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51 Cards in this Set

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What are the characteristics of Positivist Theory?
The use of empirical (quantitative) or scientific investigation for the improvement of society.
1. measurement (quantification)
2. Objectivity (neutrality)
3. Causality (determinism)
What is Atavism?
Criminals were "throwbacks" to an earlier and more primitive evolutionary period.
What is Phrenology?
Attempted to determine intelligence and personality on the basis of size and shape of the skull and posited that certain areas of the brain corresponded to various psychological and intellectual characteristics.
What is Eugenics?
A movement to control degenerates through sterilization, euthanasia, and cutbacks in welfare.
What is Social Darwinism?
"survival of the fittest"
What is the purpose of twin studies?
helps attempt to address nature v. nurture
What is the Id?
unconscious; instant gratification (devil)
What is the Ego?
Conscious self tries to regulate behavior
What is the Superego?
Moral standards (angel)
What is Dualistic fallacy?
They call the idea that society may be clearly divided into criminals and noncriminals a dualistic fallacy, or a misguided notion.
What's the Relationship between delinquency & IQ?
Negative correlation- lower IQ, higher delinquency
Which theorist/s proposed "criminal personality"?
Yochelson & Samenow
What is anomie?
"normlessness" lack of structure & rules
What is an innovator?
Accepts the goals of success, but rejects or seeks illegitimate alternatives to the means of achieving these aims.
What is a retreatist?
Represents a rejection of both societally approved ends and means.
What is a conformist?
Accepts the goals of society and also the societally approved means of achieving this status.
What is a ritualist?
"mindless bureaucrat" who becomes so caught up in rules & means to an end that he/she tends to forget or fails to place proper significance on the goal.
What is a rebel?
Reject both means and goals and seeks to substitute alternative ones that would represent new societal goals as well as new methods of achieving them.
What is institutional anomie?
institutions where there is "normlessness"
Which urban zone has most crime?
Zone of transition
In cloward & ohlin's opportunity there are 3 subtypes of gangs what are these & what do they do?
Criminal- stable, structured & recruits new members in criminal careers.
Conflict- Focus on turfs. Found in areas where even illegal opportunities are limited.
Retreatists- focus on alcohol, drugs & sex. Least successful.
What is inner containment?
Self-control
What is outer containment?
Approval of others
Hirschi's Social Bond Theory has 4 parts what are they?
Attachment, Commitment, Involvement & belief
What is the general theory of crime?
Crime & criminals are two separate things
What is Conflict Criminology?
Emphasis on criminalization of behavior. Conflict world view. Question established social order. Oriented toward social change & justice.
What is labeling theory?
Primary Deviance- Initial deviant act.
Secondary Deviance- norm violation or crime that comes to the attention of significant others or social control agents.
Both positive & negative labels involve subjective interpretation of behavior. Moral entrepreneurs.
What is a moral entrepreneur?
Agents or officials who are concerned with creating and labeling new categories of deviance.
What is primary deviance?
Initial deviant act
What is secondary deviance?
norm violation or crime that comes to the attention of significant others or social control agents
Critiques of labeling theory?
Doesn't explain initial involvement in crime. Overly deterministic.
What is an androcentric bias?
Male experience is the "norm"
What is the main focus of radical feminism?
Views male aggression and control of female sexuality is basis of patriarchy and subordination of women.
What is the main focus of liberal feminism?
Proposed that female crime would increase as women assumed more assertive positions in society.
What is left realism?
Attempts to translate radical ideas into realistic social policy
What is peacemaking criminology?
Combines criminology with a religious approach; seeks to mediate conflict, assist victims, and reintegrate offenders into the community.
What is the main focus of postmodernism?
Examines how knowledge is constituted, significance of language and signs.
What is global fallacy?
Attempt to generalize relatively specific explanations to all types of crime.
Biological explanations say crime is caused by what factors?
Brain Disorders, Neurological conditions, childhood mental disorders, biochemical conditions, genetics & behavioral genetics, sociobiology & evolutionary psychology
What is the evolutionary perspective?
Evolutionary traits make people aggressive or predisposed to commit crime
What is the biggest problem with trait theories?
Tend to view criminals as "abnormal" when most are not.
Definitions of psychopaths/sociopaths?
Lack affect, empathy
Short-sighted
Need high arousal
What is the cognitive theory?
reasoning depends on sensory processing- the way people perceive their environment
Why do people age out of crime?
Reasoning ability improves with maturity
What is Cohen's explanation of delinquent subculture?
Views crime as the response to inability to live up to middle-class values
What are Miller's focal concerns?
"street rules" of lower class life (focal concerns) as alternatives to mainstream culture.
Trouble, Toughness, Smartness, Excitement, Fate & Autonomy
What is Sutherland's differential association theory?
Crime is learned behavior.
Can you reverse a career criminal & if so how?
Structure, Commitment & Identity
What is the main link between capitalism and crime?
Surplus value- getting more from the worker than one pays for.
What is the most important goal of restorative justice?
Assist victims & restore the community
What are the concerns about restorative justice?
Benefits may be short-term, doesn't meet needs of all victims, gives much power to the political system because of involvement in individual lives.