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30 Cards in this Set

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Globalisation effect on crime?

- Globalisationcreates not just new opportunities for existing forms of crime, but also in waysof committing crime and new offences.

- Castells 1998 argues that there is a global criminal economy worthover £1 trillion per annum.

The global drugs trade hasboth demand and supply sides: demand in the West is set by supply from ThirdWorld Countries where impoverished peasants find drug cultivation moreprofitable than traditional crops . EG. Colombia, 20% of population depend on cocaine production and it out sells all Colombia's exports combined.

What is global risk consciousness.

- Globalisationcreates new insecurities or ‘risk consciousness’. Risk is now seen as global rather than tied to particular places: e.g. economic migrants and asylumseekers fleeing persecution have given rise to anxieties in Western countries.

- Media provides most knowledge about risk which is usually exaggerated. Negative coverage of immigration –portrayed asterrorists or as scroungers ‘flooding’ the country – has led to hate crimesagainst minorities in several European countries including the UK.

What does Marxist sociologist Taylor Et Al Argue?

Globalisation has led to changes in the pattern and extent of crime. BY giving free rein to market forces, globalisation has created greater inequality and rising crime.

How has globalisation result to more crime according to Taylor et al

- TNCscan now switch manufacturing to low-wage countries to gain higher profits,producing job insecurity, unemployment and poverty.

- Deregulationmeans governments have little control over their own economies and statespending on welfare has declined.

- Left Realists seethe materialistic culture promoted by the global media encouraging people tothink of themselves as individual consumers, thus undermining social cohesion.

These factors create insecurity and widening inequality that encourage people to turn to crime, especially the poor. Lack of legitimate jobs drives people to the lucrative drug trade.

EG. de-industrialisation in Los Angeles led to a growth of drug gangs numbering 10 000

How has the globalisation effected crime for the elite according to Taylor?

- globalisation creates large scale criminal opportunities e.g. deregulation offinancial markets creates opportunities for insider trading and tax evasion.

Evaluate Taylor's theory?

Useful in linking global trends in the capitalist economy to changes in patternsof crime, it doesn't explain why many poor people don’t turn to crime.

Hobbs and Dunnington Glocal organisations

Crime increasingly involves individuals acting as a‘hub’ around which a loose-knit network forms, often linking legitimate andillegitimate activities.

Crime is still locally based but with global connections - this means that the form it takes would vary from place to place according to local conditions.

Also argue that changes associated with globalisation has led to changes in patterns of crime, a shift from the old rigid hierarchal gang structure to a more loose network of flexible, opportunistic, entrepreneurial criminals.

A study to support Hobbs and Dunnington

Winlow’s (2001)study of bouncers in Sunderland an area ofde-industrialisation and unemployment. Working as bouncers in the pubs andclubs provided young men with both paid work and the opportunity for illegalbusiness ventures in drugs. This show how postmodern conditions ofglobalisation and de-industrialisation have created new criminal opportunitiesand patterns at a local level.

What did Glenny argue?

examined ‘McMafia’ –organisation that emerged in Russia and Eastern Europe after the fall ofcommunism in 1989.

• The new Russiangovernment deregulated much of its economy leading to huge rises in food pricesand rents. However, oil, gas metals etc. were kept at the low prices and so therich could buy it cheaply and sell it on the world market -this created new elite, referredto as ’oligarchs’. To protect themselves from the period of increasing disorder, oligarchsturned to new ‘mafias’ and formed alliances.

These mafias were different to old Mafias in America and Italy as they were based on ethnic and family ties with a clear cut hierarchy. Russian mafias were purely economic organisations for self interest.

Vital to the new entry of a Russian capitalist society.

How is green crime defined?

Crime against the environment

- Green crime linksto globalisation by showing how threats to the eco-system have increasinglyglobal effects: e.g.atmospheric pollution from industry in one country can turn into acid rain that falls in another.

What does Beck describe modern society as?

Argues that today's late modern society is a global risk society where the massive increase in productivity and technology has created manufactured risks - new dangers which many involve causing harm to the environment.

Global warming caused by greenhouse emissions from industry.

The two different approaches of green criminology

Traditional criminology are concerned with behaviour that is defined by criminal law. If the pollution is legal, then traditionalcriminology is not concerned with it.

Green Criminology is more radical. It startsfrom the notion of harm rather than the criminal law. Legal definitions cannotprovide a consistent global standard of environmental harm, since laws differfrom state to state. Many of the worst environmental harms are not illegal, sogreen criminology is much wider than that of traditional criminology.

How is green criminology similar to Marxists view?

This approach issimilar to the Marxist idea of ‘crimes of the powerful’. TNCs and nation-statesuse their power to define in their own interests what counts as environmentalharm.

Two views of harm?

Nation-statesand TNC’sapply an anthropocentric (human-centred) view of environmental harm. Humanshave a right to dominate nature, putting economic growth before theenvironment.

Greencriminology takes an ecocentric view that sees humans andtheir environment as interdependent, so that environmental harm hurts humansalso.

What does Nigel South argue?

- classifiesgreen crime into two types: (Primary and Secondary)

- PrimaryCrimes: Crimes that result directly from thedestruction and degradation of the Earth's resources.

- Secondary GreenCrime: Crime that grows out of the floutingof rules aimed at preventing or regulating environmental disasters. e.g. governmentsbreaking their own regulations.

The 4 types of primary crimes (Green crime)

- Crimesof Air Pollution: Burning fossil fuelsfrom industry and transport adds 3 billion tons of carbon to the atmosphereyearly and carbon emissions growing 2% annually. Criminals: Government, Businesses,and Consumers.

- Crimesof Deforestation: Between 1960 and1990, 1/5 of the worlds tropical rainforest was destroyed - In the Andes, the war on drugs has led pesticideto kill coca and marijuana plants, but this also destroys crops, contaminatingwater supply, and causing illness. Criminals: State and companies.

- Crimesof Species Decline and Animal Rights: 100species a day are being extinct. 70-95% of Earths species live in rain forests which are under severthreat. Trafficking of animals, dog fights, badger baiting.

- Crime of WaterPollution: Half a billion people lack access toclean drinking water and 25 million die annually from drinking contaminated water.Marine pollution threatens 58% of the worlds ocean reefs and 34% of its fish.Criminals: Businesses and Governments.

The 2 types of Secondary crime (Green crime)

Stateviolence against oppositional groups: States are preparedto resort to similar illegal methods of terrorists. Eg. 1985 French secretservice blew up Greenpeace ship in New Zealand killing 1 crew members as thevessel was there in an attempt to prevent the French from testing nuclearweapons in South Pacific (Green crime).

HazardousWaste and Organised Crimes: Disposal of toxic waste profitable- High costsof sage and legal disposal, businesses may seek to dispose of it illegally.

What doesReece Walters (2007) note?

Notes the ocean floor hasbeen a radioactive rubbish dump. for example. 28,500 rusting barrels ofradioactive waste lies on the sea bed off the Channel Islands, dumped by UK authorities and Corporations in1950s.

What does Resoff Et Al (1998) note?

- notes the cost of legitimately disposing toxic waste in the USA is $2500 a tonbut some third world countries - $3

What does Fred Bridgeland argue?

describes how after tsunamiof 2004, hundreds of barrels of radioactive waste illegally dumped by Europeancountries washed ashore Somalia.

Evaluation of Green criminology

• It recognises theimportance of environmental issues and the need to address the harms and risks.

• By focusing on thebroader concept of harms rather than that simply legally defined, it is hard todefine the boundaries of its field of study clearly.

• Defining these boundariesinvolves making moral or political statements about which actions should bewrong. Critics argue this is a matter of values and cannot be establishedobjectively.

What is state crime?

- includes all forms ofcrimes committed by or on behalf of states and governments in order to furthertheir policies.

Eugene McLaughlin (2001) argue?

identifies four categories of state crime:

• Political Crimes, forexample corruption and censorship

• Crimes by securityand police forces such as genocide, torture.

• Economic Crimes -official violations of health and safety laws

• Social and Culturalcrimes - institutional racism.

Scale of state crime? 3 factors influencing it?

- The power of thestate enables it to commit extremely large scales crimes with widespread victimization.For example, in Cambodia between 1975 and 78 the Pol Pot government is believedto have killed 2 million people.

- The state monopoly ofviolence gives it the potential to inflict massive harm while its power enablesit to conceal its crimes and evade punishments.

- The principle ofnational sovereignty - that states are the supreme power within their bordersmakes it difficult for external authorities to intervene (Ie. UN).

The state is the source of law?

- It is the states roleto define what is criminal. Its power to make own laws allows them to avoiddefining its own harmful actions as criminal. Eg. Nazi Germany, the statecreated laws permitting it to sterilise disabled people against their will.

- State control ofjustice system also means it can persecute enemies

What does Schwendinger (1970) argue?

- argues that we should define crime in terms ofthe violations of basic human rights rather than the breaking of legal rules.This means that states deny individuals human rights must be regarded ascriminal.

- From human rightsperspective, the state can be seen as a perpetrator of crime and not simply asthe authority that defines and punishes crime.

- if we accept a legal definition we risk becomingsubservient to the state that makes the laws. EG. Nazi persecuting Jews.

Evaluation of Schewendinger

- gross violations ofhuman rights such as genocide, torture are clearly criminal, other acts such aseconomic exploitation are not self evidently criminal even if we find themmorally unacceptable.

- Other critics arguethat their is limited agreement on what counts as human rights, for example,the right of life and liberty are human rights, some would agree that freedomfrom poverty is not.

Cohen spiral of denial?

Interested in the ways in which the state conceal or legitimate their human right crimes.

Three stage of denials:

• 'it didn't happen'for example the state claims there was no massacre, but then human rightsorganisation, victims, media show it did happen.

• "if it didhappen, it is something else." Thestate say it is not what it looks like. collateral damage or self defence.

• Even if it is whatyou say it is, it is justified. for example, to protect national security orfight the war on terror.

Cohen Neutralisation theory?

He draws on the work of Sykes and Matza who identify 5 neutralisation techniques to justify their behaviour. Cohen says the states use the same techniques:

• Denial of victim:they exaggerate; they are terrorists; they are used to violence; look what theydid to each other.

• Denial of injury;they started it, we are the real victims

• Denial ofresponsibility; i was only obeying my orders

. • condemning thecondemners; the whole world is picking on us, its worse elsewhere; they arecondemning us because of their anti semitism.

• Appeal to higherloyalty; self righteous justification: appeal to a higher cause - Zionism,Islam, the defense of the free world, state security etc.

- Kelman and Hamiliton identify 3 features that produce crime ofobedience:

• Authorisation: whenacts are ordered or approved by those in authority, normal moral principles arereplaced by the duty to obey.

• Routinisation: oncethe crime has been committed, their is strong pressure to turn the act intoroutine where individuals can perform in a detached manner.

• Dehumanisation: Whenthe enemy is portrayed as sub humN rather than human and described as animalsand monsters etc. the usual principles of morality does not apply.