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62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

The _____ ____ supports the normal homeostatic function of the human body and helps it respond to external stimuli.

endocrine system
___ ___ ___ is how the adrenal gland responds with an initial alarm reaction followed by a reduction of an organism's function in response to a noxious stimulus.
General Adaptation Syndrome

Some suggest that the endocrine system can be manipulated with ____ ____ to target various tissue to increase performance.

resistance training
_____ are chemical messengers that are synthesized, stored, and released into the blood by ____ ____ -which are body structures specialized for secretion-and certain other cells.
hormones, endocrine glands
______ refers to the study of the interactions between the nervous system and the endocrine system.
Stimulation allows the endocrine glands to release hormones into the blood, which carries the hormones (and therby info) to hormone-specific receptors located on the surface or in the nucleus( ____ hormones & ____ hormones) of the target tissue cell.
steroid & thyroid
____ remodeling involves the disruption and damage of muscle fibers, an inflammatory response, hormonal interactions, and ultimately the synthesis of new proteins and their orderly incorporation into existing or new _____.
Muscle, sarcomeres
The most prominent resistance training adaptation in muscle is an increase in the amount of a muscle's contractile proteins: ____ and ____.
actin, myosin
Myosin heavy-chain (MHC) proteins can go through a change in their molecular structure- from Type __ to __ heavy chain proteins.
IIx, IIa
The first steps in muscle growth in an increase in _____ synthesis and decrease in _____ degradation.
protein, protein
Type I fibers rely on more on ____ degradation, whereas Type II fibers depend on a dramatic increase in _____ synthesis to maintain their size or hypertrophy.
protein, protein
These are hormones that promote building:
Anabolic hormones
Anabolic hormones block the negative effects on protein metabolism of _______ hormones, such as cortisol and progesterone, which attempt to degrade cell proteins to support glucose synthesis.
The more ____ ____ recruited for the performance of the exercise, the greater the extent of potential remodeling in the whole muscle.
muscle fibers

Theory in which a given hormone interacts with a specific receptor.

lock-and-key theory. receptor is lock, hormone is key
____-_____ is when a given receptor partially interacts with hormones that are not specifically designed for it (i.e. allosteric binding)
Receptors can have ____ _____ ___ at which substances other than hormones can enhance or reduce the cellular response to the primary hormone. This means the receptor may be outside the cell membrane,within the cell membrane, or partially inside and outside the membrane.
allosteric binding sites
Adaptation is no longer possible when the maximal amount of ____ has been added to the muscle fiber.
The inability of a hormone to interact with a receptor is called _________ of receptor function.
It has been shown for the hormone ______ that exercise training affects only the maximal number of binding sites, not the binding sensitivity of the receptor.
There are 2 main catagories of hormones:
steroid & polypeptide
____ hormones, which included hormones from the adrenal cortex and the gonads, are fat soluble and passively diffuse across the sarcolemma of a muscle fiber, althought possible transport mechanisms have been described.

This set of events is the same for any ____ hormone: after diffusing across the sarcolemma, the hormone binds with its receptor fot from a ______-_____ complex causing a confrontational shift in the receptor and activating it.

steroid, hormone-receptor complex (H-RC)
_________ hormones are made up of amino acids and some examples are growth hormone and insulin.

T or F: Polypeptide hormones are fat soluble and can cross the cell membrane.

Polypeptide hormones must rely on _______ messengers to get their message into the cell.
secondary, also called STAT for signal transduction activating transcription
The significant amount of force that are produced from this type of exercise (1) require the activation of high-thershold motor units not typically stimulated by other types of exercise such as this type (2).
(1)Resistance training
(2) aerobic
The specific force produced in activated fibers stimulates ____ and _____ sensitivities to anabolic factors, including hormones, which lead to muscle growth and strength changes.
receptor, membrane
After a session of resistance training, increases in ___ and ____ and a reduction in protein degradation occur. However if the stress is too great, _____ actions in the muscle may exceed the ____ actions which results in the inability of anabolic hormones to bind to their receptors or the downregulation of receptors in the muscle tissue.
actin, myosin, catabolic, anabolic
T or F: Only muscle fibers that are activated by the resistance training are subject to adaptation.
The extent of hormonal interactions in the growth of muscle fibers is directly related to the adapted size of the fibers which is dictated by the ____ and _____ angles used in the resistance training.
loads, exercise
The mechanisms of hormonal interaction with muscle tissue depend on 3 main factors as it relates to resistance training:
(1) Exercise acutely increases the blood concentration of hormones, the probability of interaction with receptors may be greater
(2) adaptations are anabolic, increases the size of the cells
(3) wrong exercise prescription can result in greater catabolic effect which can affect cellular development or minimally activate mechanisms that augment hypertrophy
T of F: Large increases in hormone concentration indicate lower probabilities for interaction with receptors.
F - indicate higher probabilities
_____ are secreted in response to a need for homeostatic control in the body; the ____ system is part of an overall strategy to bring physiological functions back into normal range.
Hormones, endocrine
The 3 primary anabolic hormones involved in muscle tissue growth and remodeling:
testosterone, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factors (IGF's)
_____ is the primary androgen hormone that interacts with skeletal tissue; ________ is the primary androgen that interacts with sex-linked tissues (prostate in men)
Testosterone, dihydtrostestosterone
______ has both direct and indirect effects on muscle tissue. It can promote growth hormone responses in the pituitary, which can influence protein synthesis in muscle. It also influences the nervous system and interacts directly with skeletal muscle itself.
Several exercise variable can increase serum testosterone in boys and younger men:
(1) large muscle group exercises (DL, power clean, squats)
(2) Heavy resistance - 85-95% of 1RM
(3) Moderate to high volume exercises with multiple sets, multiple exercises or both
(4) Short rest intervals (30 secs to 1 min)
(5) 2 yrs or more of resistance training
_____ variations are normal fluctuations in hormone levels during the day. It appears that acute resistance exercise doen not appear to affect the _____ variations in testosterone.
____ testosterone is not bound to a protein, such as sex hormone-binding globulin, for transport)
Women have about __ to __ fold lower concentration of testosterone than men.
15 - 20
____ time and _____ are very important factors in altering the resting and exercise-induced concentrations of this hormone.
Training, experience
____ receptor is the receptor for testosterone.
The pituitary gland secretes ____ _____ also called somatotropin.
growth hormone (GH)
Resistance training enhances cellular amino acid uptake and sythesis in skeletal muscle, resulting in hypertrophy of both _____ and _____ muscle fibers
Type I & II
13 main roles of GH
Decrease glucose utilization, decrease glycogen synthesis, increase amino acid transport across cell membranes, increase protein synthesis, increase utilization of fatty acids, increase lipolysis, increase availability of glucose and amino acids, increases collagen synthesis, stimulates cartilage growth, increase retention of nitrogen-sodium-potassium-phosphorus, increase renal plasma flow, promotes compensatory renal hypertrophy, enhances immune cell function
T of F: GH plays a crucial role in direct cellular interactions as one of the most potent anabolic hormones.
T of F: the force production of muscle fibers as a result of exercise-induced hypertrophy is inferior to that of injections of GH.
GH increases are differentially sensitive to ____ of exercise, the amount of ____ between sets, and the ____ used.
volume, rest (less rest, higher GH), resistance (10RM produces higher lactate values and higher GH responses)

______ response patterns to different resistance exercise routines may vary over the course of the menstrual cycle, owing to alterations in resting levels.

____-____ _____ ____travel in the blood bound to binding proteins (BP) in the target tissue. Binding proteins are important factors in the transport and physiological mechanisms.
Insulin-like growth factors IGF's
IGF-1 has a prolific role in _____ anabolism.
Changes in IGF-1 are based on the starting concentrations before training. If ____ IGF-1 increases, if ___ no change
low, high
IGF-1 is produced in the _____ themselves in response to overload and stretch. This is called ___ ___ ____ (MGF).
muscles, mechano growth factor
The adrenal gland has 2 major division that both respond to exercise and also plays a crucial role in the fight-or-flight phenomenon.
cortex, the medulla

Cortisol exerts its major _____ effects by converting amino acids to carbs, increasing the level of _____ enzymes (they break down proteins).

catabolic, proteolytic
Cortisol have greater catabolic effects on Type _ fibers because they have more protein that Type _ fibers, but cortisol may be more involved with the control of degradation in Type _ fibers.
II, I, I
In the muscle, the anabolic effects of ____ and ___ counter cortisol's databolic effects
testosterone, insulin
Cortisol increases with ______ exercise, most dramatically when rest periods are short and the total volume is high.
The catecholamines-primarily epinephrine but also nonrepinephrine and dopamine-are secreted by the adrenal medulla and are important for the actue expression of ____ and ____ because the hormones act as central motor stimulators and peripheral vascular dilators and enhance enzyme systems in muscle.
strength, power
The physiological 6 functions of epinephrine and norepinephrine in muscle:
(1) Increase force production via central mechanisms and increased metabolic enzyme activity
(2) Increase muscle contraction rate
(3) Increase blood pressure
(4) Increase energy availability
(5) Increase blood flow
(6) Augment secretion rates of other hormones such as testosterone
Training protocols must be _____ to allow the _____ gland to engage in recovery processess and to prevent the secondary responses of _____, which can have negative effects on the immune system and protein structures.
varied, adrenal, cortisol