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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What does helping do for clients?
Helps them:

-Gain insights
-Making positive changes in their lives
-Relief from emotional pain
-Discover a direction for their lives
-Receive feedback that can facilitate change
-Enables clients to experience healthy relationships
-Work toward personal growth
-Address existential concerns
-Learn valuable skills
What are some verbal and nonverbal communications used in helping?
-Attending and listening behaviors
-Closed and open questions
-Reflections of feelings
-Approval and reassurance
-Direct guidance
How do helpers differ from therapists?
-Helpers listen, promote growth, assist with transitions while counselors & therapists remedy personal problems, facilitate personality change, intervene with severe psych. malfunctioning
-Helpers work best with the relatively psychologically healthy
-Helpers aren't professional with advanced training
What are some common problems with helping?
-Sometimes just enough relief to stay maladaptive
-Can create dependency in clients (support, advice)
-Sometimes helpers have personal issues that create problems
-Imposing personal or societal values on to clients
When do people seek help?
-When they become aware of pain or difficulty and that help is warranted.
-When pain must be greater than perceived barriers to seeking help (embarrassed, ashamed, not understood, punitive, expensive, being labeled, etc.).
What does Eysenck think about whether helping is effective?
Eysenck (1952) didn't think so, but he was proven wrong. It works, we’re still figuring out how.
What does Wompold think about whether helping is effective?
Wampold summarizes by concluding no one type of therapy is more effective than others. "Dodo Bird" hypothesis, "everyone has won and all must have prizes".
What does the book say about the stages of effective helping?
Book says 3 phases; initial, where they rapidly change and feel better, second slower phase remediating sx’s (depression, anxiety), 3rd rehab of longstanding issues (slow).
What does data say about effective helping statistics?
Data suggests 75% of positive change occurs in first 20 sessions, clients with minimal distress improve more quickly.
What is the definition of culture?
Customs, values, attitudes, beliefs, characteristics, behaviors shared by a group of people
What are some examples of different culture styles?
Race/ethnicity, gender, age, ideology, religion, SES, sexual orientation, disability status, occupation, dietary preferences, etc.
True or false we all have multiple cultural influences/identities?
True or false general info on culture can be useful stereotypes, but won’t fit for all “members”?
What are some examples of healthy helper motivations?
-Altruism, making a difference
-Recognition of talent
-Tolerance for ambiguity, ability to reflect
-Own therapy helpful (if done well, limited empirical support for this)
-Working with motivated others, collegial support
-Work for social change
What are some examples of some unhealthy helper motivations?
-Savior complex
-Own neediness, “safe” route to intimacy
-Feel superior or more fortunate than others
-Work through unresolved personal issues
-Promote ideology
What is the definition of the helping process?
taking clients "down and into" understanding themselves more, and then "up and out" into the world better able to cope with problems.
What are the three main ways that individuals can be effected psychologically?
Birth, environment, and early experiences
How can one assume that birth can effect you psychologically?
Born with varied potential in psychological, intellectual, physical, and interpersonal domains.
How does one assume that the enivironment effects you psychologically?
The environment can enhance or thwart the innate movement toward survival and development. Either too much gratification or too much deprivation stunts children's growth.
How does one assume that early experiences effect you psychologically?
Early experiences (attachment, self-esteem) are crucial in laying the foundation for personality. People continue to change, though, within limits of biology and experiences.
Why do people develop defense mechanisms and when can it be beneficial/harmful?
People develop defenses to cope with anxiety. Are adaptive in moderation, but maladaptive when no longer effective.
How are people effected by genetics?
People are influenced by genetics, past learning and external circumstances, but have some degree of control over their lives and how they behave. People have choices.
What is believed to be the holy triad in psychology and what does it effect?
The triad - emotions, cognitions, and behavior are all key components of personality.
What is the definition of exploration?
Exploration: establish rapport, develop therapeutic relationship, encourage telling story, explore thoughts/feelings, arouse emotions, learn about clients
What are the three stages of the three stage model theory?
Exploration, insight, action
What is the definition of insight?
Insight: collaboratively achieve new understandings, thoughts, feelings, behaviors, new awareness of roles in problems, allows clients to see things from new perspective, take appropriate responsibility and control over problems
What is the definition of action?
Action: think about changes reflecting new understandings, explore idea of changing, explore desire and meaning of change in client’s life, brainstorm possible changes, help clients decide what to change, develop strategies for trying changes & evaluating them
What are the three essential components of all three stages of the three stage model theory?
Emphatic collaboration ,Schematic change, and covert processes,
What does emphatic collaboration mean?
understanding clients at both a cognitive and affective level. (thoughts and emotions)
What does empathy require?
Empathy requires we recognize that emotions belong to the client and not the helper.
What are Cal's biases?
Cal’s bias - as helpers, our emotions (and cognitions) can reflect (1) general emotional reactions to the client (that most people might have), (2) specific emotional reactions to the client (as a function of our personal histories, etc.), or (3) empathy (feeling what the client is feeling).
What is something crucial that counselors can do and something crucial that they cannot do?
Helpers can't tell clients how to live their lives, but can help them explore feelings and values, achieve understanding, make choices and changes.
What is the definition of a schema?
Schema - an abstract structure that comprises and/or generates patterns or themes of experience; is a cluster of related thoughts, feelings, sensations, memories, and actions.
What is something important to know about schemas?
We store everything we experience or learn in schemata (schemas). But not always stored accurately, and only events/information used regularly remains prominent. Can be distorted or changed over time.
How are individual elements connected with schemata?
Individual elements are interconnected within schemata, and linked to other elements in other schemata. Closely linked elements have positive or excitatory connections, whereas others are minimally related or unrelated with negative or inhibitory connections. The connections also change with use or disuse.
True or false Schemata are idiosyncratic for different individuals?
True or false the helping process is not reorganizing and reframing thinking into more adaptive patterns.
False. Helping process IS reorganizing and reframing thinking into more adaptive patterns.
When are schemata brought to the surface?
Schemata are brought to the surface during exploration and changed during the insight stage.
They are consolidated in the action stage.
What is the difference between overt and covert in the counseling world?
Overt is what we show to the world, covert is what we keep inside. Clients will often hide covert for various reasons.
Why is it important for counselors to be covert in their actions?
Helpers need to monitor each intervention for their own covert processes (Where am I now and what am I trying to accomplish?). Need to monitor client's reactions
What are some situations where a counselor cannot work with a client?
-Helpers can’t work with ALL clients (seriously impaired).
-Sometimes it’s helper limitations (background, personal problems).
-Sometimes poor gender matching or lack of similarities.
In terms of a clients readiness for change what is the precontemplation stage?
Precontemplation stage -unaware or no desire to change, lack information about problems, engage in denial, blame others or society, behaviors bother others more than self.
In terms of a clients readiness for change what is the contemplation stage?
Contemplation stage - aware of and accept responsibility for problems, beginning to think about change but haven't decided, fear of failure.
In terms of a clients readiness for change what is the preparation stage?
Preparation stage - made commitment to change, preparing selves to begin change process, may make public announcements, prepare for life to be different.
In terms of the clients readiness to change what is the action stage?
Action stage - actively begin to modify behaviors and surroundings, prior stages enable success in this stage
In terms of the clients readiness to change, what is the maintenance stage?
Maintenance stage - change has occurred, trying to consolidate changes, deal with relapses, takes 21 days or more for changes to become incorporated.
In terms of the clients readiness to change, what is the termination stage?
Termination stage - no longer threatened by original temptations, problem behaviors don't return, have confidence in no relapse.
What are some general facts about the readiness for change stages?
-Can be at different stages for different problems.
-Our goal is to help them through stages.
-For precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages, helpers spend more time in exploration and insight stages.
-For action, maintenance, and termination stages, helpers focus more on action stage.
Why is it important to create a good therapeutic relationship?
-“Real relationship” –connection between helper & client
-Transference and countertransference-distortions in relationship.
-Working alliance - the bond, agreement on goals, agreement on tasks. Best predictor of outcome of therapy (except for Wampold’s work on therapist variables).
-Process - client feels no one listens or cares
-Helper pays full attention, communicates understanding
-Empathic, nonjudgmental
-Client feels safe to express hurt and pain
When the therapeutic relationship is formed what positive things happen?
-Client feels accepted, OK
-Different from significant others (problems)
-Helps reduce anxiety, can face problems better
-Build self-esteem, foundation for change
-Feel safe to explore thoughts & feelings
-New understandings, make changes.
-For some, relationship alone is “curative”, most need other skills from helper.
What are some different helper intentions?
-Guide selection of verbal/nonverbal interventions
-May be several intentions for any one intervention
-May not be aware of intentions at the time (review videos)
-Matching intentions & interventions important, can only use what we know; different for various orientations.
What are some good examples of possible client reactions?
-May match helpers intention and intervention
-If not, may feel not understood.
-Can be conscious or unaware of reactions (affected by needs, goals, transference).
-Sometimes covert.
Influenced by 1) needs at the time, 2) therapeutic relationship, 3) impressions of helper's intentions
-Helper may not be aware of client reactions due to client hiding them, or lack of helper picking up on negative reactions.
What are some examples of potential client behavior?
-Resist, agree, make appropriate request, recount, engage in exploration, come to insight, discuss therapeutic changes.
-Affected by communication ability, awareness of needs, level of pathology, personality structure.
What are some assessments a helper might come to?
-Client feels supported? Understood? Confused? Misunderstood?
-Helper may not assess reactions accurately, or reluctant to recognize negative reactions.
-May be distorted by countertransference (eg., anger).
How does the helper reevaluation process go and what does it require?
-Based on client reactions, overt behaviors, devise new intentions and skills for interventions.
-Requires openness to feedback, skills, adequate relationship.
-Supervision and review of video assists in this process.
What are some ways that the client/therapist relationship can end?
-Client can “take therapist” with him/her as “internal representation” and work on issues throughout week.
-Reality constraints can frustrate client attempts to change.
What is remoralization?
Remoralization – enhancement of well-being (happens first)
What is remediation?
Remediation – achievement of symptomatic relief (follows a bit more slowly)
What is rehabilitation?
Rehabilitation – reduction of troublesome, maladaptive behaviors (takes the longest time)
What does intrapersonal mean?
Intrapersonal – within the client
What does interpersonal mean?
Interpersonal – changes in intimate relationships
What is social role performance?
Social role performance – changes in community behavior (Goleman addresses this)
What is something important to remember about outcomes at the end of therapy?
Helpers, clients, and significant others may have different views of outcomes.