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151 Cards in this Set

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People are essentially good and under the right conditions will move themselves toward self-actualization.
Transactional analysis -
each person has the 3 ego states of parent, adult, and child.
biological instincts and development through psychosexual stages control people.
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy:
a person's instincts are both rational and irrational, but different reactions can be taught.
People are whole and complete but are affected by their environment. Learning and change result from how a person organizes experience.
Reality Therapy:
People have physical needs like food and shelter, plus the need to feel worthwhile and be successful.
Individual psychology:
People are essentially good. Birth order determines much of a person's behavior.
Analytic psychology:
People strive for self-fulfullment.
Behavioral Modification: Humans are machines that cannot make free-will decisions. Behavior is learned from a person's environment and from the reinforcement he receives from others.
People are good and rational, and have the freedom to choose their behavior.
The potential for good and bad is innate.
Subscribe to the doctrine of empiricism, which maintains that experience is the only source of knowledge. The doctrine was formulated by John Locke, and is the forerunner of behaviorism.
The theory that the total organization of an organism is the determinant of life processes. Gestalt psychologists, such as Kurt Goldstein, subscribe to this theory.
A type of testing that assesses how a patient's thinking and emotions may affect his or her behavior.
States that an individual is formed by successive development of an unstructured egg, rather than by the growth of a preformed entity. Kohlberg, Erikson, and Maslow used these principles in developing their theories of human development.
Means from head to tail.
Can be used to refer to the fact that a fetus' head develops before the legs.
In vivo desensitization
A behavior therapy technique in which a person is gradually exposed to the thing he fears.
Derived from instinct.
Refers to behavior that is innate rather than learned.
The study of animals in their natural environment. Uses Darwinian theory.
Ethology research findings can applied to humans as "comparative psychology".
The design, administration, and interpretation of tests that measure intelligence, aptitude, and personality characteristics.
The study of the effects of drugs on psychological functions.
In Piaget's preoperational stage, centration is focusing on one feature of an object while ignoring the rest of an object.
Ex. - seeing an alligator's teeth, but not its eyes or nostrils.
In Piaget's preoperational stage, this is a child's ability to see the world from only his own viewpoint.
The child's viewpoint is current and not influenced by remembering features or details seen at an earlier time.
The theory of knowledge.
Piaget was a genetic epistemologist.
His theory was that children learn from their own actions and experiences with their peers, rather than from adults.
Symbolic schema
Piaget's term for language and symbolism becoming a part of play during the preoperational stage, when the child is 2-7 years old.
This process allows a child to substitute one object for another. Ex. - a box becomes a car and a paper plate becomes a wheel.
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing
An information processing therapy that uses an eight phase approach to reduce the emotional stress of a distressing event or memory.
Umwelt, Mitwelt, and Eigenwelt
In existential philosophy, the three essential components of the conscious experience of being alive.
Umwelt - biological
Mitwelt - social
Eigenwelt - psychological
The counselor repeats what the client has said.
The counselor rephrases what the client has said.
The counselor sums up or reviews what has happened in a session or in the course of the therapy.
The use of books or other written material as a part of therapy.
Absolutist statements by clients.
The use of "musts, shoulds, and oughts"
Looking at a situation or anticipating an event with irrational beliefs about how awful or difficult it is.
young, attractive, verbal, intelligent, successful -
the most desirable client traits
quiet, ugly, old, indigent, dissimilar culturally -
the least desirable client traits
physical or mental limitation or incapacity
physcial or mental limitation or incapacity that limits activity
intrinsic motivation
internal motivation for something such as a hobby.
based on the enjoyment of the behavior.
extrinsic motivation
for a behavior based on the expectation of a reward or a punishment
Robert Carkhuff
developed five-point scale for measuring genuineness and empathy in counselors.
Levels 1-5
Student of Carl Rogers
Five tasks of healthy individuals
!. spirituality
2. self-regulation - positive sense of self and self-esteem
3. work - includes physical tasks and economic stability
4. friendship - includes relationships w others outside family
5. love - intimacy, trust, and giving of one's self to another
process of understanding another's situation by identifying with the problem, rather than by looking at it from an outside perspective.
stage one - experiencing the same emotions as the person
stage two - realistically looking at the situation from the other person's point of view
the act of projecting thoughts or feelings about someone or something onto a new object or person.
a form of behavior that demonstrates interest and respect for what another person has to say.
Eye contact
Posture and distance
Communication of understanding, empathy
a measurement of the consistency with which a test yields similar results in repeated uses.
stability - also called test-retest reliability
giving the same test to the same group twice with no more than two weeks between so that the two sets of results can be correlated without intervening experiences affecting the outcome.
the correlation of the results of using different tests covering the same content with the same group of test takers.
Time between the tests and the formats used can affect the outcome.
internal consistency
measures the consistency of results from items in a test –
do the responses from similar and opposing questions yield consistent information.
the degree to which it measures what it is designed to measure.
A testing instrument that is valid for one situation or population may not be valid for another. A valid test must always be reliable.
face validity
obvious validity
Math tests will have math problems.
content validity - also called rational or logical validity
the reflection of the subject matter in the content of the test, for example a math test will contain material covered in the specific math course.
predictive validity - also called empirical validity
the capability of a testing instrument to predict future behavior
for example the ability of the Graduate Record Exam to predict a person’s grade point average.
concurrent validity
the immediate comparison of test results with the results from other sources that measure the same factors in the same short time span.
construct validity
the extent to which a testing instrument measures an abstract psychological trait such as anxiety.
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Test -
provides verbal IQ, performance IQ, and a full-scale IQ.
Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence
For ages 3-7 yrs./3 mos.
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children
For ages 6-16 yrs./11 mos.
Sr. Francis Galton
leading pioneer in the study of individual differences.

He concluded that intelligence was primarily genetic and had a normal distribution, similar to height and weight.
J.P. Gilford
used factor analysis and isolated 120 factors that added up to intelligence.
He also defined convergent and divergent thinking.
Convergent vs. divergent thinking
Convergent thinking is when different thoughts and ideas are combined into a single concept.
Divergent thinking is the ability to create a novel idea.
Alfred Binet - along with Theodore Simon
credited with creating the first intelligence test.

The year was 1905 and the test consisted of 30 items of increasing difficulty administered to discriminate normal from retarded Parisian children.
IQ formula
SAS, standard age score, with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 16.
John Ertl
advanced the theory that the rate at which a person processes information is an indication of his or her level of intelligence - the faster the processing, the more intelligent the person.
He also invented an intelligence-testing machine that uses an electrode helmet in conjunction with a computer and an EEG.
Raymond Cattell
developed the theories of fluid and crystallized intelligence.
Also created the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire. (16PF)
fluid vs. crystallized intelligence
Fluid intelligence is inborn, deals with abstract reasoning, is unrelated to experience, and decreases with age.
Crystallized intelligence develops from acquired knowledge and skills.
Arthur Jensen
applied the theory that intelligence is genetic to adopted children, expecting them to have IQ scores closer to their biological parents than to their adoptive parents.
He believed that 80% of intelligence is inherited and only 20% is environmental.
Robert Williams
created the Black Intelligence Test of Cultural Homogeneity (BITCH) as proof that African-Americans can excel on intelligence tests when the cultural bias is toward their own experience rather than toward White culture.
spiral test
Starts with easier questions and progresses to the harder ones.
cyclical test
Test has multiple sections and the questions in each section progress in difficulty.
horizontal test
A test procedure that covers material from different subjects.
vertical tests
tests on the same subject given at different levels or ages.
A tool for measuring self-esteem by choosing statement-bearing cards that are “most like me” or “least like me.”
halo effect
A favorable evaluation of a personality based on the perception of a single trait.
difficulty index
In testing the percentage of test takers who respond correctly to an item.
dichotomous items
Questions such as true/false that give the test taker opposing choices.
normative item format
Unlinked items on a test.
normative test
A person’s test results can be compared to the scores of others – a percentile rank can be created.
ipsative format
Allows a person to compare two or more examples of his/her own performance – does not allow for comparison with others.
power test
untimed test; tests mastery level
speed test
Timed test – difficulty is more in how quickly questions can be answered than in the content.
stanine - or standard nine
A way of scaling test scores - nine divisions, five of them in the middle with a standard deviation of 2.
The lowest scores comprise the first group and the highest scores the last.
A method for determining a standardized score – subtract the mean from an individual score then divide by the standard deviation.
A score within a normal distribution with a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10.
standardized score
same as Z-score
Subtract the mean from an individual score then divide by the standard deviation.
the average score from a group of tests
the middle score from a group of tests
the score that occurs most frequently in a set of scores.
the amount a score deviates from the norm.
The lowest score subtracted from the highest.
standard deviation
A measure of statistical dispersion – in testing, how widely spread the scores are from the mean.
The square of the standard deviation.
Bell curve
A graphic illustration of the normal distribution of a data set.
correlation coefficient
A measurement of the linear relationship between two variables.
intrusive measurement
Questionnaires, interviews, and other situations in which a person is aware s/he is being observed – that awareness can affect the results of the observation.

Measurement can also be called reactive.
obtrusive measurement (nonreactive)
subject is unaware of observation or investigation, such as when records are reviewed or subject is observed through a one-way window.
coefficient of determination
The square of the correlation coefficient which shows the common variation between the two variables – in testing, the amount of common variance between repeated tests.
standard error of measurement (SEM)
A statistical range that will include a test taker’s score – calculated by the multiplication of the test’s standard deviation by the square root of 1, then the subtraction of the reliability coefficient.
regression to the mean
a statistical concept where earning a very low score or a very high score on a pretest means the individual will probably score close to the mean on the posttest.

The error is due to chance, personal and environment factors that will be different on the posttest.
rating scale
a cart used to indicate the degree to which an attribute or characteristic exists.
coined by Joseph Levy Moreno.
A method of tracking the relationship of individuals within a group. A sociogram is a map or diagram showing the structure of the group or relationships of the members.
Erikson - Stage 1 - Infancy
Trust vs. Mistrust
Birth to 1 or 1 1/2 years
Erikson - stage 2 - Toddler
Autonomy vs. Shame
from 1 to 2 yrs.
Erikson - stage 3 - Preschooler
Initiative vs. Guilt
from 2 to 6 yrs.
Erikson - stage 4 - School age
Industry vs. Inferiority
from 6 to 12 yrs
Erikson - stage 5 - adolescence
Identity vs. Diffusion
from 12 (or puberty) to 18 yrs.
Erikson - stage 6 - Young adulthood
Intimacy vs. Isolation
from 19 to 40 yrs.
Erikson - stage 7 - Middle adulthood
Generativity vs. Self-Absorption
from 40 to 65 yrs.
Erikson - stage 8 - Late Adulthood
Integrity vs. Despair
from 65 to death
Freud - First stage - birth to 18 mos.
Oral stage
Freud - second stage - 2 to 3 yrs.
anal stage
Freud - third stage - 3 to 5 yrs.
phallic stage
Freud - fourth stage - 6 to puberty
latency stage
Freud - fifth stage - puberty to adulthood
genital stage
erogenous zones
Freud's concept; mouth, anus, and genitals.
Child focuses on different areas of the body during development.
Psychological defenses
Freud's concept; defenses that help a person control or prevent undesirable or inappropriate emotions or behaviors
Examples - denial, suppression, repression, projection, displacement, rationalization, reaction formation, regression, and sublimation.
Piaget's system of schemas includes these key concepts...
assimilation, accommodation, and equilibration.
Assimilation - Piaget
the adding of new information to existing schemas.
Accommodation - Piaget
changing existing schemas to fit new information and experiences.
Equilibration - Piaget
the balance between assimilation and accommodation.
Piaget - CD stage 1 - birth to 2 yrs
The child learns about himself and his environment through sensory perceptions and motor activities.
Piaget - CD stage 2 - 2 to 7 yrs.
Language develops and the child is egocentric.
Piaget - CD stage 3 - 7 to 11 yrs.
Concrete operational
Child begins to think logically but still has trouble with abstract concepts.
Piaget - CD stage 4 - 11 or 12 yrs to adulthood
Formal operational
The child develops the capability of logical thought, deductive reasoning and systematic planning.
Kohlberg's theory of moral development
Preconventional - influenced by reward and punishment
Conventional - strives to meet family and society standards
Postconventional - period of self-accepted principles
Oedipus and Electra complexes
Oedipus - boys
Electra - girls
Ends in the development of the conscience or superego.
Bowlby's theories on bonding
Bonding with an adult by the age of 3 is vital if a person is to lead a normal life. Lack of bonding can cause abnormal behavior or psychopathology.
Harlow's theories on attachment and bonding
Attachment is an innate tendency.
Worked with monkeys; saw monkeys raised in isolation develop autistic and abnormal behavior. Placing them with normally reared ones somewhat reversed those behaviors.
Imprinting - Lorenz
The way newly hatched ducks and geese instinctively follow the first moving object they see.
Critical periods - Lorenz
The concept that certain behaviors must be learned at specific stages of development or they may not be learned at all.
Nature vs. Nurture
The question of whether a person is more influenced by nature (genetic and hereditary traits) or by nurture (learning from parents and others) in his environmental and social setting.
Genotype vs. Phenotype
Genotype - the genetic makeup of an organism.
Phenotypes - the physical or biochemical characteristics determined by genetics and the environment of an organism.
Tabula rasa
Locke - a child is born with an unformed mind and develops through experience.
The "blank slate" theory.
The smooth transition of a person from one stage of development to the next.
the ability of a person to deal successfully with adverse conditions and adapt effectively.
Categories of Human Development are:
Learning - behavioral, social learning and information processing theories
Cognitive - concerned with obtaining knowledge
Psychoanalytic - the method of investigating psychological phenomena developed by Freud
Humanistic - explains developmentthrough reasoning and the scientific method.
Human growth and development changes are viewed as either:
Qualitative - involves a change in structure such as sexual development
Quantitative - measurable changes occur such as in intellectual development
Continuous - denotes sequential changes that cannot be segmented - i.e. personality development
Discontinuous - changes in abilities and behaviors such as language that develop in stages
mechanistic - places behaviors in common groups, such as instinctual or reflexive
Organismic - new stages of development use cognition and includes moral and ethical development.
Levinson's The Seasons of a Man's Life
Based on a study done with adult males.
Divided life into 4 periods - preadulthood, early adulthood, middle adulthood, and late adulthood.
Major transitions occur as person moves from one stage to the next - - - 17 to 22, between 40 and 45, between 60 and 65.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
A theory of motivation
A person must first satisfy basic needs such as the need for food and shelter, before he can turn his attention to higher needs.
Gesell's maturationist theory
Holds that develpment is a biological process that proceeds in an orderlymanner, and is independent of environmental influences.
Behaviorism learning approach
Learning is a change of behavior brought about by the consequences of behaviors - child is rewarded for a desirable behavior and punished for an undesirable one.
Thorndike's "law of effect"
States that a behavior followed by a reward is strengthened and more likely to continue.
Nancy Chodorow
Saw psychoanalytic theory as using gender stereotyping with male-imposed standards.
It devalues feminine qualities contributes to women's status as second-class citizens.
Jean Baker Miller
Defined "care taking" as helping others to develop emotionally, intellectually, and socially.
Care taking is the main factor that differentiates women's development from that of men.
Harriet Lerner
expressed the idea that women need to achieve a healthier balance between activities that center on others and those that center on themselves.
Carol Tarvis
Believed that society "pathologizes" women and judges them according to how they fit into a male world.
Carol Gilligan
Said that women develop "in relationship" to other women and that their communication patterns are different than those of men.
Women make moral judgments on human relationships and caring, while men use justice and rights.
Gail Sheehy
Wrote in her book Passages, of the transitional, crisis periods between the stages of a women's life that provide opportunities for growth.
Perry's "Scheme of Intellectual and Ethical Development"
Based on his studies of college students.
Four general categories with 3 positions within each category.
Category 1 - Dualism - Basic and Full
Category 2 - Multiplicity - Early and Late
Category 3 - Relativism - Contextual and Pre-commitment
Category 4 - Commitment - Commitment, Challenges to Commitment, Post-commitment
Component of the personality most concerned with primitive instincts such as hunger, sex, and aggression and is not concerned with the consequences of actions.

People are born with an id, which helps the baby get its needs met.
The personality component responsible for balancing the id and the superego or conscience.
Has most immediate control over behavior and is most concerned with external reality.
Begins to develop around the age of 3.
Reality principle
The ego meets the needs of the id while taking the child's reality into consideration.