Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

70 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Freud's stages


oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital

empasizes sexuality

genital stage begins age 12 last a lifetime

Erik Erikson's


trust vs. mistrust or integrity vs. despair

focus on social relationships

- Ego psychologists - believe in man's power of reasoning and control

ego functions - logical rational and utilizes the power reasoning and control keeping impulses in check.

Only psychoanalyst theory encompasses entire life span



seat of sex and aggression

not rational not logical and void of time orientation

chaotic and concerned only with the body not outside world

called pleasure principle


if it cannot be measured then it does not exist



reality principle

feels pressure by id

Jay Haley

strategic and problem solving therapy and utilizing paradox technique.

Milton Erickson

brief psychotherapy and innovative technique in hypnosis

Arnold Lazarus

considered pioneer in behavior therapy movement

systematic desensitization clients ope with phobias

multimodal therapy


dualistic thinking - common among teens things are conceptualized as good or bad / right and wrong

relativistic thinking - perception that not everything is either right or wrong


interpersonal development

constructive model of development, individuals construct reality throughout the lifespan

Jean Piaget

Swiss Child psychologist

used his own children in experiments

4 stages



concrete operations

formal operation



substance, weight, mass, volume remain same even if it changes shape (child masters in concrete stage age 7 - 11) reversibility - shapes can go back to former shape

Lawrence Kohlberg

Moral development

expanded Piaget conceptualization of moral development


disagreed with piaget developmental stages developed naturally, he believed it was through educational intervention



preoperational stage (age 2ish)

child can view the world from others vantage point "rain is following me"

Kohlberg 3 levels of Morality

Preconventional - child responds to consequences (rewards and punishment influence behavior)

Conventional - meet standards of family, social, and nation

Postconventional - universal, ethical principles of justice, dignity, and equality of human rights.

Heinz story

wife cancer med cost $2k

identity crisis


adolescents would experiment various roles to find out who they really are

RS religious and spiritual

positive psychology

RS becoming more popular in our field


founder of individual psychology

trust vs mistrust

Erick Erikson first stage of psychosocial development

integrity versus despair

Erikson's 8th final stage begins age 60

Lev Vygotsky

zone of proximal development - difference of child's performance without a teacher and vs. his capable of with an instructor


freud and erikson

individuals must be at a certain maturity for behavior to unfold

development primarily determined genetics and heredity (Arnold Gesell)

John Bowlby

bonding and attachement

Arnold Gesell

pioneer using oneway mirror for observing children.

Children must bond with an adult before age 3

integrity vs. stagnation

Erik son stage of midlife crisis (35-45)

Harry Harlow

maternal deprivation and isolation in rhesus monkeys

Rene Spitz - children reared in impersonal institution

baby monkeys prefer terry cloth mothers

Maccoby and Jacklin

males better than females math calculations

intimacy vs. stagnation

age 35 - 60

Erikson's stage of sharing life together

Freud's psychosexual stages

oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital (correct order)

structural of mind is id, ego, superego


males commit suicide more but females attempt more.

suicide rates go up with age



which evolves primarily during the oral age

stage theorist

qualitative changes between stages occur.

Formal operational stage

Piaget's final stage - feels a large number of persons do not reach this stage

abstract thinking emerges

problems can be solved using deduction

Kohlberg stages of moral development

Preconventional Level

Stage 1, Punishment/Obedience Orientation.

Stage 2, Naive Hedonism Orientation

Conventional Level

Stage 3 Good Boy/Good Girl Orientation

Stage 4 Authority, Law, and Order Orientation


Stage 5, Democratically Accepted Law or Social Contract and

Stage 6, Principles of Self-


a Conscience and Universal Ethics

Oedipus Complex

- stage in which fantasies of sexual relations with opposite sex parent

- occurs during phallic stage

Called Electra complex for girls


depth perception in children

visual cliff


John Locke


theorist who believe that development merely consists of quantitative changes

scientist can only learn from objective facts

experience source for acquiring knowledge

development is behavioristic


developmental strides (not changes) are quantitative

Gestalt psychologists

sensormotor stage

Piaget developmental theory

reflexes play the greatest role

schema of permanency and constancy of objects occur in sensorimotor stage 0 - 2 years

hide toy and child believes it does not exist

object permanence and representational thought

John Bowlby

conduct disorder and other forms of psychopathology can result from inadequate attachment and bonding in early childhood

monkeys isolated the first few months of life


abnormal and autistic (extremely withdrawn and isolated)

Konrad Lorenz

Ethology - study of animals behavior i their natural environment


Piagetian concept

occurs in the preoperational stage and is chatted by focusing on a key feature of a given object while not noticing the rest of it. (clowns red nose)

Peugeot felt about teaching

Children learn best from their own actions

teachers should lecture less, as children in concrete operations learn best via their own actions


Father of reality therapy

properational stage


includes the acquisition of symbolic schema

age 2 - 7

each stage needed to be resolved before moving on

Freud - psychosexual

Erikson - psychosocial

R J Havinghurst

proposed developmental task for infancy and early childhood (walking, eating food)

tasks for middle childhood 6 - 12 (getting along with peers developing a conscience)

tasks for adolescence 12 - 18 (preparing for marriage and economic career)

early adulthood 19 - 30 selecting mate and family)

middle age 30-60 assisting teenage children become responsible adults developing leisure activities

Jane Lovinger

ego development via seven stages

all reinforcers

increase probability that a behavior will occur

negative and positive


sequence of object loss - goes from protest to despair to detachment

if child not bond with adult by age 3 incapable of having normal social relationships as adult


target of ones love


child acts like nonliving objects have lifelike abilities

Piaget age 2 - 7 preoperational period

C G Jung

father of analytic psychology

anima - female characteristics of personality (ma)

animus - male of personality (mus-cles)

ego identity

Erikson's fifth stage: identity vs. role confusion

elementary school guidance counselors


research proves they are very effective

Daniel J Levinson

80% in study had midlife crisis

"age 30 crisis" feel it will be to late to make later changes

Generativity vs. stagnation

Erikson's middle stage 35 - 60

generativity - ability to do creative work or raise a family

productive ability to create a career, family, and leisure time

ego-integrity vs. despair


ego-integrity one can look back on life with few regrets

one served a purpose

trust vs. mistrust

Erikson first stage




Kohlberg premoral stage

preconventional level (initial stage)

bad behavior punished good behavior not

critical period

imprinting possible

signifies a special time when a behavior must be learned or it won't be at all

Konrad Lorenz

imprinting -instinct of a newborn

structuralist believes stage changes are qualitative


each stage is a way to make sense of the world

holding environment

Robert Kegan

client can make meaning in the face of a crisis and can find new direction


balance between which one takes (assimilation) and that which is changed (accommodation)