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70 Cards in this Set

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Freud's stages

psychosexual


oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital


empasizes sexuality


genital stage begins age 12 last a lifetime

Erik Erikson's

psychosocial


trust vs. mistrust or integrity vs. despair


focus on social relationships




- Ego psychologists - believe in man's power of reasoning and control




ego functions - logical rational and utilizes the power reasoning and control keeping impulses in check.




Only psychoanalyst theory encompasses entire life span

id

Freud


seat of sex and aggression


not rational not logical and void of time orientation


chaotic and concerned only with the body not outside world




called pleasure principle

behaviorist

if it cannot be measured then it does not exist

ego

Freud


reality principle


feels pressure by id

Jay Haley

strategic and problem solving therapy and utilizing paradox technique.

Milton Erickson

brief psychotherapy and innovative technique in hypnosis

Arnold Lazarus

considered pioneer in behavior therapy movement


systematic desensitization clients ope with phobias


multimodal therapy

Perry

dualistic thinking - common among teens things are conceptualized as good or bad / right and wrong


relativistic thinking - perception that not everything is either right or wrong

Kegan

interpersonal development


constructive model of development, individuals construct reality throughout the lifespan



Jean Piaget

Swiss Child psychologist


used his own children in experiments




4 stages


sensorimotor


preoperations


concrete operations


formal operation

conservation

Piaget


substance, weight, mass, volume remain same even if it changes shape (child masters in concrete stage age 7 - 11) reversibility - shapes can go back to former shape

Lawrence Kohlberg

Moral development


expanded Piaget conceptualization of moral development

Vygotsky

disagreed with piaget developmental stages developed naturally, he believed it was through educational intervention

egocentrism

Piaget


preoperational stage (age 2ish)


child can view the world from others vantage point "rain is following me"

Kohlberg 3 levels of Morality

Preconventional - child responds to consequences (rewards and punishment influence behavior)




Conventional - meet standards of family, social, and nation




Postconventional - universal, ethical principles of justice, dignity, and equality of human rights.

Heinz story

wife cancer med cost $2k

identity crisis

Erickson


adolescents would experiment various roles to find out who they really are

RS religious and spiritual

positive psychology


RS becoming more popular in our field

Adler

founder of individual psychology

trust vs mistrust

Erick Erikson first stage of psychosocial development

integrity versus despair

Erikson's 8th final stage begins age 60

Lev Vygotsky

zone of proximal development - difference of child's performance without a teacher and vs. his capable of with an instructor

maturationists

freud and erikson


individuals must be at a certain maturity for behavior to unfold


development primarily determined genetics and heredity (Arnold Gesell)

John Bowlby

bonding and attachement

Arnold Gesell

pioneer using oneway mirror for observing children.


Children must bond with an adult before age 3



integrity vs. stagnation

Erik son stage of midlife crisis (35-45)

Harry Harlow

maternal deprivation and isolation in rhesus monkeys


Rene Spitz - children reared in impersonal institution


baby monkeys prefer terry cloth mothers

Maccoby and Jacklin

males better than females math calculations

intimacy vs. stagnation

age 35 - 60


Erikson's stage of sharing life together

Freud's psychosexual stages

oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital (correct order)


structural of mind is id, ego, superego



suicide

males commit suicide more but females attempt more.


suicide rates go up with age

attachment

freud


which evolves primarily during the oral age

stage theorist

qualitative changes between stages occur.

Formal operational stage

Piaget's final stage - feels a large number of persons do not reach this stage




abstract thinking emerges


problems can be solved using deduction

Kohlberg stages of moral development

Preconventional Level


Stage 1, Punishment/Obedience Orientation.


Stage 2, Naive Hedonism Orientation




Conventional Level


Stage 3 Good Boy/Good Girl Orientation


Stage 4 Authority, Law, and Order Orientation




Postconventional


Stage 5, Democratically Accepted Law or Social Contract and


Stage 6, Principles of Self-


"l.'




a Conscience and Universal Ethics

Oedipus Complex

- stage in which fantasies of sexual relations with opposite sex parent


- occurs during phallic stage


Called Electra complex for girls

Gibson

depth perception in children


visual cliff

empiricsts

John Locke


"experience"


theorist who believe that development merely consists of quantitative changes




scientist can only learn from objective facts


experience source for acquiring knowledge


development is behavioristic

Organicism

developmental strides (not changes) are quantitative


Gestalt psychologists



sensormotor stage

Piaget developmental theory


reflexes play the greatest role




schema of permanency and constancy of objects occur in sensorimotor stage 0 - 2 years

hide toy and child believes it does not exist

object permanence and representational thought





John Bowlby

conduct disorder and other forms of psychopathology can result from inadequate attachment and bonding in early childhood

monkeys isolated the first few months of life

Harlow


abnormal and autistic (extremely withdrawn and isolated)

Konrad Lorenz

Ethology - study of animals behavior i their natural environment

centration

Piagetian concept


occurs in the preoperational stage and is chatted by focusing on a key feature of a given object while not noticing the rest of it. (clowns red nose)

Peugeot felt about teaching

Children learn best from their own actions




teachers should lecture less, as children in concrete operations learn best via their own actions

Glasser

Father of reality therapy

properational stage

Piaget


includes the acquisition of symbolic schema


age 2 - 7

each stage needed to be resolved before moving on

Freud - psychosexual


Erikson - psychosocial

R J Havinghurst

proposed developmental task for infancy and early childhood (walking, eating food)




tasks for middle childhood 6 - 12 (getting along with peers developing a conscience)




tasks for adolescence 12 - 18 (preparing for marriage and economic career)




early adulthood 19 - 30 selecting mate and family)




middle age 30-60 assisting teenage children become responsible adults developing leisure activities



Jane Lovinger

ego development via seven stages

all reinforcers

increase probability that a behavior will occur


negative and positive

Bowdly

sequence of object loss - goes from protest to despair to detachment




if child not bond with adult by age 3 incapable of having normal social relationships as adult

object

target of ones love

animism

child acts like nonliving objects have lifelike abilities


Piaget age 2 - 7 preoperational period

C G Jung

father of analytic psychology


anima - female characteristics of personality (ma)


animus - male of personality (mus-cles)

ego identity

Erikson's fifth stage: identity vs. role confusion

elementary school guidance counselors

1960s


research proves they are very effective

Daniel J Levinson

80% in study had midlife crisis


"age 30 crisis" feel it will be to late to make later changes

Generativity vs. stagnation

Erikson's middle stage 35 - 60


generativity - ability to do creative work or raise a family


productive ability to create a career, family, and leisure time

ego-integrity vs. despair

Erikson


ego-integrity one can look back on life with few regrets


one served a purpose

trust vs. mistrust

Erikson first stage

superego

freud


morality

Kohlberg premoral stage

preconventional level (initial stage)




bad behavior punished good behavior not

critical period

imprinting possible




signifies a special time when a behavior must be learned or it won't be at all

Konrad Lorenz

imprinting -instinct of a newborn

structuralist believes stage changes are qualitative

Piaget


each stage is a way to make sense of the world

holding environment

Robert Kegan


client can make meaning in the face of a crisis and can find new direction

equilibration

balance between which one takes (assimilation) and that which is changed (accommodation)