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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

· Basing his or her work in theory helps a counselor do what?

o Theories help counselors:

1.) Organize clinical data,

2.) Make complex processes coherent,

3.) Provide conceptual guidance for interventions.

· The most powerful and dominant influencers of human behavior according to psychoanalytic theory AND Adlerian thought

o Psychoanalytic theory

§ Unconscious mind.

o Adlerian thought

§ Conscious

· Psychoanalysis’ limitations

o Expensive

-doesn’t meet the needs for most people

-hard to understand the concepts

-hard to get training to use it (mainly for psychiatry)

· According to Adler, a healthy style of life focuses on three main tasks: ________.

o 1.) Social interests

o 2.) Purposefulness of behavior

o 3.) Developing a healthy lifestyle

· Rogers’ “necessary and sufficient conditions” for bringing about change in counseling

o 1.) Empathy

o 2.) Unconditional positive regards

o 3.) Congruence (openness, genuineness, etc.)

· A major goal of existential counseling is for the client to shift from (an) ________ to a(n) _________.

o Outward to inward?

o Observer to a shaper?

· According to Gestalt theory, a person may experience difficulty in some ways

o Lose contact with the environment

o Over involved with the en. And out of touch with the self

o Failure to put aside unfinished business

o Fragmented or scattered in many directions

o Conflict between what they should do and want to do

o Difficulty with contrasts of life (love/hate)

· Behavioral therapy techniques

Reinforcers, shaping, generalizing, maintenance, extinction, punishment, systematic desensitization, time out, overcorrection, and assertiveness training.

Ellis’s main assessment tool for REBT

o ABCDE model, which helps people learn how feelings are attached to thoughts.

· Reality therapy’s emphasis in its goals

o Choice and responsibility

· Basic assumptions of systems theories

o Casuality is interpersonal

o Psychosocial systems are best understood as repeated patterns of interpersonal interaction

o Symptomatic behaviors must be understood from an interactional viewpoint

Strategy family therapy’s view of human nature

o Structure

o Coalitions

o Cross-generational alliances

· Techniques of solution-focused counseling.

o 1.) Miracle question

§ “Suppose a miracle happened that solved all the problems that brought you here. How would you know it? What would be different?”

o 2.) Scaling

§ Evaluates problem on a scale from 1-10.

o 3.) Compliments

o 4.) Clues

o 5.) Skeleton keys

§ Procedures that have worked before and have universal applications to unlocking a variety of problems

· Two concepts emphasized by the narrative family counseling approach

o 1.) Meaning or knowledge is constructed through social interaction

2.) There is no absolute reality except as a social product

· Four of the most common types of crises

o 1.) Developmental

o 2.) Situational

o 3.) Existential

o 4.) Ecosystemic

Advantages of group counseling

o Groups can help individuals with a variety of problems.

o Groups can be beneficial for: elementary through high school students; promoting career development; adult women; adult men; dealing with stressors; adolescent offenders; and many more

· Types of groups

o 1.) Psychodrama

§ Enact unrehearsed role-plays.

o 2.) T-Groups

§ T= training; how the individual functions within the group

o 3.) Group Marathons

§ Lasts for a minimum of 24 hours

o 4.) Self-Help/ Support

§ Support- organized by pro. helping org./individual

§ Self-Help- originates spontaneously and stress independence and internal group resources.

· What is self-help/support group: any examples?

§ Support- organized by pro. helping org./individual

· Focus on a certain topic.

§ Self-Help- originates spontaneously and stress independence and internal group resources.

· Alcoholics anonymous, weight watchers.

o Psychodrama group

§ Sometimes known as guidance groups or educational groups.

· Stages in groups

o 1.) Forming

o 2.) Storming

o 3.) Norming

o 4.) Performing/working

o 5.) Mourning/ termination

· Advantages of an open-ended group

o Replace lost members rather quickly and maintain optimal size.

· Qualities of successful, experienced co-leaders

o 1.) Caring

o 2.) Meaning attribution

o 3.) Emotional stimulation

o 4.) Executive function

· In what conditions, is feedback most effective?

o When it immediately follows a stimulus behavior and is validated by others.

o When the receiver is open and trusts the giver.

· Common aspects of the consultation process

o 1.) Problem solving focus

o 2.) Three way (tripartite) in nature

o 3.) Emphasizes improvement

· Four conceptual models of consultation.

o 1.) Expert or provision model

o 2.) Doctor-patient or prescription model

o 3.) Mediation model

o 4.) Process consultation or collaboration model

· In what form/level of consultation is teaching self-management skills usually done

o Individual consultation

· Five-stage process of consultation

o 1.) Phasing in

o 2.) Problem identification

o 3.) Implementation

o 4.) Follow-up and evaluation

o 5.) Termination

· Three-level definition of prevention.

o 1.) Primary prevention

§ Reduction of disorders

o 2.) Secondary prevention

§ A reduction in the duration of disorders

o 3.) Tertiary prevention

§ A reduction in the impairment of disorders

· Six levels of community mental health consultation

o 1.) Client-centered case consultation

o 2.) Consultee-centered case consultation

o 3.) Program-centered administrative consultation

o 4.) Consultee-centered administrative consultation

o 5.) Community-centered ad hoc consultation

o 6.) Consultee-centered ad hoc consultation

· Self-management skills in consultation

o Self-monitoring, self-measurement, self-mediation, self-maintenance.

Trends that influence agency consultation

o Downsizing organizations

o Creation of semiautonomous work units

o Rebirth of commitment leadership by managers

o Process-based technologies

o Egalitarian social and organizational values.

· Comparison of research and evaluation

o Research

§ Theory-oriented and discipline-bound.

§ Has greater control over the activity, produces results. Is more concerned with explaining and predicting phenomena.

o Evaluation

§ Process of applying judgments to or making decisions based on results of measurement.

§ Can be used immediately

§ Allows clients to give input and feedback

· The first step in doing an evaluation

o Needs assessment

o State goals and performance objectives

§ Terminal program outcomes

§ Ultimate program outcomes

o Design a program

o Revise and improve the program

o Note and report program outcome

· Main reasons counselors do not engage in research studies

o Lack of knowledge of research methods

o Absence of clear program goals

o Lack of awareness

o Fear of finding negative results

o Discouragement from peers or supervisors

o Lack of financial support

o Low aptitudes and limited abilities

· What is experience-near research?

Determining how closely the research approximates what is done in the counseling office

· Definitions of basic research and applied research

o Basic research

§ Oriented to theory, and those who practice it are interested in investigating a problem that is suggested by theory

o Applied research

Focus on examining practical problems and applying their findings to existing problems

· Applicability of number 1 (N of 1) research

o Single-subject research

o The data from a single participant is the focus of the research design rather than a group.

· Millers six major advantages to single subject research (N of 1)

o 1.) It allows a more adequate description of what happens between a counselor and client.

o 2.) Positive and negative outcomes can be understood in terms of process data

o 3.) Outcome measures can be tailored to the client’s specific problems

o 4.) It allows for the study of a rare or unusual phenomenon

o 5) It is flexible enough to allow for novel procedure in diagnosis and treatment

o 6.) It can be used in evaluating the effectiveness of an intervention strategy on a single client.

· Steps in the research process

o Statement of the problem

o Identification of the information needed to solve the problem

o Selection or development of measures for gathering data

o Identification of the target population and sampling procedures

o Design of the procedure for data collection

o Collection of data

o Analysis of data

o Preparation of a report

· What is contaminating variable and how to control it

o Variables that invalidate a study (if one group is healthier than the other group)

o Control it by establishing equivalent experimental group and control group

· Things that counselor must know in order to understand a test

o The characteristics of its sample

o Types and degree of its reliability and validity

o Reliability and validity of comparable tests

o Scoring procedures

o Method of administration

o Limitations and strengths

· Reliability

Measure of the degree to which a test produces consistent test scores when people are retested with the same or an equivalent instrument


· Validity

o The degree to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure; is the most important test quality

§ Four types of validity:

§ Content/face validity - the degree to which a test appears to measure what it is supposed to

§ Construct validity – the degree to which a test measures an intended hypothetical construct

§ Criterion validity - the comparison of test scores with a person’s actual performance of a certain skill across time and situations

§ Consequential validity - the social implications or consequences of test use and interpretation

· Shertzer and Stone’s (1981) seven classification of tests

o Standardized vs. nonstandardized

o Individual vs. group

o Speed vs. power

o Performance vs. paper and pencil

o Objective vs. subjective

o Maximum vs. typical performance

o Norm vs. criterion-based

· Four basic interpretations

o Four basic interpretations can be helpful to test takers:

o Descriptive interpretation – provides information on the current status of the test taker

o Genetic interpretation – focuses on how the tested person got to be the way he/she is now

o Predictive interpretation – concentrates on forecasting the future

o Evaluative interpretation – includes recommendations by the test interpreter

· The goals of assessment

o Obtain information on client’s presenting problem

o Identify contributing variables to the problem

o Determine the client’s goals/expectations

o Gather baseline data

o Educate and motivate the client

o Plan treatment interventions and strategies