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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Risk of victimization and age, race, gender, marital status,
residence, time of day, season
Victimization is most like going to take place in an open area during the day time when it’s a violent crime. More violent crimes will take place between 6pm and 6 am, less violent crimes happen during the day. There is a much greater risk for violence when living in the central city. Men are twice as likely to experience robbery but women are 6 times more like to experience rape or sexual assault. People under the age of 25 are greater targets. African Americans are more likely than whites, and never married people are more likely then married.
Victim precipitation theory
The view that victims may initiate, either actively or passively, the confrontation that leads to their victimization
Lifestyle theory
Views that crime is not a random occurrence; rather, it is a function of the victim’s lifestyle
Deviant place theory
The greater their exposure to dangerous places, the more likely people will become victims of crime and violence
Routine activities theory
The view that victimization results from the interaction of three everyday factors: the availability of suitable targets, the absence of capable guardians, and the presence of motivated offenders
Active vs. passive precipitation
Active: aggressive or provocation behavior of victims that result in their victimization
Passive: personal or social characteristics of victims that make them attractive targets for criminals; such victims may unknowingly either threaten or encourage their attackers
Gary Becker’s contribution to criminology
He believed that criminality as a rational behavior, and that besides mentally ill people, criminals behave in a predictable or rational way when deciding to commit crime.
Situational crime prevention
A method of crime prevention that seeks to eliminate or reduce particular crimes in narrow settings
A lack of norms or social standards
Two types of trait theories
Neurophysiological approaches
The brain chemistry
Arousal theory: the view that people seek to maintain a preferred level of arousal but vary in how they process sensory input. A need for high levels of environmental stimulation may lead to aggressive, violent behaviors
Behavior approaches
The view that all human behavior is learned through a process of social reinforcement (rewards and punishment)
Social learning theory: people learn to be aggressive by observing others acting aggressively to achieve some goal or being rewarded for violent acts
Behavioral modeling: process of learning behavior by observing others
Cognitive approaches
Focuses on mental processes: how people perceive and mentally represent the world around them and solve problems
Information- processing theory: focuses on how people process, store, encode, retrieve, and manipulate information to make decisions and solve problems
“Twinkie defense”
a defense used when Dan White assassinate Mayor George Moscone and Supervisor Harvey Milk, defense claimed that because he changed his diet to junk food and pop his mood swings had changed, so he was charged with manslaughter instead of murder.
Adolescent limited and life course persistent offenders
Adolescent-limited offender: one who follows the most common criminal trajectory, in which antisocial behavior peaks in adolescence and them diminishes
Life-course persister: one of the small group of offenders whose criminal career continues well into adulthood
Most important causes of violence
Personal traits
Ineffective families
Evolutionary factors/ human instinct
Exposure to violence
Substance abuse
Firearm ability
Cultural values
National values
Relationship between drugs and violence
Substance abusers have higher rates of violence, neighborhoods with high levels of drug abuse has higher violence
Cultural factors in violence
Subculture of violence: a segment of society in which violence has become legitimized by the custom and norms of that group.
Degrees of murder, definitions
First degree: killing a person after premeditation and deliberation
Felony murder: a killing accompanying a felony, such as robbery or rape
Second degree: a person’s wanton disregard for the victim’s life and his or her desire to inflict serious bodily harm on the victim, which results in the victim’s death
Manslaughter: homicide without malice
Voluntary or nonnegligent manslaughter: a killing committed in the heat of passion or during a sudden quarrel that provoked violence
Involuntary or negligent manslaughter: a killing that occurs when a person’s acts are negligent and without regard for the harm they may cause others