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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
48M in hosp underwent CABG recently.
develops 10min breathlessness, no chest pain.
Grey, sweaty. HR 120 reg, impalpable during inspiration.
BP 78/40, raised JVP.
reduced ECG voltage, muffled heart sounds.
CARDIAC TAMPONADE
mitral stenosis MS, is almost always due to what
rheumatic fever
clinical presentation & examination of MS
malar flush, fatigue, dyspnoea
AF, tapping apex beat
rumbling mid-diastolic murmur
loud pan-systolic murmur heard throughout precordium -->radiates to axilla
mitral regurgitation
collapsing pulse, displaced apex, soft early diastolic <> murmur left sternal edge
aortic regurgitation
6 common ACYANOTIC congenital heart defects
VSD & ASD
patent ductus arteriosus
AS & PS
coarctation of aorta
6 CYANOTIC congenital heart defects
tetrology of fallot
transposition
ebstein's anomaly (with ASD)
hypoplastic LH
total anomalous po venous drainage
tricuspid/ po atresia
4 classifications of cardiomyopathies
hypertrophic
idiopathic
restrictive
alcohol-assoc
NYHA 4 functional class associations of breathlessness
1- severe exertion, no limitation
2- ordinary activities
3- less than normal activities, minimal limitation
4- at rest.
6 aetiologies of cardiac valve diseases
congenital
Infective
Rheumatic
Ischaemic
Degenerative
Misc
3 heart conditions predisposing to endocarditis
congenital heart disease
valvular heart disease
prosthetic heart valves
6 causes of AF
thyrotoxicosis
HTN
Ischaemia
Rheumatic heart disease / Infection
Alcohol
lone Af
some causes of SOB (7- not just cardiac)
cardiac failure
valvular heart disease
obstructive airways disease
restrictive lung disease
Po HTN
PE
anaemia
what are the first identifiable cardiac precursors arranged on both sides of teh cardiac axis?
angiogenic cell clusters
angiogenic cell clusters
2 cardiac tubes fuse where in the embryo to form what
form on ventral surface --> primitive heart tube
form on ventral surface --> primitive heart tube
what 3 structures are unique to the foetus
ductus arteriosus
foramen ovale 
ductus venosus
ductus arteriosus
foramen ovale
ductus venosus
what are most congenital heart abnormalities due to?
unknown
what does acyanotic mean

" " cyanotic " "
normal amount of O2 in bloodstream

not enough O2 in blood stream
where in the aorta does coarctation normally occur, what other heart abnormality also occurs with this

acyanotic or cyanotic?
distal to the left subclavian branch. 
biscuspid aortic valve --> aortic stenosis (AS)
(may have patent ductus arteriosus)

ACYANOTIC
distal to the left subclavian branch.
biscuspid aortic valve --> aortic stenosis (AS)
(may have patent ductus arteriosus)

ACYANOTIC
whats tetrology of fallot (tetra = 4)

acyanotic or cyanotic?
CYANOTIC
CYANOTIC
what's tricuspid and po atresia

acyanotic or cyanotic?
valves fail to open- remain closed 
usually an ASD or VSD shunts blood into left heart/ aorta

CYANOTIC
valves fail to open- remain closed
usually an ASD or VSD shunts blood into left heart/ aorta

CYANOTIC
what's truncus arteriosus

acyanotic or cyanotic?
aorta & po trunk openings fused to one, VSD
CYANOTIC
aorta & po trunk openings fused to one, VSD
CYANOTIC
what's total anomalous po venous connection
po veins fail to drain into LA. drain into systemic veins/ RA.
ASD/ foramen ovale important for LV output. 

CYANOTIC
po veins fail to drain into LA. drain into systemic veins/ RA.
ASD/ foramen ovale important for LV output.

CYANOTIC
what causes hypoplastic left heart syndrome

acyanotic or cyanotic?
patent ductus arteriosus
RV overtakes systemic output
CYANOTIC
patent ductus arteriosus
RV overtakes systemic output
CYANOTIC
what's ebstein's anomaly?

acyanotic or cyanotic?
TR + ASD

ACYANOTIC
TR + ASD

ACYANOTIC
3 congenital/ inherited rhythm disorders
tachycardia --> SVT
bradycardia
long QT syndrome
tachycardia --> SVT
bradycardia
long QT syndrome