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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

is a type of deep foundation which is used to transfer heavy loads from the structure to a hard rock strata much deep below the ground level

pile foundation

the depth of hard rock strata may be — — to — — deep from the ground surface

5m to 50m

the pile foundations resists the loads from structure by — — and by — —

skin friction, end bearing

two types of pile foundation

end bearing piles

friction piles

in this file foundation, the bottom end of the pile rests on a layer of specially strong soil or rock.

end bearing piles

in this pile foundation. the pile transfers the load of the building to the soil across the full height of the pile, by friction.

friction piles

piles can be made of (3)




in traditional construction, — — were used to support buildings in areas with weak soil and are still use in jetties

wooden piles

are precast (made at ground level) and then driven into the ground by hammering

concrete piles

can also be driven into the ground. these can take very heavy loads, and save time during construction, as the pile casting process is eliminated

steel H-piles

every pile has a — — on the soil around it. care must be taken to space the piles far enough apart so that loads are distributed evenly over the entire bulb of soil that carries them, and not concentrated into a few areas

zone of influence

first steps in cast-in-place piles

hammer a thin-walled steel tube into the ground

after hammering a thin-walled steel tube into the ground next is

remove all earth left inside the tube

after removing all earth inside the tube. next is

lower a steel reinforcement cage into the tube

after putting a steel reinforcement cage into the tube then

cast the pile by pouring wet concrete into the tube

the thin walled steel tube used in pile construction is called — , and only serves to form a secure mould for casting concrete that is free from earth and debris. it has no structural role to play after the casting is complete


some soils are —, meaning that if ind drills a hole into the soil that is say 1 foot wide by 50ft deep, then the soil holds the shape of the hole and does not collapse into the hole and block it.

highly cohesive

step 1 in constructing a micropiles or minipiles

a hole a little larger than the pile diameter and the full length of the pile is dug into the ground using an apparatus like a soil boring machine.

after dugging a hole in the ground next is

a precast concrete pile is lowered or pushed into the hole

after putting a pre cast concrete piles into the hole next is

a concrete grout is poured into the gap between the pile and the earth

are steel tube that have helical blades attached to them. these can be drilled into the ground, meaning that the pile acts as a giant drill bit, and is rotated and pushed into the ground from above, much like a screw drills into wood. once the steel pile is driven into the ground, pile cap is poured on top of the pile to prepare it for the construction above.

helical piles