs had a wooden plaque shaped like a black cat (called an Old Tom) mounted on an outside wall. Patrons would put a penny in the cats mouth and put their lips on a small tube between the cats paws. The bartender would then pour a shot of this style gin through the tube. This was the original gin of the Tom Collins
Describe Genever or Holland gin?
Distilled from a grain mash like Whiskey. Oude Genever is the original style which is straw-hued, relatively sweet and aromatic. Jonge Genever is drier and lighter. May be aged 1-3 years in oak, bottled in cylindrical stoneware crocks at a lower proof (72-80) than most english gins.
What are the specifications for a flavored gin?
A gin that has natural flavoring materials added. It will be bottled at no less than 60 proof and the predominant flavor appear as part of its designation.
What is Sloe Gin?
Sweet, often gin based liqueur flavored with Blackthorn plums (Sloe berries). Early versions were made by macerating the berries in Gin. Aged in wood barrels and bottled at 57 proof.
Who was the first person credited with distilling gin? When and Where?
Franciscus de la Boe. A.k.a. Dr. Sylvius. He was a professor of Medicine at Holland's University of Leyden. Circa 1650
What is the definition of Rum?
A spirit distilled from the fermented mash of sugar cane juice or molasses at less than 190 proof, optionally aged in wood, and bottled at no less than 80 proof in such a manner that it possesses the taste, aroma and characteristics generally to rum and includes mixtures soley of such distillates.
What are the 6 areas of aroma and flavor attributes of Rum? (Wheel)
- Sugar Cane
- Sweet Aromatics
- Fruit
- Spice
- Wood
- Spirit Notes
What are the 3 primary flavor presentations styles exhibited in Rum?
1. Light/Clean: Delicate dry molasses with no or little barrel influence,
2. Medium: Heavier molasses and anise with vanilla
3. Full-Bodied/Pungent: Big bold molasses with fruit, spice and anise notes. Some with heavy vanilla and caramel.
How many countries produce rum throughout the world?
Over 100
What are the top Caribbean Rum regions that produce light/clean rums?
- Barbados
- Cuba
- Puerto Rico
- Trinidad
- US Virgin Islands
What are the top Caribbean Rum regions that produce Medium style rums?
- Guadeloupe
- Grenada
- Jamaica
- Martinique
What are the top Caribbean Rum regions that produce Full-Bodied/Pungent rums?
- Dominican Republic
- Guyana
- Surinam
- French Guyana
- Haiti
What is Agricole rum?
A type of rum that is produced exclusively from freshly pressed sugar cane juice. This juice is then diluted with water to create a wash for fermentation. Found mostly in the Caribbean.
What is Industriel Rum?
Rum made from molasses and will carry on its traits. Minerals and trace elements from the molasses will contribute to rums flavor and is also diluted with water to create a wash for fermentation.
What are some other spirits produced from sugar cane that aren't technically classified as rum?
- Cachaca: Mainly in Brazil
- Secco Herrerano: Made in Panama, triple distilled like Vodka.
- Batavia Arrack (Aromatic Rum): Includes red rice in fermentation
- Aguardiente de cana and Charanda: Flavored/Unflavored spirits from Mexico
- Aguardiente: Distilled from Molasses, infused with anise and sugar cane is added post-fermentation
- Tuzemak: Mainly Czech Republic, made from sugar beet.
- Kobba Libre: Made in the Aland Islands, similar to Tuzemak.
How do distillers differentiate and individualize their product from making the wash to pre-bottling?
- Sugar to water ratio for the wash
- Type of yeast and how long its introduced. Also temperature and nutrient content.
- Type of still used and how many times distilled
- Maturation/Lack of in barrel and what kind of oak used
- Blending or aged rums or rums from different stills styles.
What is Dunder and Skimmings and how are they used in the making of Rum
Dunder: Sugar cane residue from previous distillation
Skimmings: Froth resulting from boiling cane juice during its refinement to sugar.
- One of both of these may be added to the cane/water mash for fermentation
How does fermentation play a part in shaping the rums character?
- Many producers use a specific strain of yeast to keep consistant taste and fermentation time.
- Light/Clean rums use faster working yeast as longer fermentation leads to more esters and fuller tastes
- Fermentation time is dependant on bacteria, type of yeast, temperature, sugar concentration etc. Normally a 2-3 day process, but can take up to 20 days. Longer time frame is used more for character rather than active fermentation process.
Which style of still will generally produce heavier rums?
Pot still
What is Pyrolysis?
Heat induced chemical change that will occur in rum distillation to form new congeners and shape the character of rum.
What is batch distilling?
Distilling in a pot still where the "beer" is charged and boiled and the vapors are condensed. This can also be done in a series of pot stills converting the first distillate (low wine) into a more refined product (high wine) and even again distilled after that.
What is continuous distillation?
Taking place in a set of column stills, the first column removes all the alcohol from the "beer". The second column will pufiry this alcohol and allow for seperating or "cutting" light alcohols. The third column is a rectifying column. The distillate is concentrated and heavy congeners or fusel oils are removed to create a lighter style of rum.
How does Maturation affect rum?
Many aged rums are aged for at least 1-2 years in bourbon barrels or sometimes stainless steel tanks/vats. Due to tropical climates in many rum producing districts, evaporation rate is much higher causing concentration of congeners to take place much quicker. Some rums age up to 25 years and all are usually blended for consistant character. Light rums get filtered for color, while dark rums get added color.
What are the 3 general classifications of Rum?
- Silver/White
- Amber/Gold
- Aged/Dark
Describe Silver/White rums.
- Clear in color and often displaying light molasses or neutral flavor.
- Generally distilled in column stills from short beers.
- Many aged at least 1 year in nonreactive containers or uncharred or reused barrels. If aged in barrels, it is filtered to remove color.
Describe Amber/Gold rums.
- Aged in wood for minimum 2 years
- More flavorful than silver/white rums and usually has color added to it.
Describe Aged/Dark rums.
- Often full-bodied and pungent. This may come from special fermentation/distillation process, or just specific maturation process.
- Full-bodied rums are often aged 5-7 years in barrels.
- Many aged rums that give a specific age means that it is blended from rums at the youngest age stated on the bottle.
Describe how skimming and such durring the fermentation process can change a rum.
Skimming sugar from previous distillations and adding it to molasses wash and allowing it to slowly ferment for 12-20 days. The wash is then distilled in a pot still and run off between 140-160 proof and then barrel aged. This process give darker rums a more pungent bouquet and pronounced butter/molasses flavors.
What catergory would Spiced rum fall under and why?
- Flavored Rums
The rum is flavored through different spices such as Vanilla.
What is Overproof rum?
Rum that exceeds 120 proof. It ranges from 120-160 proof and is generally marketed in the Caribbean, but can be found in the U.S. market.