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78 Cards in this Set

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The Study of the components that make up the "Musculoskeletal" machine
The Mechanism through which the Musculoskeletal system interact to create Movement
Axial Skeleton
Consists of:
- Skull (cranium)
- Vertebral Column (C1-Coccyx)
- Ribs
- Sternum
Appendicular Skeleton
Consists of:

Shoulder Girdle
- L/R Scapula
- Clavicle
Bones of the Arm:
- Humerus
- Radius
- Ulna
- Carpals
- Metacarpals
- Phalanges

Pelvic Girdle:
- L/R Coxal Bones

Bones of Legs/Ankles/Feet
- Femur
- Patella
- Fibula
- Tarsals
- Metatarsals
- Phalanges
Junction of Bones
Fibrous Joints
Allow Virtually no Movement

i.e. Sutures of the Skull
Cartilaginous Joints
Allow Limited Movement

i.e. Intervertebral Disks
Synovial Joints
Allow considerable movement

i.e. Knee and Shoulder Movement
Hyaline Cartilage
The smooth cartilage on the end of Bones at the joint
Synovial Fluid
Liquid in the Joint Capsule that allows for lubrication and nutrient diffusion
Uniaxial Joints
Operates as Hinges

Rotates on One Axis

i.e. Elbow
Biaxial Joints
Movement around:
- Two Perpendicular Axes

i.e. Ankle/Wrist
Multiaxial Joints
Ball and Socket Joints
- Allow movement in all 3 Perpendicular axes

i.e. Hip and Joints
Vertebral Column
Made up of:
- Several Vertebral Bones
- Flexible Disks
Cervical Vertebrae

In Neck
Thoracic Vertebrae

In middle upper back
Lumbar Vertebrae

Make Up lower back
Coccygeal Vertebrae

Inner tail of pelvis
Origin (Muscle)
The muscles:
- Proximal Attachement
Toward the Center of the Body
Insertion (Muscle)
The muscles:
- Distal Attachement
Away from the Center of the Body
Fleshy Attachment
Found at the Proximal End of a Muscle

Muscle Fibers:
- Directly affixed to the Bone
- Usually over a Wide Area for Force Distribution
Fibrous Attachment
i.e. Tendons

Blend into/are:
- Continuous with both Muscle Sheaths and Connective Tissue surrounding the bone
Prime Mover

The muscle most Directly Involved in Bringing about a movement
The muscle that can slow down/stop movement
A muscle that assists
- Indirectly in a movement
A Rigid/Semirigid Body that:
- When Subjected to force (when actions does not pass through pivot point)
- Exerts Force on any Object impending its Tendency to Rotate
The Pivot Point of a Lever
Moment Arm (Force Arm/Lever Arm/Torque Arm)
The Perpendicular Distance from the:
- Line of Actions
- Infinitely Long Line passing point of application of force
- Oriented in the Direction in which the Force is Exerted
Torque (Moment)
The Degree to which a Force tends to:
- Rotate an object about a Specified Fulcrum
Muscle Force
Force Generated by:
- Biomechanical activity
- Stretching of Noncontractile Tissue

Tend to draw the opposite ends of the muscle together
Resistive Force
Force generate by:
- Sources External to the Body (e.g. gravity, inertia, friction)
- Acts contrary to Muscle Force
Mechanical Advantage
The Ratio of the Moment Arm
- Through Which an applied Force act to that
- Through which the Resistive Force Acts

Mechanical Advantage >1.0 allows:
- Muscle force to be less that resistive force to produce an equal torque
- Visa Versa On <1
First-Class Lever
A lever for which the muscle force and resistive force are on Opposite side of the Fulcrum


Second-Class Lever
A lever for which the Muscle Force and Resistance Force act on the:
- Same Side of the Fulcrum
- Muscle force acting through the moment arm

Muscle Force
Axis of Rotation

"Wheel Barrel"
Third-Class Lever
A lever for which the:
- Muscle force and Resistance Force act on the same side
- Muscle force works through shorter Moment Arm

Muscle Force
Resistance Movement

"Bicep Curl"
Patella Function
Keep mechanical advantage at knee joint
- Keep Quad tendon perpendicular to knee axis
Most Muscles Operate on what Type of Advantage
- Cause a lot of injury because of exaggerated forces
Anatomical Position
Body Erect

Arm's down at the side

Palm's facing forward
Sagittal Plane
- Left/Right
Frontal Plane
- Front Back
Transverse Plane
- Upper/Lower
Change in Velocity Per Unit Time
Force =
Force = Mass x Acceleration
The Maximal Force that a Muscle/Muscle Group can Generate at a Specified Velocity
The Time Rate of Doing Work
The Product of the Force Exerted on an Object


The Distance the Object moves in the Direction in which the Force is Exerted
Work = (Equation)
W = Force x Distance
Power = (Equation)
P = Work/Time
Mass kg2 x 9.8 m/s2
Angular Displacement
The Angle through which an Object Rotates
Angular Velocity
An Objects Rotational Speed
- Measured in Radians/sec
Rotational Work Equation
W = Torque x Displacement
Rotational/Linear Power Equation
Power = 19,600 J / Secs
Which and How Many Motor Units are involved in a Muscle Contraction
Rate Coding
Rate at which the Motor Units are Fired
Pennate Muscle
Fibers that Align:
- Obliquely w/ tendon
- Featherlike arrangement
Angle of Pennation
The Angle between the Muscle Fibers and an Imaginary line Between:
- the Muscles Origin
- and Insertion
Concentric Muscle Action
A Muscle Action in which the:
- Muscle Shortens
- Muscle Force > Resistance Force
Eccentric Muscle Action
A Muscle Action in which the:
- Muscle Lengthens
- Muscle Force < Resistance Force
Isometric Muscle Action
A Muscle Action in which the:
- Muscle Length Does Not Change
- Muscle Force (=) Resistance Force
Classic Formula
Loaded Lifted / BW2/3

Used to figure Relative Wieght Lifted
Gravity Formula
Gravity = Mass x Local Acceleration
Inertial Force
an imaginary force which an accelerated observer postulates so that he can use the equations appropriate to an inertial observer
- To describe Inertia, in a non-intertia base
Bracketing Technique
The Athletes performs the:
- Sport Movement
- With Less than Normal
- and Greater than Normal
- Resistance

Form of Acceleration Training
i.e. Shot-Putter with Extra-Heavy Shot-Putt
Force/Weight/Acceleration Relationship
When a Weight is Held in a
- Static Position/Constant Velocity

It Exerts:
- Constant Resistance
- Only in the Downward Direction

- Upward/Lateral Acceleration of the Weight
- Requires Additional Forces
Friction (Definition)
The Resistive Force Encountered when
- One Attempts to move an Object
- Pressed against another Object
Friction (Equation)
Resistance Force = Coefficient of Friction (for both objects) x Normal Force
Fluid Resistance
The Resistance Force Encountered By:
- an Object Moving through Fluid (Liquid or Gas)


Fluid Moving Past or Around
- an Object
- or Through an Orifice
Suface Drag
Result from the Friction of a Fluid:
- Passing Along the Surface of an Object
Form Drag
Results from the way in which a Fluid:
- Presses Against
- the Front/Rear of an Object
- Passing Through It
Slightly Arched
- Better Advantage in Back
- Avoid Back
Slightly Rounded
Towards the Anterior
Towards the Posterior
Glottis Closed (prevents air escaping lungs)

Muscles of the Abdomen and Rib Cage Contract

- Creates Rigid Compartments of -- Liquid in Lower Torso
-- Air in the Upper Torso

- Increases Rigidity of Entire Torso
- Easy to Support Heavier Loads
Training is Most Effective When:
- Exercises are Similar to the Sport Activity, which improvement is needed (target activity)

- Major consideration during Program Design

- Observe the Sport Movement :
-- Analyze Qualitatively/Quantitively to determine - Joint Movement