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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
1. Basic Considerations
a. Jurisdiction – State where an act or omission constituting an element of the offense took place

b. Felonies – Crimes punishable by death or imprisonment for more than one year.

c. Vagueness – Due process requires criminal statutes not to be vague (no arbitrary enforcement)

d. Merger – Solicitation and Attempt merger with the substantive offense but Conspiracy does not.

e. Compete Crime – Act, Intent, Concurrence, and Causation in some crimes

a. Commission (act)
a. Commission (act) – Voluntary, conscious and non-reflexive act by D
i. Any intentional act can qualify - scaring someone to death by yelling at them when you know they have a weak heart.
1. Conduct must be the product of your own volition
2. Conduct NOT the product of your own volition is NOT an act
a. i.e. reflexive or unconscious act
b. Exception – When the D knew he was likely to become unconscious and committed the act anyway.

b. Omission (failure to act) – generally NOT required to act to prevent harm, unless (3 elements)
b. Omission (failure to act) – generally NOT required to act to prevent harm, unless (3 elements)

i. There is a specific DUTY imposed by law
1. Statute which requires action
2. Contractual agreements that are relied upon by others (Lifeguard, Air traffic control)
3. Relationship between the parties, such as parents having duty to care for children
4. Voluntarily assuming the duty of care for someone else and failing to reasonably perform. (i.e. Good Samaritan starting to help then leaving)
5. D’s conduct created the peril (ie. shooting someone)

ii. D has KNOWLEDGE of the duty to act

iii. It is reasonably POSSIBLE to perform that duty.

c. Possession – Must only have constructive possession (must be in D’s dominion or control)
c. Possession – Must only have constructive possession (must be in D’s dominion or control)

i. Must knowingly possess the item (exception willful blindness)

a. Strict liability – law imposes liability based solely on act, NO need for mens rea
a. Strict liability – law imposes liability based solely on act, NO need for mens rea

i. NO intent crimes – defenses that negate intent cannot be used

ii. Only possible defenses – insanity, involuntary intoxication and possibly duress
1. Mistake and voluntary intoxication are NOT defenses

iii. Hints that it’s a strict liability statute – there are no adverbs (ly words)
1. crime is in the administrative, regulatory or morality area (statutory rape, selling alcohol to minors or Bigamy)

b. General intent (Most crimes)
b. General intent (Most crimes) – i.e. Battery, Kidnapping and Rape

i. Rule – General Awareness that all factors constituting the crime are likely to occur.

ii. Includes all crimes that do not fit within any other mental state.

iii. Defenses – Reasonable mistake of fact is a defense to all general intent crimes. (unreasonable mistake is NO defense)

iv. General intent may be inferred from the act.

v. Distinguish motive from intent

c. Specific intent – Committed with specific intent or objective. (cannot be inferred from the act)
i. Crimes

1. Inchoate offenses – solicitation, conspiracy, attempt

2. First degree murder – if defense applies reduce to 2nd degree

3. Assault when charged as an attempted battery

4. Felonies against property – larceny, embezzlement, false pretenses, robbery, burglary, forgery

ii. Defenses – (1) Unreasonable mistake of fact, and (2) Diminished capacity

d. Malice crimes
CL murder and arson – Requires only a reckless disregard of an obvious or high risk that the particular harmful result will occur.

e. Transferred intent
i. Intent (Mens rea) can be transfer to a different victim other than the originally intended victim of crime

ii. Applies to homicide, battery and arson. (NOT Attempt crimes)

iii. Never merges any crimes that have different victims
1. i.e. Always 2 separate crimes available for prosecution
a. Murder of person actually killed, and
b. Attempted murder of the person originally shot at but missed

iv. It is not possible to transfer intent between different crimes (except felony murder)
1. i.e. murder to attempted murder, but NOT burglary to arson
The defendant must have had the intent necessary for the crime at the time he committed the act constituting the crime.
4. Accomplice liability (aiding and abetting)
a. Mental State –
Give aid, counsel, or encourage the principal with the intent to encourage the crime.

i. Mere knowledge of crime is NOT enough – Must have actually done something with intent to assist in a crime. (i.e. give advice)

ii. If service or product provided is lawful – law usually demands that alleged accomplice have had some sort of “stake in the outcome” before they will be held as an accomplice.
1. i.e. over charging because of the knowledge of criminal activity is sufficient
4. Accomplice liability (aiding and abetting)

b. Accomplices are liable for:
i. The originally intended crime itself, AND

ii. ALL other foreseeable crimes committed by the principals
4. Accomplice liability (aiding and abetting)

c. Withdraw – A person who effectively withdraws cannot be held guilty if:
i. Withdraw must occur before the crime becomes unstoppable

1. Repudiation is sufficient withdraw for mere encouragement

2. Attempt to neutralize assistance is required if participation went beyond mere encouragement.

3. Note- Notifying police is also sufficient.
5. Inchoate Offenses (incomplete)

Solicitation of another to commit a felony (Cop ok)

i. Crime is completed when question is asked (Withdraw is not a defense)
1. No response in the affirmative needed

ii. Mental State – Specific intent that the person solicited commit the crime.

iii. If person solicited actually agrees to criminal proposal, conspiracy exists
1. Solicitation merges into the crime of conspiracy
5. Inchoate Offenses (incomplete)


i. 5 elements required
1. An agreement between two or more persons

2. Some slight overt act in furtherance (i.e. casing the bank)

3. There must be a meeting of the minds
a. Undercover agent can’t form a meeting of the minds

4. Specific intent to enter into the agreement

5. Specific intent to achieve the objective of the agreement
5. Inchoate Offenses (incomplete)

ii. NO Merger – Conspiracy does NOT merge with the substantive offense (i.e. you can be charged with conspiracy and the substantive offence)

iii. Liability – each conspirator liable for ALL crimes of their co-conspirators, if crimes are committed in furtherance of the conspiracy and were reasonably foreseeable

iv. Agreement – agreement doesn’t have to be express (no written or spoken words are needed)
1. i.e. Various people can be part of a conspiracy even if they have never met and do not personally know each other.

v. Acquittal of ALL co-conspirators – requires acquittal of the D because he couldn’t have conspired with anyone

vi. Overt Act
1. Majority rule – there must be an agreement + some slight overt act.
a. i.e. making a phone call to recruit people, or showing up at the place you agree to rob.
2. CL and minority rule – liability for conspiracy occurs with the agreement itself and NO overt act is needed . (only apply if question asks for it)

vii. Withdraw – NOT a defense to conspiracy because the conspiracy is complete as soon as the agreement is made and an act in furtherance is performed. (May be a defense to crimes committed in furtherance)
1. Successful withdraw – conspirator must (1) inform all co-conspirators of his intent to withdraw and (2) notice must be given in time for the other members to abandon their criminal plans (i.e. the night before and not 10 minutes before)
2. D who does successfully withdraws is NOT liable for any future crimes of co-conspirators BUT is still liable for any reasonably foreseeable crimes which have already been committed in furtherance of conspiracy

viii. Terminates – A conspiracy terminates upon the completion of the wrongful objective.

ix. Impossibility – Impossibility is not a defense to conspiracy.
5. Inchoate Offenses (incomplete)

Performance of an act that would be a crime if successful.

i. Mental State – Specific intent to complete the target offense.

ii. Overt Act – Substantial Step must be taken towards completion of target offense
1. Beyond mere preparation
2. Abandonment is NOT a defense after the completion of an overt act

iii. Attempt Merges – Attempt Merges with the Target Offense.
1. i.e. if D is convicted of the completed offense then can’t be convicted of attempt.

iv. Defenses

1. Legal Impossibility – When the D did, or intended to do acts that would not constitute a crime if committed IS a defense.

2. Factual Impossibility – Would be factually impossible for the defendant to complete his plan is NOT a defense.

a. Insanity
A defense to ALL crimes, including strict liability crimes. (4 tests)

a. Insanity

i. M’Naghten test
(majority) (Does not know right from wrong)

1. At the time of his conduct, as a result of a mental defect the D lacked the ability to:
a. KNOW the wrongfulness of his actions, OR
b. UNDERSTAND the nature and quality of his act

a. Insanity

ii. Irresistible impulse
(volitional test) (Impulse the defendant can’t resist)

1. D, as a result of a mental defect lacked the capacity:
a. Unable to CONTROL his actions, OR
b. CONFORM his conduct to the law.

a. Insanity

iii. Durham rule – (But for the mental illness)
1. D’s conduct is the “product” of a mental illness
a. easiest for D’s to satisfy

a. Insanity

iv. Model penal code (ALI)
– (combination of M’Naghten and irresistible impulse)

1. D lacked the “substantial” capacity to either
a. APPRECIATE the wrongfulness of his conduct, OR
b. CONFORM his conduct to the requirements of law

b. Intoxication
i. Voluntary intoxication – knowingly and voluntarily ingested

1. Addicts and alcoholics are still voluntarily even though they cannot be convicted for simply being an addict.

2. NOT a defense to general intent crimes

ii. Involuntary intoxication – NOT knowingly OR voluntarily ingested

1. i.e. forced to ingest, unaware that he was ingesting, or pursuant to medical advice.

2. Same legal effect as insanity – defense to ALL crimes including strict liability, once it is established that the intoxication caused the actus rea

c. Infancy
i. Under 7 – NO criminal liability

ii. Under 14 – there is a rebuttable presumption of NO criminal liability

d. Self-Defense (defense of others)

i. Non-deadly Force
a person without fault may use such force as reasonably necessary to protect themselves from the imminent use of unlawful force.

d. Self-Defense (defense of others)

ii. Deadly Force
A person without fault may use deadly force in self defense if she is (1) confronted with unlawful force and she is (2) threatened with imminent death or great bodily harm.

1. Majority – NO duty to retreat

2. Minority – prior to using deadly force in self defense, the victim of a deadly attack must first “retreat” if it is safe to do so. (3 exceptions)
a. Victim does NOT have to retreat if they are in their own home
b. Victim of violent felony not have to retreat even if one is safely available
c. Police officers have no duty to retreat

d. Self-Defense (defense of others)

iii. Use of force by an Initial Aggressor
Aggressor cannot claim right of self defense unless:

1. Withdraw – Initial aggressor has withdrawn and communicate the withdraw

2. Escalator – Non-deadly aggressor may defend against deadly response but MUST retreat if it is safe to do so.

e. Defense of others
A D has the right to defend others if she reasonably believes that the person assisted has the legal right to use force in his own defense.

i. NO preexisting relationship required

ii. Reasonable mistake of fact is a defense

iii. Minority – (Alter ego rule) – when you come to aid of another you have NO legal rights greater than those of the person to whose aid you came.

f. Defense of dwelling
deadly force may NEVER be used solely to defend property

i. i.e. note you may use deadly force to protect yourself while in your home.

g. Defense of Personal Property
Non deadly force may be used to defend property in ones possession from an unlawful interference, but may not be used if a request to desist would suffice.

i. Regain possession – Force may NOT be used to regain possession unless in hot pursuit.

h. Mistake of fact
i. Malice or General intent – Reasonable mistake of fact is a defense

ii. Specific intent – ANY mistake, even unreasonable, is an available defense

iii. Strict liability – mistake of fact is NEVER a defense

i. Mistake of Law
Mistake of law is NO defense even if based on the advise of an attorney.

i. Exceptions – Statute enacted after the crime was committed, Reasonable reliance on a judicial decision or on an official interpretation.

j. Crime Prevention
Non deadly force may be used to the extent that it reasonably appears necessary to prevent a felony or serious breach of the peace. Deadly force may be used only to terminate or prevent a dangerous felony involving risk of human life.

k. Use of Force to Effectuate Arrest
Reasonable force may be used by officers to effectuate an arrest. Deadly force is reasonable to prevent a felon’s escape and the felon threatens death or serious bodily injury.

i. Private Persons – May use non-deadly force to make an arrest if a crime was in fact committed and has reasonable grounds to believe the person arrested committed the crime. May use deadly force only if the person harmed was actually guilty of the offense.

l. Resisting Arrest
Non-deadly force may be used to resist an improper arrest even if a known officer is making that arrest. Deadly force may be used ONLY if the person does not know that the person arresting him is a police officer.

m. Necessity
The D reasonably believes that commission of the crime was necessary to avoid an imminent and greater injury to society than that in the crime. (The test is objective)

i. Defense is not available if D created the situation requiring necessity.

ii. Necessity involves pressure from natural or physical forces, duress involves human threats.

n. Duress
D reasonably believed that another person would imminently inflict death or great bodily harm upon him or a member of his family if he did not commit the crime.

i. Defense to ALL crimes EXCEPT homicide

o. Consent
– Only a defense when the crime requires lack of consent of the victim (i.e. rape and minor assaults and batteries)

i. Consent must be voluntary and consenter must be legally capable of consenting.

p. Entrapment
Must prove:

i. The criminal design originated with law enforcement officers, AND

ii. That the defendant was not predisposed to commit the crime prior to contact by the government.
1. Merely providing the opportunity for a predisposed person to commit a crime is NOT entrapment.
Common Law Crimes

7. Battery
general intent) – Unlawful application of force to another person causing an injury or offensive touching

a. Simple battery is a misdemeanor.

b. A battery need not be intentional and the force can be applied indirectly (i.e. causing a dog to bite)

c. Note – A battery is a completed assault

d. Consent and reasonable mistake of fact are defenses

e. Aggravated Battery – Some batteries are considered felonies in some jurisdictions. i.e. (1) with a deadly weapon, (2) against a woman, child, or police officer, or (3) if serious bodily harm results
Common Law Crimes

8. Assault (2 types)
a. Assault as an attempted battery – (specific intent)

b. Assault as a threat – (general intent) – Intentional creation of a reasonable apprehension in the mind of the victim of imminent bodily harm. (i.e. more than words)
i. If there has been an actual touching the crime can only be battery, NOT assault.
ii. Aggravated Assault – Assault with a deadly weapon or intent to rape are treated more severely.
Common Law Crimes

9. Mayhem
The dismemberment or disablement of a bodily part.

a. Modernly the trend has been to abolish this offense and treat it as a form of aggravated battery.
Common Law Crimes

10. Homicide – Unlawful killing of a HUMAN
a. Common Law Murder – Unlawful killing of another with malice aforethought
i. Malice Aforethought
1. Intent to kill
2. Intent to do serious bodily harm
3. Depraved heart (gross recklessness) – Acting with reckless indifference to an unjustifiably high risk of human life.
4. Felony murder – homicide committed during the commission of or attempt to commit an inherently dangerous felony
a. Intent to commit felony creates malice needed for murder

b. 5 defenses to FM
i. D has a defense to the underlying felony
ii. Underlying felony must be something other than the attack on the victim
iii. Death must be reasonably foreseeable result
iv. Liable for deaths caused while fleeing, until D reaches some point of temporary safety.
v. D is NOT liable for the death of a co-felon as a result of resistance by the victim or the police.
ii. Note – CL murder is 2nd degree murder which is a general intent crime
1. Intentional use of a deadly weapon creates an inference of intent to kill.
Common Law Crimes

b. Voluntary Manslaughter – A killing that would be murder but for the existence of adequate provocation (3 ways)
i. Adequate provocation – (heat of passion) – 4 factors must ALL be present:
1. V’s behavior would have created a sudden and intense passion to provoke a reasonable person
a. I.e. finding wife cheating or being exposed to a threat of deadly force.
2. D must actually have been provoked by the conduct of the victim
3. When D acted he had not yet personally cooled from passion
4. When D acted a reasonable person would not yet have cooled
a. i.e. not sufficient time to cool off.

ii. Imperfect claim of self defense – only applicable if the defendant incorrectly but honestly believed in the necessity of responding with deadly force.

iii. Diminished capacity – (Minority) – As a result of a mental defect short of insanity, he did not have the mental state required for the crime charged.
Common Law Crimes

c. Involuntary Manslaughter
i. Criminal negligence – (Gross Negligence) –substantial deviation from the standard of care.
1. NOT depraved heart murder because either the act wasn’t outrageous enough or there wasn’t a subjective awareness of the high degree of risk
2. Examples – Falling asleep at the wheel, or carelessly handling a gun

ii. Misdemeanor manslaughter – killing someone during commission of a misdemeanor OR during a non listed felony.
Common Law Crimes

d. 1st degree murder
(specific intent crime) – Governed by statutes
i. Murder committed with premeditation and deliberation
1. note – deliberation may be brief

ii. Murder committed during the commission of a enumerated felony
1. Kidnapping, rape, robbery, burglary, mayhem

iii. Murders committed certain ways (i.e. torture)

iv. NOTE – Voluntary intoxication is a defense to 1st degree murder
Common Law Crimes

e. Causation
i. Cause in Fact – The defendant’s conduct must be the “but for” cause.
1. An act that hastens an inevitable result is still the legal cause of that result.
2. Simultaneous acts of two or more persons may be independently sufficient causes of a single result.
3. Year and a Day rule – At CL the V had to die from the D’s act within a year and a day for the D to be held liable for the homicide. (modernly states have abolished)

ii. Proximate cause – The result is a natural and probable consequence of the conduct
1. A victims preexisting weakness or fragility, even if unforeseen, does not break the chain of causation.
2. An unforeseeable intervening act breaks the chain of causation
a. Note refusal of medical care for religious reasons and negligent medical care are foreseeable intervening acts.
Common Law Crimes

11. False Imprisonment
Unlawful confinement of a person without his valid consent.
Common Law Crimes

12. Kidnapping – (2 ways)
Unlawful confinement of a person that involves either:

a. Some movement of victim, Or

b. Concealed in a “secret” place

c. Aggravated Kidnapping – Kidnapping for ransom, child stealing, kidnapping to commit other crimes
Common Law Crimes

a. Rape
(general intent) – The unlawful carnal knowledge of a woman by a man, not her husband, without her effective consent.

i. Note – The slightest penetration complete the crime

ii. CL – A husband cannot rape his wife. (Modernly he may rape if separated)

iii. Lack of Effective Consent
1. Actual force
2. Threats of immediate great bodily harm,
3. Incapable of consenting (i.e. drunk, unconscious, or medical condition)
4. Fraudulently cause to believe that the act is not intercourse.
a. NOT fraud in the inducement (i.e. I will marry you if we have sex)
Common Law Crimes

b. Statutory rape (strict liability)
Carnal knowledge of a female under the age of consent.

i. Consent of the victim is not a defense

ii. Mistake of fact is not a defense
Common Law Crimes

c. Other Sex Crimes
i. Adultery is committed by both parties to sex, if either is married to someone else.

ii. Fornication is sexual intercourse or open and notorious cohabitation by unmarried persons.

iii. Incest – Marriage or sexual act between closely related persons.

iv. Seduction – Inducing, by promise or marriage, an unmarried woman to engage in intercourse

v. Bigamy – CL strict liability offense of marrying someone while having another spouse.
Common Law Crimes


a. Larceny
(specific intent crime) (Intentionally stealing someone else’s property)

i. Wrongful taking – stealing or misrepresentation of fact (i.e. larceny by trick)

ii. and Carrying away – slightest movement of property is enough (if not carried then attempt)

iii. of Tangible Personal property – ex. Stock certificates or shoes

iv. Of Another With Possession – this is a crime against rightful possession
1. I.e. an owner may be convicted of larceny for taking his own property that is rightfully in possession of another.
2. Distinguish custody from possession – Low level employees have custody, not possession, over the employers inventory and thus can be held liable for larceny.

v. Without consent – consent obtained by fraud is not valid

vi. With Intent to permanently deprive the rightful possessor (Specific Intent)
1. Intent must exist at time of the taking
a. i.e. if property is taken without consent but with intent to handle it carefully and return it soon, it is NOT larceny
i. This is true, even if the property is accidently destroyed or damaged before returned.
2. Intent to create a substantial risk of loss is sufficient. (juggling vases)
3. Intent to borrow or keep property as repayment of a debt is NOT sufficient.
4. Mistaken belief that its yours or that you have some right to it is NOT larceny
a. However, if at some later point you realize the property is not yours and you decide to keep it, the D is guilty of larceny.
5. Possession – Must be taken from the possession of another. If the D already had possession at the time of the taking, the crime is not larceny but may be embezzlement.
6. Title does NOT pass.
Common Law Crimes


b. Embezzlement
(Steals property in his lawful possession)
i. The Fraudulent – (specific intent – D must intend to defraud)

ii. Conversion – i.e. dealing with the property in a manner inconsistent with the arrangement by which the defendant has possession.

iii. Of Personal Property of Another

iv. By a person In Lawful Possession
1. Alleged embezzler must have had lawful possession at time he improperly converted the property for his own purpose (i.e. trustee)
2. Does NOT have to show that he personally benefitted from conversion
3. Restore – If the D intends to restore the exact property taken, its NOT embezzlement.
a. If D intends to restore similar property it IS embezzlement. (i.e. money)
4. Title does NOT pass
Common Law Crimes


c. False Pretenses (Acquiring title by lying)
i. Obtaining Title

ii. To Personal Property of Another

iii. By an Intentional False Statement of Past or Existing Fact (Primary factor in passing title)

iv. With Intent to Defraud the other
1. Misrepresentation of future facts is NOT enough to rise to false pretenses
2. A false promise is also not sufficient
3. If the victim is tricked into giving up Possession of property it is larceny by trick
4. If the victim is tricked into giving up Title to Property it is False Pretenses.
Common Law Crimes


d. Robbery (Taking personal property with force)
i. Wrongful taking – stealing or misrepresentation of fact (i.e. larceny by trick)

ii. of Personal property of another – ex. Stock certificates or shoes

iii. From the other’s Person or Presence – (includes anywhere in vicinity)

iv. By Force or Threats of Immediate Death or Physical Injury – threats may be made to the victim, family, or some person in the victims presence.

v. With Intent to permanently deprive him of it
1. Small amount of force (more than 1 tug rule) will do
2. Threats of future harm do NOT create robbery (create extortion)
3. Note – For a D to be guilty of robbery, the victim must give up her property because she feels threatened (NOT because she feels sorry for D, or wants him to go away)
a. If V is NOT threatened D may be guilty of attempted robbery.
Common Law Crimes


e. Extortion (blackmail)
Obtaining property by means of threats to do harm or to expose information. (CL Corrupt collection of an unlawful fee by an officer of the law)

i. Different then robbery in 4 ways
1. Extortionist does NOT have to have taken anything from the person
2. Threats can be of future rather than imminent harm
3. Threat does NOT have to be to a person or of physical harm
Common Law Crimes


f. Receipt of Stolen Property
i. Receiving Possession and Control – Can be constructive possession

ii. Of “Stolen” Personal Property – Must be stolen at the time the D receives it

iii. Known to have been obtained in a manner constituting a criminal offense

iv. By another person

v. With the intent to permanently deprive the owner of his interest in it
1. Note – If police recover property and use it, it is not stolen anymore but defendant can be convicted of attempted receipt of stolen property.
Common Law Crimes


g. Forgery
i. Making or Altering – i.e. drafting, editing, or deleting.

ii. A Writing with apparent legal significance – i.e. a contract, not a painting

iii. So that it is False – i.e. representing it as something that it is NOT. (Not merely containing a misrepresentation) Ex. Fake invoice vs. a inaccurate invoice.

iv. With Intent to Defraud – Nobody needs to be actually defrauded.
1. Ex. Fraudulently causing a third person to sign a document that the third person does not realize he is signing. (Not false statements to cause him to sign)
2. Uttering a Forged Instrument – Offering as genuine a forged instrument with intent to defraud.
Common Law Crimes


h. Malicious Mischief
i. The Malicious

ii. Destruction of or Damage to

iii. The Property of Another
1. Malice requires the damage to have been intended or contemplated (No ill will)

a. Burglary (specific intent)
Breaking and entering into the dwelling house of another at night, with the present intent to commit a felony therein.

i. Breaking – Entry must be accomplished by use of some force (i.e. moving something out of the way, threats or fraud. NOT walking in through an open door)

ii. Entering – Sufficient if ANY part of the body crosses the threshold into the house

iii. Dwelling house – Structure regularly used for sleeping purposes.

iv. Of Another – Ownership is irrelevant. Occupancy by someone other than the D is ok.

v. At night – CL had to be at night (Modernly statutes modify this)

vi. Intent to commit a felony or theft inside – Intent to commit this felony must have existed at time of the breaking and entering (i.e. NOT forming the intent while inside)
a. Also, the felony need not be completed to constitute burglary (just the intent)
b. Modernly statutes allow for intent to conduct a misdemeanor.

b. Arson – Malicious burning of the dwelling house of another
i. Malicious – Intentional or reckless disregard of an obvious risk.

ii. Burning – requires charring, but not blackening by smoke damage or discoloration by heat

iii. Dwelling house – CL requirement (essay) on MBE can be ANY structure

iv. Of another – CL burning down own house is NOT arson
1. Modern – any structure (even own house, car or train)
2. CL Misdemeanor House burning – Malicious burning of one’s OWN dwelling if the structure is location in a city or near other houses creating a danger to them.
16. Offenses involving JUDICIAL Procedure
a. Perjury – Intentional taking of a false oath (lying) in regard to a material matter.

b. Subordination of Perjury – Inducing or procuring another to commit perjury.

c. Bribery – Corrupt payment or receipt of anything of value for official action

d. Compounding a Crime – Agreeing for valuable consideration not to prosecute another for a felony or to conceal the commission thereof.

e. Misprison of a Felony – Failure to disclose knowledge of the commission of a felony or to prevent the commission of a felony. (Modernly this has been abolished)