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129 Cards in this Set

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What are the major muscles in the body? And where are they located?
The Shoulder Girdle: Trepezius, Deltoid
The Shoulder Joint: Pectoralis Major, Latissimus Dorsi, Teres Major
Elbow and Radioulnar Joints: Biceps Brachii, Brichialis, Brichuiradialis, Triceps Brachii
Wrist and Hand Joints: Finger Flexors, Finger Extensors
Hip Joint and Pelvic Girdle: Rectus Femoris, Sartorius, Adductor Longus, Gracilis, Semitendinosus, Semimembranosus, Biceps Femoris, Gluteus Maximus
The Knee Joint: Rectus Femoris, Vastus Lateralis, Vastus Intermedius, Vastus Medialis, Semitendinosus, Semimembranosus, and Biceps Femoris
The Ankle and Foot Joints: Gastrocnemius, Soleus, and Tibialis Anterior.
2 from Shoulder Girdle
3 from shoulder joint
4 from elbow and radioulnar joint
2 from wrist and hands joints
9 from Hip Joint and Pelvic Girdle
7 from Knee Joint (3 repeats)
3 from Ankle and Foot Joints
What structures comprise a sarcomere?
Myosin Filament, Actin Filament, A-band, I-band, Z-line, and H-zone
List of 6 structures
Compare the two bands in a sarcomere.
A-Bands are darker and corresponds to the alignment of the myosin filaments.
I-Bands are lighter and corresponds to the actin filaments
I-bands and A-bands
What is a Z-line?
This is the middle of the I-Band which appears as a thin, dark line running through the I-band
What is the H-zone? What happens to this area during muscle contraction? What other structure reacts in the same fashion?
Is the middle of a sarcomere and only contains myosin filaments.
This area gets smaller during a muscle contraction, where the actin filaments overlap the mysosin filaments.
The I-band also gets smaller as the muscle contracts.
What occurs during the sliding filament theory of muscle action?
1. Resting phase: Little calcium in myofibril, therefore little myosin cross-bridges are bound to actin. No Tension in muscle
2. Excitation-Contraction Coupling Phase: Stimulated sarcoplasmic reticulum releases calcium ions which binds with troponin. As a result, tropomysoin shifts to reveal actin binding sites and allows the myosin cross-bridge head to attach more rapidly to the actin filament
3. Contraction Phase: ATP is requires to create the cross-bridge and an ATP is required to detach the bridge. This can allow for another contraction to happen if calcium is still present, if calcium is not present relaxation occurs
4. Recharge Phase: If calcium is present the myosin head will recock to repeat the process over again as long as ATP and ATPase is available.
5. Relaxation Phase: Stimulation to motor nerve stops, calcium is pumped back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and actin and myosin return to their unbound states.
5 phases
What are the different types of muscle actions? And how does each relate to the amount of force it is able to produce? (refer to lengthening and shortening as well)
Concentric: When contractile forces are greater than the resistive forces; shortening the muscle.
Eccentric: When the contractile forces are less than the resistive forces; lengthening the muscle.
Isometric: When the contractile forces are equal to the resistive forces; No change in muscle.
There are 3 muscle actions
What are the different types of muscle fibers? What attributes are characteristics of each?
Type I (Slow twitch) have greater endurance, high fatigue resistance, high aerobi enzyme content, high mitochondria size/density, and slow nerve conduction speed.

Type IIa (Fast Twitch) have faster nerve conduction velocity, are less fatigue resistance, produce more power output, a higher anaerobic enzyme content, and smaller mitochondria size/density.

Type IIx (Fastest Twitch) are the least fatigue resistant, produce the most force, have a fast nerve conduction velocity, have a high anaerobic enzyme content, and has the smallest mitochondria size/density.
3 types
What functions do muscle spindles perform? Where are they located?
They indicate the degree to which the muscle must be activated in order to overcome a given resistance.
They are located within the center of the muscle running parallel to the normal fibers.
What functions do Golgi tendon organs perform? Where are they located?
To inhibit motor neurons to reduce tension within the muscle and tendon.
They are located by the tendon near the muscle.
How do nerves stimulate muscle activity?
Through an electrical stimulation called an Action Potential that runs to the nerve terminal which causes a release of Acetylcholine to be released into the neuromuscular junction. Once enough of the acetylcholine is released, an action potential is generated which excites the sarcolemma and the muscle fiber contracts.
start with AP
What Principle do all motor units obey when contracting muscle fibers? Explain it briefly
The all-or-none principle, which states that once a motor unit sends a signal to contract all the fibers it innovates will contact at the same time. There is no partial contraction, either all of them contract or none of them do.
How does nerve conduction velocity adapt to training?
Single fiber contractility increases after training, which means overall strength will increase because the motor units will be contracting at the same time and more often.
How do recruitment patterns adapt to training?
Obeying the size principle, motor units are recruited from small to large and as training takes place all the motor units gets more sensitive and larger motor units are recruited more quickly.
Also during powerful movements, the size principle is ignored because the body does not have time to recruit all of the smaller type I fibers, therefore it only recruits the bigger type II fibers.
Explain the three types of levers found in the body? Provide an example for each
First class lever: a lever for which the muscle force and resisitive force act on opposite sides of the fulcrum. EX: Elbow extension against resistance.

Second class lever: a lever for which the muscle force and resistive force act on the same side of the fulcrum, with the muscle force acting through a moment arm longer than that through which the resistance force acts. Ex: Plantar flexion against resistance

Third class lever: a lever for which the muscle force and resistive force act on the same side of the fulcrum, with the muscle force acting through a moment arm short than that through which the resitive force acts. Ex: Elbow flexion against resistance.
For the three lever systems, explain if the system gives a mechanical advantage or disadvantage.
1st: Typically has a mechanical disadvantage because it has big muscles pushing back small forces

2nd: Due to its mechanical advantage, the required muscle force is smaller than resistive force.

3rd: The mechanical disadvantage because muscle force moment arm is shorter then external force.
List basic kinetic measurements that professionals can use and explain how one can calculate them.
Force= mass * acceleration

Torque: degree to which an object rotates about a fulcrum. Torque = Force*radius

Work = Force*distance

Speed = distance/time

Power= Work/Time

Center of Gravity: point at which all the body's mass and weight is equally balanced or equally distributed in all directions
What kinetic measurements are used more in different types of training programs and sport activities?
Power is usually the measurement used for fast movements that require a lot of force to accomplish. This can be in sports with explosive movements like weightlifting.

Force is the main measurement used for movements that only care about 1RMs like in powerlifting.
Weightlifting and powerlifting main difference
Describe the three primary anatomical planes of movement and provide an example movement that goes through each individual plane.
Sagittal: slices body into left-right parts that the limbs move through. EX: standing barbell curl

Frontal: slices body into front-back parts that the limbs move through. EX: Lateral dumbbell raises

Transverse: Slices body into upper-lower parts that the limbs move through. EX: Dumbell flys
What is joint angle specificity and how does it affect exercise selection?
Every sport goes through different joint angles and its best if similar exercises with the similar joint angles are chosen for the best training effects.
What are the characteristics of different types of movement?
Isometric: force = resistance (no movement)

Isokinetic: speed and tension remain constant throughout ROM (special machine)

Isotonic: tension is constant, but speed can differ (typical weightlifting)
3 types
How does the force-velocity curve impact exercise selection?
As Force goes up, velocity goes down. This can impact exercise selection depending on what is wanted out of it: Speed, Power, or Strength.

Speed: if speed is desired one would lower the weight enough for maximal speed.

Strength: if strength is desired then one needs slow down and take their time during a movement

Power: if power is wanted one has to find the right balance between speed and maximal force. Which in a Power vs. Velocity curve that's around 30% of a 1RM.
Talk about speed, strength and power
What is an agonist muscle? When is it active during a given exercise or sport movement?
The muscle most directly involved in a given movement, a.k.a. Prime mover. Actived in the concentric pass of the movement
What is an antagonist muscle? When is it active during a given exercise or sport movement?
A muscle that can slow down or stop a given exercise. Acts as a breaking feature during the end of the concentric motion to protect the tendons and muscles involved in the movement
What are synergist muscles? What is their function during a given exercise or sport movement?
Is a muscle that assists indirectly in a given exercise. Helps in controlling the movement, especially when the agonist muscle crosses over two joints.
What are neutralizer muscles? What is their function during a given exercise or sport movement?
Counteract or neutralize the action of other muscles to prevent undesirable movements such as inappropriate muscle substitutions. Their function is to contract to prevent specific muscles from contracting.
What is a stabilizer muscle? When is it active during a given exercise or sport movement?
Surrounds the joint or body part and contracts or stabilizes the area to enable another limb or body segment to exert a force and move. It is active during the entirety of the movement to make sure no harm comes to the joint
What structures does bone have?
1.Trabecular bone (aka spongy)
2. Cortical bone: this is dense and forms a compact outer shell that is bridged by trabecular bone
2 main structures
What structures and substances comprise muscle tissue?
Just name the structure that gives muscle its energy
What are the main structures that comprise connective tissue?
1. Collagen: white fiberous tissue
2. Elastin: allows for stretching
2 main things again
What adaptations do muscles make after resistance training?
-Muscular growth
-Fiber size change
-Possible fiber type transition
-Structural changes to support hypertrophy
- decrease in mitrochondrail density
name at least 5
What adaptations do muscles make after Aerobic training?
- Increase in aerobic capacity
- increases fat utilization
- lowers lactic acid production
- increases lactic acid removal
- can reduce muscle size
- increase size and number of mitochandria
- increase myoglobin content
name at least 7
What is hypertrophy?
muscular enlargement resulting in an increase in the cross-sectional area of the existing fibers.
What is hyperplasia?
increase in the number of muscle fibers via longitudinal fiber splitting, and is highly controversial
What is bone mineral density (BMD)? What types of training increases BMD?
BMD: quantity of mineral deposited in a given area of bone

Any exercise that also increases muscle strength or mass
What is the work:rest ratio?
Ideal interval of exercise and rest periods
What is the ATP-PC Energy system?
How can you adjust the intensity, exercise duration, and the work:rest ratio to target this system?
This system uses creatine phosphate to provide a phosphate group to combine with ADP to quickly make ATP for the body.
Intensity: 90-100%
Exercise duration: 5-10 seconds
Work:Rest ratio: 1:12-1:20
What is the glycolytic Energy system?
How can you adjust the intensity, exercise duration, and the work:rest ratio to target this system?
This system breaks down carbohydrates to resynthesize ATP through several enzymatically catalyzed reactions with the end results of a pyruvate being converted to either lactate. This is can happen without the presence of oxygen.
Intensity: 75-90%
Exercise duration: 15-30 seconds
Work:rest ratio: 1:3-1:5
What is the aerobic system?
How can you adjust the intensity, exercise duration, and the work:rest ratio to target this system?
This system starts out in glycolytic system, but when oxygen is ready supply the pyruvate does not change into lactate, instead it goes into the mitochondria and the kreb cycle takes place. In this cycle it oxidizes the pyruvate and produces a lot of ATP by taking NADH and FADH2 through the electron transport chain.
Intensity: 20-30%
Exercise duration: >3 minutes
Work:rest ratio: 1:1-1:3
What are the primary hormones in the body?

Growth Hormone

Insulin-like Growth Factors


Catecholamines (epinephrine)
name at least 5
What does testosterone do inside the body?
Stimulates growth

increases in protein anabolism, and development

maintenance of male sex characteristics
What does Insulin-Growth Factors do inside the body?
Increases protein synthesis
just one
What does Cortisol do inside the body?
Inhibit amino acid incorporation into proteins

stimulate conversion of proteins into carbohydrates

maintain normal blood sugar level

conserve glucose

promote use of fat
What does Catecholamines (epinephrine) do inside the body?
Increases cardiac output

increases blood sugar and glycogen breakdown and fat metabolism
What are the major structures of the heart and vascular system?
1. Atriums
2. Ventricles
3. Tricuspid valve
4. Mitral (bicuspid) valve
5. Aortic valve
6. Pulmonary valve
7. Sinoatrial (SA) node
8. Atrioventricular (AV) node
9. AV bundle
10. Punkinje fibers
11. Blood vessels
12. Blood
What does Growth Hormone do inside the body?
Stimulates insulin-like growth factor I, protein synthesis, growth, and metabolism
stimulates what 4 things?
How would you increase testosterone levels?
use large muscle group exercises, heavy resistance, moderate to high volume of exercise, and short rest intervals.
How would you increase Growth Hormone levels?
use workouts with higher lactate concentrations and associated acid-base disruptions; aka use high intensity with three sets of each exercise and short 1-minute rest periods and/or supplement diet with carbohydrate and protein before and after workout.
How would you increase Insulin-like Growth factors?
Its still unknown and need to be looked into more.
How would you increase Cortisol (Adrenal Hormones) levels?
Use high volume, large muscle groups, and short rest periods, but vary the training protocol and the rest period length and volume to allow the adrenal gland to engage in recovery processes and to prevent chronic catabolic responses of corticol. This way the stress of exercises will not result on overuse or overtraining.
How would you increase Catecholamine (epinephrine) levels?
Do Heavy resistance training.
What are the major structures of the lungs and the respiratory system?
1. Trachea
2. Bronchi
3. Bronchioles
4. Alveoli
How does the cardiopulmonary system respond to aerobic endurance training?
i. increased maximal cardiac output
ii. increased stroke volume (more blood pumped per contraction)
iii. reduced heart rate at rest and during submaximal exercise
iv. Capillarization increases
How does the cardiopulmonary system respond to Interval training?
i. Increase aerobic endurance capacity
How does the cardiopulmonary system respond to Resistance training?
i. slight reductions to resting heart rate may occur
ii. slight reductions in blood pressure may occur
iii. stroke volume will increase as lean tissue mass increases
iv. untrained people can expect to see an increase to their VO2max
How does the cardiopulmonary system respond to Circuit weight training?
i. improve VO2max
How does the cardiopulmonary system adapt to acute and chronic aerobic exercise?
i. Stroke volume and heart rate raise during exercise, therefore Cardiac Output (Q) also increases

ii. Oxygen uptake increases

iii. Systolic pressure increases

iv. Diastolic pressure does not change or decreases slightly

v. Blood flow increases around the muscles

vi. Blood flow decreases around other organ systems

vii. Minute ventilation increases

viii. Tidal volume increases

ix. Diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide increases across the cell membrane of the alveoli

i. increased maximal cardiac output

ii. increased stroke volume (more blood pumped per contraction)

iii. reduced heart rate at rest and during submaximal exercise

iv. Capillarization increases
9 Acute
4 Chronic
Calculate Cardiac Output (use a symbol for Cardiac Output)
Q= stroke volume X heart rate
What is minute ventilation?
volume of air breathed per minute
What is Tidal volume?
amount of air inhaled and exhaled with each breath
How does the musculoskeletal system adapt to acute and chronic aerobic exercise?
1.increase in aerobic capacity

2. can train at a higher intensity of max aerobic power

3. increases fat utilization

4. decreases the production of lactic acid

5. more rapid lactic acid removal

6. can reduce muscle size

7. increase size and number of mitochondria

8. increases myoglobin content
8 Acute and Chronic combined
How does the neural system adapt to acute and chronic aerobic exercise?
1. Increase efficiency

2. Fatigue is delayed

3. Improved neural activity among synergists and motor units
3 Acute and Chronic combined
How does the cardiopulmonary system adapt to acute and chronic anaerobic exercise?
i. Stroke volume and heart rate raise during exercise, therefore Cardiac Output (Q) also increases

ii. Blood pressure increases significantly

iii. Heavy resistance training decrease blood flow to the working muscles

i. slight reductions to resting heart rate may occur

ii. slight reductions in blood pressure may occur

iii. stroke volume will increase as lean tissue mass increases

iv. untrained people can expect to see an increase to their VO2max
3 acute

4 chronic
How does the musculoskeletal system adapt to acute and chronic anaerobic exercise?
Muscular growth

Fiber size changes

possible fiber type transition

structural changes to support hypertrophy

decrease in mitrochondrail density
5 in total
How does the neural system adapt to acute and chronic anaerobic exercise?
Increase motor unit activation or recruitment

Increase rate if firing of motor units

Increase synchronization of motor units firing

Neuromuscular Junction changes

Enhanced neuromuscular reflex potential
5 in total
What is Overtraining?
excessive frequency, volume, or intensity of training
What is Overreaching?
excessive training on a short-term basis
What is Detraining?
cessation of anaerobic training or substantial reduction in frequency, volume, intensity, or a combination
What indicates when an athlete is overtraining?
Extreme fatigue, illness, or injury

Can decrease performance

Hormonal markers like the decrease concentrations of testosterone and IGF-I; and the volume-related overtraining increases cortisol and decrease resting luteinizing hormone and total free testosterone concentration

Mood changes like depression, decrease vigor, and impaired concentration
What differentiates overtraining from overreaching?
Overreaching can turn into overtraining

Overreaching can be planned out in an exercise routine that has demonstrated extreme gains

One can recovery from overreaching in a couple days, while overtraining can take weeks if not months to recover from
What happens to the body following a period of detraining?
decrease in performance or physiological adaptation
What anatomical and physiological differences between males and females result in differences in performance?
Males have broader shoulders relative to hips

During puberty, males have a longer growth period

Males produce Testosterone which increases bone formation and protein synthesis

Females have broader hips relative to their waists and shoulders

Females produce Estrogen which increases fat deposition and breast development
How do absolute and relative strength levels differ between males and females?
In absolute strength women have 2/3 the strength of men

Absolute lower body strength in women is closer to males than upper body strength

Cross-sectional area strength in not different between sexes
How do the muscular and neuromuscular systems adapt to resistance training in prepubescent athletes?
Most gains in strength are due to neuromuscular adaptations likes synchronization or amount of firing of the motor neurons

Little gains in strength are due to muscular growth because of the lack of testosterone
What does Tanner classification refer to?
Its a method of evaluating biological age, aka sexual maturity, of a child.
How does bone mineral density, force production and aerobic endurance change with increasing age?
After the age of 30 these three factors decrease
What adaptations account for the initial strength gains after beginning a resistance training program?
Neuromuscular factors
How does exercise volume and intensity change as an athlete's training status change (i.e., from untrained to trained)?
Both volume and intensity increase as one gets more trained
What is the effect of rewards on performance?
It increases task-relevant focus instead of worry focus
What does task-relevant focus on?
reaction time

decision making
Explain the concepts of positive and negative reinforcement
Positive reinforcement is when you reward a desirable action with an activity or object that will encourage that desirable action to take place in the future

Negative reinforcement is when you take away an activity or object as an award for a desirable action to encourage that action to repeat
obviously 2
What are the roles and outcomes of visualization and imagery techniques?
The role is to give extra experience to the performer

This would raise one's self-esteem because they would have 'experienced' success

Also would provide more competitive 'experience' because many athletes only get small amounts of competition, some times only minutes

With visualization athletes can perform better because they are more prepared for what is to come
Apply the “whole versus part” approach to teaching resistance training exercise technique
1. whole refers to practicing the entire exercise at once

2. part refers to slicing the exercise into different pieces and practicing one piece at a time before putting them all together

Example: For the Clean and Jerk exercise for Weight lifting you could simply put it in two parts, the clean and then the jerk. This of course wouldn't be enough of a breakdown to show a great difference in improvement of just doing the whole motion.
2 points and 1 example
Explain the concepts of positive and negative feedback
Positive feedback concentrates on what the performer is doing correctly and praises it

Negative feedback points out the mistakes that are being made so the performer can correct their mistakes
2 points and don't get it confused with reinforcement; very close but there is a difference
What food groups comprise the five colored bands of MyPyramid?
Meat & Beans
How many servings from each food group are recommended per day? (based on 2,000-calorie diet)
i. Grains: 6 ounces
ii. Vegetables: 2.5 cups
iii. Fruits: 2 cups
iv. Milk: 3 cups
v. Meat & Beans: 5.5 ounces
What types of food enhance what types of physical activities/sports?
i. For both aerobic endurance training and resistance training protein is used as a tissue repair
ii. Aerobic endurance athletes will use the branched-chain amino acids for auxiliary fuel
iii. Strength and Power athletes use protein to maintain a positive nitrogen balance so that the hypertrophic stimulus is maximized

i. A source of energy during exercise
ii. Aerobic endurance athletes need high carbohydrate diets to restore skeleton glycogen faster
iii. Strength and Power athletes don't need a high carbohydrate diet

i. A source of energy used throughout the day
ii. intramuscular fatty acids are used during activities
iii. circulating fatty acids are used during recovery
iv. most beneficial to endurance athletes
What is the “typical recommended intake” of protein, carbohydrate and fat?
Protein = .8 g/kg (.36g/pound) of body weight or 10% – 15% of caloric intake

Carbohydrate = 45% – 65% of caloric intake

Lipids = 20% – 35% of caloric intake
How do these “typical recommended intake” values differ among athletes of different sports?
Protein = 1.5 to 2.0 g/kg of body weight

Carbohydrate =
i. For Aerobic endurance athletes 8 – 10 g/kg of body weight
ii. For strength or power athletes 5 – 6 g/kg of body weight

Lipids = greater than 30% of caloric intake
What is metabolic equivalent of tasks (MET)? explain in words and how one would calculate it
1 MET = amount of oxygen required by the body at rest

1 MET = 3.5 ml/(kgXmin) of oxygen consumption
How does an activity's MET level affect the caloric cost of exercise?
As MET increases so does the caloric costs of the exercise
What effect does the level of exercise intensity have on caloric expenditure?
The more intense the exercise is the larger the caloric expenditure will become
What is the numerical relationship between VO2 and kcals/min?
1L O2 = 5 kcal/min
What are the differences between HDLs and LDLs?
They are both types of cholesterol

high-density lipoproteins (HDL) can help protect heart disease and can be increased by exercise and weight lose

low-density lipoproteins (LDL) carry more cholesterol then HDLs and are directly related to cardiovascular risk
3 key points
What is Cholesterol?
i. important structural and functional components of cell membranes

ii. necessary for the production of bile salts, vitamin D, and several hormones
What are Triglycerides?
i. fats and oils

ii. formed by the union of glycerol with three fatty acids

iii. majority of lipids are in this form

iv. what is referred to as fat
What are Saturated fats?
i. contain all hydrogen they can carry

ii. no double bond
What types of food increases an athlete's risk for developing coronary artery disease?
High levels of cholesterol or unfavorable ratios of lipoproteins are associated with increased risk of heart disease

Therefore, eating a high amount of cholesterol with the majority being LDLs would increase the risk for coronary artery disease
2 points
How does hydration affect performance?
If you get dehydrated it will drastically decrease your performance
What is the recommendation for water during exercise? After exercise? And before?
Before: consume 1 pint (.5L) of fluid 2 hours prior

During: should start drinking before sensing thirst and continue drinking at regular intervals with larger volumes of 8 ounces at a time if their stomach can handle it

After: the goal is to replace any fluid lost during exercise. For each pound lost drink at least a pint of fluid.
What are electrolytes? How does a loss of electrolytes from exercising affect the body?
They are ions that help regulate the body
low sodium can give heat cramps
How many kilocalories are found in each in each gram of protein? Carbohydrate? Fat?
Protein and Carbohydrate contain 4 kcal/g
Fat contain 9 kcal/g
What foods are high in protein? Carbohydrate? Fat?
i. Protein: eggs, meat, fish, poultry, and dairy products
ii. Carbohydrate: breads, cereals, pasta, fruits, and starchy vegetables
iii. Fat: animal fats and oils
How can caloric balance be manipulated to encourage muscle gain (or fat loss)?
Muscle Gain:
i. 2500 extra kilocalories are required for each 1-pound increase in lean tissue
ii. 350-700 kcal above daily requirements would supply the calories needed to support a 1- 2 pound weekly gain in lean tissue
iii. recommended to eat larger portions of foods at mealtime, eat more items at each meal, eat frequently, choose higher-calorie foods, and eat about 5 times a day
Fat Loss:
i. diet should be composed of foods high in nutrient density
ii. diet should be composed of foods low in energy density
iii. diet should be well-balanced and not be low in fat because it tends to lead people to eat an excess of carbohydrates that is low in protein but still high in calories
3 points for muscle gain
3 points for fat loss
What is the recommended amount of body fat (i.e., scale weight) that an athlete should lose per week?
1% of their body weight
What modes of exercise encourage fat loss? Increase in lean body mass?
Fat Loss: Aerobic Training can encourage the body to use fat as a fuel source, but it should be paired with hypertrophy training to help build muscle so that your body will burn more calories at rest which will take from your fat storage.

Lean Body Mass: Resistance training of 67-85% intensity, 6-12 repetitions, and 30 seconds to 1.5 minute rest intervals.
What food should be consumed prior to an aerobic endurance event? A resistance training workout?
For those competing in long-term aerobic endurance events there is a technique called Carbohydrate Loading which means they put themselves on a high-carbohydrate diet 3 days prior to the event. This means they eat 600 g of carbohydrate per day or 8 to 10 g/kg of body weight.

As for the other types of events there aren't any scientific backing to food suggestions and its more on a personal basis for the athlete. For example, if they like the food, if they can tolerate digestion during competition, or do they believe it will help their performance.
2 long points
How can the timing of nutrients and fluid intake affect performance? (Its about FOOD!!)
Some athletes will get stomach discomfort if they eat to close to competition, so it is recommended that these athletes eat 3-4 hours prior to competition.

Other athletes get hungry during competition so it is recommended that these athletes eat as close to competition as possible; as close as 30 minutes or even during competition.

What needs to be considered is the athlete's nutritional demands, does his electrolyte levels need replacing to improve performance
3 points
When is it appropriate for caloric intake to exceed an athlete's caloric expenditure?
To increase muscle mass because it requires 2,500 extra kcals to gain 1 lb of muscle
What dietary modification will enhance muscle hypertrophy? Aerobic endurance?
Hypertrophy: eat large portions of foods at mealtime, eat more items at each meal, eat frequently, or choose higher-calorie foods.

Aerobic endurance: have a high-carbohydrate diet, eating 8-10 g/kg of body weight per day
What are common signs and symptoms of eating disorders? How are the signs and symptoms of bulimia and anorexia different?
Signs for both:
i. complaining frequently of constipation or stomachaches
ii. mood swings
iii. social withdrawal
iv. relentless, excessive exercise
v. excessive concern about weight
vi. strict dieting followed by binges
vii. increasing criticism of one's body
viii. Strong denial that a problem exists, even when there is hard evidence
i. Commenting repeatedly about being or feeling fat
ii. Dramatic weight loss for no medical reason
iii. Reaching weight that is below the ideal competitive weight for the given athlete and continuing to lose weight even during the off-season
iv. Preoccupation with food, calories, and weight
i. Eating secretively
ii. Disappearing repeatedly immediately after eating
iii. Appearing nervous or agitated if something prevents the person from being alone shortly after eating
iv. Losing or gaining extreme amounts of weight
v. Smell or remnants of vomit in the rest room or elsewhere
vi. Disappearance of large amounts of food
8 signs for both

4 signs of anorexia

6 signs of bulima
What is the difference between an eating disorder and disordered eating?
Eating Disorders are officially classified through the DSM while disordered eaters only have some of the symptoms and can't be classified under a specific disorder.

Also disordered eating can usually be dealt with more easily then an eating disorder

Disordered eating can turn into a eating disorder
3 points
How can the strength and conditioning professional recognize that an athlete has an eating disorder?
Be on the look out for the signs and symptoms of the disorders

Talk with friends, family, and roommates so they know they can come to you if something is amiss
2 points
How does body composition change in an athlete diagnosed with bulimia? With anorexia?
Bulima: Losing or gaining extreme amounts of weight

Anorexia: Dramatic weight loss
How does performance change with an athlete diagnosed with bulimia? With anorexia?
Weight lose might improve performance at first because they can run faster and jump farther with less mass, but as the disease continues performance will decrease due to stress fractures, recurrent illness, and fainting.
1 for both
What nutritional situations are appropriate for strength and conditioning professionals to handle?
Rapid weight loss for competition weigh in

Quirky eating habits
What nutritional situations are require the strength and conditioning professional to refer the athlete to a registered dietician or related nutritional professional?
When an athlete has definite or unsure signs of an eating disorder
What ergogenic aids are commonly used to improve strength? Aerobic endurance?
i. Anabolic steroids
ii. Human Chrorionic Gonadotropin
iii. Insulin
iv. Human Growth Hormone
v. β-Adrenergic Agonists
vi. Essential Amino Acids
vii. Nutritional Muscle Buffers
viii. Creatine
ix. Caffeine

Aerobic endurance
i. Erythropoietin
ii. β-blockers
iii. Caffeine
9 for strength

3 for Aerobic endurance

These are legal and illegal substances
Anabolic steroids have several negative effects, what are the 7 main categories that these effects could be listed under?
1. Cardiovascular

2. Endocrine

3. Genitourinary

4. Dermatological

5. Hepatic

6. Musculoskeletal

7. Psychological
What are the negative Cardiovascular effects of anabolic steroid use?
i. Lipid profile changes

ii. Elevated blood pressure

iii. Decreased myocardial function
What are the negative Endocrine effects of anabolic steroid use?
i. Gynecomastia (enlargement of male breasts)

ii. Decreased sperm count

iii. Testicular atrophy

iv. Impotence and transient infertility
What are the negative Genitourinary effects of anabolic steroid use?
i. Males
a. Decreased sperm count
b. decreased testicular size

ii. Females
a. Menstual irregularities
b. Clitoromegaly
c. Masculinization

iii. Males and Females
a. Gynecomastia
b. Libido changes
2 males
3 females
2 for both sexes
What are the negative Dermatological effects of anabolic steroid use?
i. Acne

ii. Male pattern baldness
What are the negative Hepatic effects of anabolic steroid use?
Increased risk of lover tumors and liver damage
What are the negative Musculoskeletal effects of steroid use?
i. Premature epiphyseal plate closure

ii. Increased risk of tendon tears

iii. Intramuscular abscess
What are the negative Psychological effects of steroid use?
i. Mania

ii. Depression

iii. Aggression

iv. Mood swings
What are the risks associated with common ergogenic aids? What are the alternatives?
Can impair cardio response, dehydration, heart issues, and numerous other physical issues

use legal substances
To achieve maximal performance in aerobic endurance events lasting over an hour what percentage of carbohydrate should a beverage contain?
What type of exercise increases BMD the most?
Movements that go across multiple joints, aka Axial movements.