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29 Cards in this Set

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Define credit card fraud

A form of identity theft that involves an unauthorized taking of someone's credit card

What are the two main types of credit card fraud

Application Fraud: filling out applications


Account takeover: retrieving card info and using it for purchases

What are the 4 elements of a crime

Actus Reus


Mens Rea


Attendant Circumstances


Causation of Result

Define Actus Reus

The act of committing a crime

Define Mens Rea

Level of intent to commit a crime

Define attendant circumstances

The specific circumstances which surround the criminal act

Define causation of result

What occurs because of the criminal act, a death or injury etc...

Define strict liability

Narrow range of crimes that are exceptions to the requirement of actus reus+mens rea=crime




ex. act of crime without intention of crime

Define first degree murder

Planned murder

Second degree murder

Intentional unplanned murder

Define Voluntary/Third Degree Murder

An unplanned crime in which someone had reasonable cause to become emotionally or mentally disturbed

Define Involuntary Murder

A murder occurring because of negligence




F.e. DUI

Define Direct Evidence

Proof beyond reasonable doubt


F.e. Fingerprints, ballistics

Define Circumstantial Evidence

Evidence requiring an inference


F.e. Zodiac watch

What is the difference between a jail and a prison?

Jails are for short incarceration, 1 year & misdemeanors, people awaiting trial


Prisons are or long term sentences, people that have already been tried

Approximately how many jails are in the US

3,400

What are community corrections

Help offenders build stability, the least restrictive alternative

Define Probation

A sentence that avoids incarceration all together, involves curfews, drug tests, and staying away from certain places or people

How many offenders are currently on probation

4.2 Million

What does dual mandate do

Police officers and social workers supervise offenders to keep them out of trouble and help obtain housing employment and treatment services.

How does probation end

Offender completes probation period or fails to meet conditions

What is Parole

Early release from prison with conditions, some states require parole after prison term.


Parole helps manage prison populations

What are the types of intermediate sanctions

Fines: money paid to state


Restitution: money paid to victim


Forfeiture: government seizure of property--cars most prominent

What is home confinement

House arrest

What is Community Service

Unpaid labor in the form of community work

What are Day Reporting Centers

Correctional center where offender reports to each day to comply with sentence

Define a street crime

A physical crime

What is the difference between burglary and larceny?

Burglary requires force, larceny is taking an object without force (Stealing a bike off a ramp)

Define insurance fraud

Providing false info to an insurance company to gain something or insurer denies benefits knowingly