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111 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Iatrongenic effect

Deschooling Society. The ways in which institutions corrupt the values they want to promote

Deterrence Theory

Factors including law and jails, that influence a person's decision to commit crime

Rational Choice Theory

Crime provides Rewards this is why people commit crime

Beccaria on deterrence Theory

Based on classical Theory. Punishments as a prevention to crime. Shouldn't be too severe proportionate to Crime Swift and certain but severe enough to deter

Law as a deterrent

Effective to some extent. Certainty of punishment is better than severity of punishment. Easier for government to pass tough laws instead of increasing certainty of punishment.

Imprisonment and crime

Durlauf and Nagin found; long prison sentences aren't justified by deterrence Theory. Imprisonment increases recidivism. Adult sentences have little deterrence for 18 year olds.

Mandatory minimums

Debate on Effectiveness like California's 3 strike law in 1994. Research finds mandatory penalties have no significant deterrence.

Why don't severe penalties deter crime?

Ignore risk of getting caught. Likelihood of Arrested then convicted then punished is too low. Harsh penalties only affect small minority. Substance abusers not deterred. Unaware of sentences.

Hot Spot policing

Police presence in high-crime areas increase certainty of arrest lowering crime.

Individualized deterrence.

Informing people on consequences of future criminality.

Operation ceasefire

In Boston. High areas of black-on-black murder. Told violence wouldn't be tolerated, offered services to get out of gangs. Please emphasize measures to enhance certainty. Dramatic decline in homicide.

Project hope

Hawaiian experiment, deter drug use on probation. All probation officers each day random drug test once a week. Short jail sentence for breach reduction in positive drug tests jail time and costs.

Environmental criminology

Examines Target search of offenders before crime occurs. Focuses on environment opportunities in criminals daily routine. Example drive to work. More likely to commit crime in those areas.


Frequently visited places


Roots between nodes


Boundaries between land use, Target's attract, social control is weak.

Critiques of rational Choice Theory and routine activities

Don't involve crimes done in high emotion. Defenders are you opportunity causes crime. Realizing attractions are diverse and motivations are complex.

Lifestyle / exposure Theory

From research on Crime Victims. Being in social situations with high risk of victimization example prostitute City Life. More likely to be repeatingly offending.

Routine activities approach.

Three factors for Crime to occur. One, motivated offender. Two, suitable Target. 3, no Guard ship on target. Changes in factors increase or decrease in crime.

Suitable targets

Increase in number value or access of suitable targets causes increase in crime. Risk factors are major consideration in Target suitability.

Effective guardianship.

Changes in guardianship affects crime rate.

Prevention depends on the presence of two things.

Intimate handlers and crime facilitators

Intimate handlers

Someone intimate with offender who can control them.

Crime facilitators

Physical like guns and knives, social like peers, chemical like drugs.

Reduce opportunities for crime by ;

Increase effort to commit crime by Target hardening to limitation. Increase risks by increasing levels of surveillance. Decrease rewards by identifying property for recovery. Decrease provocations by controlling peer pressure. Remove excuses by sitting rule limits.

Crime prevention through social level

Decrease pool of motivated offenders by altering high-risk conditions that breed criminal Behavior. Examples improving parenting skills, job training.

Perry preschool project

Core black kids attend preschool for 30 weeks. Add 40 years old had lower arrest rate and higher Social results. Social savings were $17 for every $1 spent on program.

Winnipeg auto theft prevention strategy.

Effective guardianship was youth probation contacted daily apprehended immediately if breached. Target suitability was immobilizer for every 100,000 cars at most risk. Motivated offender address theft by working with family. Effective in reducing auto theft.

Invisibility of women

Chronology with traditional email centered. Concerned with men's actions, ignored women since they are underrepresented. Violence against women not seen as a crime concern. Don't look at men as men.

Goals of feminist criminology

Move women and Analysis of gender into the center of criminology inquiry.

Initial contributions of feminist critique to existing Theory.

One, focus on sexism of theories use to explain women's crime. 2, and explanation of invisibility of women in mainstream criminology theories.

Conservative woman's crime approach

Women viewed as naturally inferior, which explains female criminality

Biological determinism

Differences between men and women that account for female criminal offending, and differences in female and male offending

Lombroso and Ferrero conservative approach to women's crime

Women are less intelligent, less sensitive to pain, more passive and more conservative than men.

Atavism Theory to women's crime

Women aren't as evolved as males. Female criminals are degenerate lost maternity instincts.

Wi Thomas on female criminality

Behavior is expression of instincts such as anger fear love status power. Women had more love in their nervous systems. Need for love made them criminals like prostitutes.

Glueck and Glueck on women's crime

Criminal women are others. Imprisoned women are sorry lot. Characterized by feeble-mindedness, and Psychopathic personalities. Hard to reform.

Pollack 1961 approach to women's crime

Women's crime is equal to men's crime. Women are deceptive and vengeful

Critiques of conservative theory on woman's crime

Myth based, dual nature assumption like good versus bad binary. Promiscuity is good with men and bad with girls, doesn't factor in crime to gender roles.

Liberal approach to women's crime in 1970

Shifted from physical to sociological factors.

Role Theory in 1973

Low female crime comes from how girls are socialized. Explains women's Lester involvement in violent crime and More in shoplifting.

Power control theory Hagen.

Patriarchal Families versus egalitarian families. Patriarchal families large gender differences resulted in delinquency.

Smart 1978.

Role Theory can only partly explain crime. Why gender socialization differs.

Mainstream theories on woman's crime

Criticized fail to account for women's crime.

Merton's strain theory on women's crime

Accounted for class, not gender. Low SES still commit less crime than low SES men.

Differential association theory on woman's crime

Some men as heterogeneous and women as homogeneous

Hirschi on women's crime

Ignored women in his theories. Women more conformist.

Generalizability problem on women's crime

Modify mainstream theories to fit women. Merton see women as marriage children as cultural goals. The problem is in treats women as an afterthought.

Gender ratio problem; why are criminally different?

Latency, only treated more leniently when white upper-class SES and act stereotypically like a woman example crying. Chivalry in The CJS makes women subordinate.

Women's Liberation thesis

Female criminality will have more closely reflects men's as gender equality is reached in the workplace. Increased employment opportunities equals increased crime opportunity

Critique of women's Liberation thesis

Takes males to be the norm and doesn't see women as separate.

Class of women criminals

Tend to be young, poor, uneducated, unskilled. Most likely to be involved in property crime period consistent with role as consumers

Race of women criminals in Canada

Aboriginal women have over a presentation in jails in crime. Prostitution reflection of subordinates social position.

Cultural construction of rape

Question assumptions of beliefs of public on violence against women. Perception of rape full of victim and perp stereotypes.

Rape myths

Women are asked to be raped for clothing, no means yes. Myths are phallocentric. Translate into lower detection and higher acquittal rates and later said it's his for a fender. Rapist don't see their action is wrong.

Double victimization

Refers to women's II humiliation by going through the court process

Laws role in condoning violence against women

Historically women were property, until 1983 men couldn't be charged with raping wife. Women needed evidence to lay charges, Criminal Justice System viewed partner violence as personal matter.

Why they used to think violence against women wasn't a problem

Rape was infrequent males were majority of victims

Breaking the silence

Women's movement encouraged women to tell their stories more services emerge from it. This movement found that assault was more frequent than thought 1 out of 5 women assaulted in their life. 1 out of 10 women married is battered, 1 out of 10 sexual assaults are ever reported. led to legislative reform an eighth 1983 criminal code added rape Shield.

1993 violence against women survey findings

Half of women were victims of physical / sexual violence. Half of men were the perpetrators they knew.

Missing / murdered women

Aboriginal women in Canada are five times more likely to be killed from violence. 1991 rape Shield law was struck down. C49 instead said sexual past is in admissible as evidence when used in relation to concerned.

Blurred boundaries

Most criminals have been previously victimized especially aboriginals. Pathways show connection between victimization and leading to criminal activity. Criminalized women have become women in trouble.

What is critical about critical criminology?

Takes the system to task rather than tinkering with its parts. Critiques social inequalities and suffering. Transformation

The new criminology

Identified starting points for a new criminology. Criticize conventional criminology for, supporting the political and economic status quo, ignoring structural cases of crime, focusing on biological / psychological factors, called for a fully social criminology.

Ratner said Canadian criminologists are guilty of what,?

Ignoring social structures, failing to challenge State definitions of crime, believing criminal justice system could be easily adjusted to address in justices.


Known for his work on power. Power is not a quantity that can be possessed is relational, evident only when exercised. Produces reality, is thus not negative, but creative.

Micro powers

Small and mundane relations of governance affecting human behavior

Discipline, Foucault.

Insurance constant subjection and obedience like a grade school teacher, which operates through surveillance


The direct or indirect observation of conduct towards producing a desired outcome examples of conformity

Foucault on governmentality

Any attempt to shape Behavior According to some norms, for a variety of ends.

Draws attention to non-state constructions of criminality like private institutions. Draws attention to Myriad Technologies of governments. And restorative justice as Governmentality

Actuarial risk

A mode of treatment of certain events capable of occurring to a group of people. This can result in increased surveillance of certain groups which is unjust. Risk-based strategies do not take into account the context in which different risks develop.

Beck's concept of risk Society

Society organized around the management of risk. Social problems become risks to be managed not solved. Risk thinking transforms criminal justice practices.

Cultural criminology

Crime viewed as a cultural not illegal contract. A culturally negotiated phenomenon through which people create social meaning.

Hayward and Young 2004 5 motifs of cultural criminology

One, crime is motivated by feelings and how we Act is felt by the offender. 2, the soft City equals street-level possibilities and creativity can thwart rationality planned Urban space. 3, acts of transgressions challenge justness of laws. 4, employees and attentive gaze. Ethnographic methodology to identify the experimental and interpretive dimensions of crime. 5, produces dangerous knowledge because its purpose is to question all knowledge, including the status of criminology as an objective science.

Field theory of criminology

The social world is divided into many fields like artistic and economic. Each field is a space of conflict and competition. Field rules are tilted to favor the powerful. Actors ability to display competence in a field depends on his or her habitus.

Wacquants critical criminological take on bourdieu

Does not accept criminalize identities as constructed through criminal law. Instead it seeks to identify this symbolic, cultural, economic factors that empowered dominant actors to create an applied criminal categories.


A person in power to declare a state of exception. When The Sovereign declares the suspension of civil liberties to restore social order.

Sovereignty and the state of exception

Central concern is the modern conditions of sovereignty, repression, the loss of rights in the name of security since 9/11

Naked life

Unprotected by laws and rights


Opening up language to this island, background sub positions that give words and their phrases meeting. It intends to encounter the hidden and excluding elements of language. Like meaning and experience

Underlying all language is Trace

Trace is the silent or absent element of language that gives words and essential part of their meeting. Comet is an example, when we observe a comment we are not privy to its Essence the nucleus remains hidden.

Deconstructing community

Youth criminal justice Act Community is inherently exclusionary. It designates divisions between and amongst people. Gated neighborhoods exclude the others while Shoring up a privileged lifestyle. Community can contribute to exclusionary practices that limit patterns of Harmony.

Deconstructing Justice

Most common place understanding of justice is vengeance. Many injustice's are done in the pursuit of Justice. Justice is not an existing reality or entity. Justice is not found from the law or contained in the law. Justice is an ideal I promise.

Section 467 of the Canadian criminal code

Organized crime. Three or more persons in or outside of Canada. Has main Activity one or more serious criminal offenses. This activity results in material benefit. Excludes a group that forms randomly to commit a single offense.

Continuity continuing Enterprise

OC groups designed to last longer than current membership and Leadership, Personnel can be replaced no one is indispensable.

Career criminals

Clear Voltron criminal activity, criminal record is a prerequisite for membership in some groups. Offenders involved in the criminal activities even after amassing wealth or spending time in prison


Code of secrecy in the mafia

Italian organized crime in Canada

Sicilian Mafia and Katie and arm of American La Cosa Nostra. Members from Calabria in southern Italy, powerful in Italy Europe and globally. Seven families in Toronto, part of an international Network.

Alien conspiracy theory

Organized crime is result of importation of secret criminal societies rooted in foreign cultures.

Critiques of alien conspiracy theory

Seen as xenophobic and racist.

Ethnic succession Theory

Theorist noted the over-representation of ethnic groups in organized crime in North America. Lack of legitimate opportunities for ethnic minority groups pushes them towards criminal Innovations to achieve the American dream. Once they have opportunity to legitimate opportunity structures they move on into mainstream Society.

Critiques of ethnic succession Theory

Many people of Italian and Chinese Heritage remained active in organized crime long after these groups assimilated into mainstream Society.

Economic theories

Views organized crime is economically rational Behavior based on laws of supply and demand.

Public policy Impetus

Governments create demand for illegal goods and services by outlawing vices or through high tariffs and taxes. This creates an underground Market, which is eventually dominated by organized crime. Examples include Al Capone.

Bureaucratic / hierarchical model of organized crime

Views organized crime is bureaucracy. Holly structure tightly controlled.

Kinship model of organized crime

Based on study of an Italian-American Mafia Family. Argue this family is organizer on kinship relationships pattern by culture. Blood, marriage, and shared ethnicity.

Patron / client model

Organized crime involves a loose system of power and business relationships. Requires a middleman to provide contacts / influence. This person becomes a patreon who dominates a network of people in a given area. Ensures the welfare and security of his people and Associates and receives a military tribute from his clients.

Network model of organized crime

Organized crime is a loose-knit, fluid network of independent criminals. Consists of symmetrical business Partnerships based on complementary areas of specialization. Network model is very applicable to International drug production, smuggling, wholesale, retailing.

Corporate and white collar crime

White collar crime is much more costly in dollar terms and Street crime. Violation of criminal laws security regulations have become common. Sports scandals are common to like steroids. Major problem.

Crimes against the public

Corporate and business crime. Crimes by individual and professional practices.

Crimes within organization

Offenses against the organization. Offenses against employees.

Occupational crime

White collar crime committed by an individual or group of individuals exclusively for personal gain.

Organizational crime AKA corporate crime.

Crimes committed within the support and encouragement of a formal organization and its intended in part to advance the goals of the organization.

Corporate homicide

Death of employees due to corporate negligence deemed

Three components of middle and upper-class lifestyle that contribute to criminal Behavior

Competitive spirit. Arrogance. Sense of entitlement.

Juristic person

Treating a corporation as a person in legal fictition mean in terms of liability.

Executive disengagement

Employees do not inform superiors of certain actions, so it appears cannot be held responsible.

Occupational crime

Violations committed during the course of practicing legitimate occupation. At the heart of Occupational crime is a violation of trust.

Ponzi schemes

Investors are promised substantial returns but existing investors are paid off with money for new victims

Insider trading

Illegal trading by people with knowledge that gives them an advantage over other investors.

Pump and dump

Artificially inflate stock prices through misinformation and sell shares for profit.