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84 Cards in this Set

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Pyrrhic defeat theory
A victory at such huge cost that it's really a defeat
Body of study/literature that's been dissected & studied by scientific community
Who came up with Biological theory?
What is Biological Theory?
People are born criminal due to something wrong with them (brain, genes, hormones, etc) and they can be identified by certain characteristics.
What Policies for Biological Theory?
'Cures" - invasive treatment (lobotomies, castrations) - can't be cured, only treated
What method was used to come up with Biological Theory?
The scientific method - empirical measure of evidence
What is positivism?
study of human behavior
What is phrenology?
Study of person's physical attributes
What are atavists?
Less developed individuals, lower on evolutionary scale
What are the three somatotypes?
endomorph - short fat
mesomorph - medium build
ectomorph - tall skinny
Rational Choice Theory - what assumptions?
1. Ppl have free will & are rational
2. Ppl are hedonistic (avoid pain, seek pleasure)
3. Bad behavior is determined by laws
4. Crime is a calculated choice (pros vs cons)
What constitutes deterrence under Rational Choice Theory?
Certainty - sure you'll get punished?
Celerity - how quickly?
Severity - how severe?
Under Rational Choice, deterrence will be successful as long as....
Pain just outweighs pleasure
Under Rational Choice, what two are better deterrents?
Certainty and Celerity are better deterrents than Severity
What policies would be implemented under Rational Choice?
Increase certainty, celerity, severity
(ex: more cops, speed cameras, auto ticket cameras)
Under Rational Choice, what does the US CJ policy focus on? (certainty, celerity, severity)
Not certainty - leaky system
Not celerity - takes so long
SEVERITY! - we're so punative
In medieval times, what Rational Choice deterrent was thought most important?
In Game Theory/Prisoner's Dilemma, what strategy happens?
'Dominant Strategy' - both confess
Confessing lowers the total risk
Under Rational Choice, according to Modern Deterrence Theory, crime is _____ and depends on ________&______. It occurs when....
Crime is normal
Depends on conditions and opportunities

Occurs when:
1. motivated offender (selectively chooses crime)
2. suitable target (gives pleasure, low certainty of caught)
3. no capable guardians (no security)
What types of crime does Rational Choice explain?
White collar & opportunity crimes
What is the fault of the Rational Choice theory?
Only works on rational people!!!!
In the Age of Enlightenment, what beliefs started being held?
Innocent until proven guilty
No torture
Laws clearly stated
'Deterrence' idea came about
'Reasonable doubt' - legal system still based on this

all based on reason
Who came up with Psychoanalytic Theory?
What is Psychoanalytic Theory?
Crimes result from personality, an imbalance in Id, Ego, & Superego
What are Id, Ego, & Superego?
Id - 'pleasure principle' - instincts, self-preservation, unconscious (seek pleasure, avoid pain)
Ego - 'reality principle' - conscious, personality, deals w/reality, weighs pros/cons, controls Id based on Superego
Superego - unconscious, morals, self-criticism, society & parents put into you
What assumptions does Psychoanalytic Theory make?
- some people have a propensity for crime depending on how you were raised
- crime is irrational
- personality characters, biological factors, social interactions influence id, ego, superego which determine liklihood of crime
How you're raised & develop mentally (process of socialization) influences your cognitive development (inner controls to curb tendencies) which leads to your balance of Id & Superego.
(just to study that - good summary)
Psychoanalytic Theory thinks that childhood experiences are ______. Examples?
- abnormal emotional adjustment (death, poverty, lack of stimuli)
- abnormal maturation/control of instincts (spoiled kids)
- poor early relationship with parents (non-nurturing environment)
- underdeveloped/disruption of superego (never learned right/wrong, morals)
- unresolved guilt (seeks punishment to make up for absence of discipline)
Psychoanalytic Theory thinks that Criminal behavior itself is ______?
Just focused on person & why they commit crime.
Psychoanalytic Theory believes that crime is an outward manifestation of _________?
Improper cognitive development
What crimes are best explained by Psychoanalytic Theory?
Theft, rape, sex crimes, murders - crimes that pertain to an individual
How does Psychoanalytic Theory related to Rational Choice Theory?
Rational Choice says you'll have free will to choose crimes based on pros/cons.

Psychoanalytic Theory says you can't weigh these equally b/c imbalance of Id & superego b/c of how you were raised.... your 'choice' is already biased towards criminality
According to Psychoanalytic Theory, what happens if there's overdeveloped Id?
Acts on instincts, low self control, selfish
According to Psychoanalytic Theory, what happens if there's weak ego?
Can't balance between Id & Superego, makes poor decisions, can't keep self in check

(can happen from oversocialization (over-coddling), leading to a trapped ego, decision making stunted)
According to Psychoanalytic Theory, what happens if there's underdeveloped superego?
No morals, don't know right from wrong

(can happen from undersocialization (not pushed enough), no sense of right/wrong)
According to Psychoanalytic Theory, what happens if there's overdeveloped superego?
Feel guilty about everything b/c morals are so strong, lose self identity, only solution is to die (?)
What does Psychoanalytic Theory ignore?
Larger social issues & influences on behavior!
What's wrong/frustrating with Psychoanalytic Theory?
It's so much subconscious! How do you test or measure it?
What policies would be put in under Psychoanalytic Theory?
Treatment, counseling, diagnosing.

Would free up prison space b/c would treat/diagnose instead of locking up.
Who came up with Ecological/Social Disorganizational Theory background?
How was Ecological/Social Disorganizational Theory a shift in thinking?
Shift to social factors from individual factors
What is the underlying idea of Ecological/Social Disorganizational Theory?
Crime is caused by the environment
What is anomie?
When the norms of society are not solidified.
What are the assumptions of Durkheim (Ecological/Social Disorganizational Theory)?
- humans are social beings
- society is balanced in consensus of moral values
- everything serves a function (crime builds the collective conscience)
- Ppl commit suicide/are deviant b/c they lose purpose, are not integrated
What is Social contract?
What holds societies together (part of contract is to abide by laws)
What is Collective conscience?
- moral fabric
- embodiment of moral values we hold dear
- we shape & are shaped by society
What is social solidarity?
Basis of society - how close-knit a group is.

Mechanical - come together b/c we're all so similar/do the same thing
Organic - come together b/c we're interdependent
How can crime serve a function?
Crime offends the collective conscience & brings society together - reinforces group norms & group solidarity - close knit groups are more healthy & resistant to crime
What are the 4 types of suicide?
Anomic (most important)
What is egoistic suicide?
too little socialization, not part of whole
No goals, responsibilities
What is altruistic suicide?
Too much integration, willing to die (ex: suicide bombers, religion, cult)
What is anomic suicide?
Conditions in society break apart, causing a feeling of normlessness
Has no purpose b/c no sense of what's normal - individual & society disconnected - conditions of society not normal (ex: great depression)
What is fatalistic suicide?
Social regulation is completely instilled - collective conscience is TOO STRONG - big brother, etc
What is 'broken window' theory?
Broken windows are symptomatic of ANOMIC society - a sign no one cares (no one has replaced or fixed)
What policies should be introduced according to Ecological/Social Disorganizational Theory?
- Identify problems in neighborhoods
- Try and keep city looking nice
- Create neighborhood watches
- Create more social integration opportunities (ex: school, PTA)
What are defensible spaces?
Spaces that can be defended - like cul-de-sacs, where it's easy to tell if someone's not supposed to be there

Helps people take ownership of neighborhood
What is natural surveillance?
A feeling of safety because many other people are around and watching, and even know each other
What is Strain Theory?
There are goals and means, and strain occurs when there is a gap between the means & goals
What assumptions does Strain Theory make?
People are rational, anomie is present
What are the 5 Typographies?
For the goal 'making money'
Conformist - + goal, + means
(gets a job, education)
Innovator - + goal, - means
(does not have means to do it in + way, robs, steals, cheats)
Ritualist - - goal, + means
(given up on goal, but keeps showing up, hates job, etc)
Retreatist - - goal, - means
('life sucks', doesn't bother to try)
(can also be: overthrow govt by bombing)
Rebel - -/+ goal, -/+ means
(not always thought of as a legitimate goal)
According to Strain Theory, what emphases characterize American culture?
Strong emphasis on material goods, weak emphasis on whether means are + or -
(feel must achieve at all costs!)
What types of crime can Strain Theory explain?
Stealing in order to provide
White collar crimes
What policies should be implemented, according to Strain Theory?
Ensure + means aren't blocked so ppl can reach goals!
(ex: education, good jobs)
What is Social Learning Theory?
Individuals are socialized via agents (families, schools, etc). People learn behavior from who they are in contact with.
What assumptions does Social Learning Theory make?
We start off like a blank slate.
What is Differential Association? (Social Learning Theory)
Behavior is learned & reinforced through peer groups
(who hang out with influences behavior)
(crime is learned, attitudes, methods, & values towards it are learned)
According to Social Learning Theory, when does crime happen?
When definitions to break the law (from friends) outweigh definitions to obey law (from parents)
What policies should be implemented under Social Learning Theory?
Remove people from bad environments & surround with positive influences
What are the techniques of neutralization?
Denial of responsibility - I'm a victim of circumstance/was beyond my control
Denial of injury - It didn't hurt anybody
Denial of the victim - They deserved it!
Condemnation of the condemners - You're condemning me out of spite/You're shifting the blame from yourself!
Appeals to higher loyalties - It was for the greater good/The consequences justify the actions
What is Social Control Theory?
We are prevented from doing bad things by social controls we built in while being socialized as a child.
What are the assumptions of Social Control Theory?
Why DON'T people commit crime?
People are naturally bad - will do what feels good w/o doing what's acceptable.
How does Social Control Theory differ from Social Learning Theory?
Social Learning says you learn to be bad/good.
Social Control Theory says you have to learn to be good! From socialization.You counter your natural tendency to do it.
What does Social Control Theory explain that Rational Choice theory cannot?
Rat Choice thinks all ppl will commit crime given the chance

Social Control says it has more to do with whether you have self-control or not! Also explains why some people won't make the Dominant Strategy
What are the criticisms of Social Control Theory?
- Rehabilitation sometimes works - so must be able to readjust self control
- Ppl w/good upbringing can still go bad
- You can't test it! How define low self-control?
What policies should be implemented under Social Control Theory?
- Educate & aid parents to be better
- Do everything possible to instill self-control early on (home visits, schools)
What is Labeling Theory?
The danger in being too punitive is that once labeled a 'criminal' it becomes your 'master status' and makes hard to reintegrate.
In Labeling Theory, what is primary deviance?
Individual commits crime
In Labeling Theory, what is secondary deviance?
Societal reaction - the CJ system amplifies the crime, which leads to acceptance of the label/status
Why is it so difficult to rehabilitate/reintegrate someone with a criminal 'master status'?
They cannot act normally until society treats them normally
Why Labeling Theory so concerned about juveniles?
- stigma can lead to more crime
- more impressionable (care more about labels)
- children age out of crime but label will follow & hinder!
- labeling so early ruins life
What is Symbolic Interactionism?
We become/think of ourselves what we think other people think of us.
How does Labeling Theory tie in with Strain Theory?
Having a label gets rid of many of your + means to pursue goal!
What policies should be implemented according to Labeling Theory?
Label must be removed or minimized after punishment
More diversion policies/alternative sentencing (rehab/treatment)
What is reintegrative shaming?
After shaming for punishment, have to delabel symbolically so they can be reaccepted by society & move on