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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is the purpose of neutrophils?
to kill microorganisms.
how many neuts do we make per day?
100million/mg body weight
what are the bone marrow compartments that seperate maturation phases of neuts?
Mitotic: blast through myelocytes. can divide up to the myelocyte.

Maturation: metas, bands, neuts
what 3 parts is the Total Circulating Granulocyte Pool broken down into?
1. Marginal pool
2. Circulating pool
3. Tissue pool
where is the marginal pool?
marginal hangs out at the edge of vessels, endothelium

circulating is what we count.
what cells from the TCGP probably go to the tissue pool?
marginating - closer to edge, diapedesis is easier for them.
What are 5 normal causes of neutrophil increase?
1. Time of day - low in AM usly.
2. Extreme stress
3. Temp extremes
4. Strenuous Exercise
5. Epinephrine
What are 5 abnormal, pathologic causes of neut increase?
1. Infeciton
2. Hematologic disorders
3. Tissue breakdown
4. Drugs/toxins
5. Leukemoid reaction
3 conditions associated with decreased neutrophils:

(why you would see the decr)
1. Accel use/loss of neuts
2. Diminished production
3. Absence of production
What is accelerated use or loss of neutrophils a hallmark of?
recurring bacterial infection
what is agranulocytosis?
a very low WBC neut count - less than 500/uL. inhibits normal immunologic function.
what is the function of neuts?
to engulf and kill microorganisms
what are the functional activities of neutrophils?
-degranulation within phagosomes formed in vacuoles
what is the normal blood:tissue ratio of monocytes?
after they're released from the bone marrow, can monocytes continue to divide? why?
yes; they still have nucleoli; can become giant cells.
what are specialized macrophages in the
-bone marrow
liver = kuppfer cells
spleen = littoral cells
thymus = dendritic cells
kidney - glomerular mesangial
b. marrow = nurse
pancreas = langerhans cells
lungs = alveolar macrophages.
what are 3 conditions associated with decreased monocytes?
Aplastic anemia
Hairy cell leukemia
what are 6 conditions associated with increased monocytes?
hematologic disorders
inflamm. immune disorders
acute bacterial infections
What are the 5 functions of monocytes?
1. Phagocytosis/digestion
2. secretion of chemicals
3. immunity - Ag presentation
4. Cytotoxicity
5. Tissue spcf functions
what are the tissue spcf functions of macrophages in:
-bone marrow
Spleen: littoral cells keep iron in the form of hemosiderin.
B. marrow: ingest nonfunctional cells.
Liver: secrete cytokines when Kuppfer cells are stimulated.
what are 2 markers on monocytes?
CD 14

what are 3 hereditary conditions that affect WBC morphology?

all are anomalies that are genetically inheritted.
What is Pelger-Huet Syndrome?

What can it look similar to?
Pince-nez neutrophils with 70% having bilobed nuclei; but still normal function.

May look like shift to left
What is Pelgeroid?
Myelodysplastic syndrome that has bilobed nuclei of neutrophils, but hypogranulation and only seen in a few cells, not 70%.
What is Alder-reilly anomaly?
condition where azurophilic (primary) granules are very large in monos, grans, lymphs.
what are the granules in alder-reilly made of?
what is may-hegglin anomaly?
disease where platelets are gigantic and cells have blue bodies that look like doehle bodies; also thrombocytopenia.
what disorder may result from may-hegglin?
bleeding disorder.
what are 6 toxic alterations due to neutrophil response to noxious stimulus?
Dohle bodies
toxic gran
shift to left
toxic vacuolization
what are dohle bodies?
pale blue inclusions, persistant RNA because maturation was cut short when the cells were called from the bmarrow
what occurs in the o2-dependent killing mechanism?
NADPH oxidase causes a respiratory burst; results in superoxide and peroxide, which react w/ myeloperoxidase to form bleach.
what are active oxygen metabolites?
superoxide and peroxide.

react w/ myeloperoxidase, produce bleach.
whats the blood:tissue ratio of:
eos: 1:200
basos; varies, most are at the body linings.
monos: 1:400
what causes eosinophilia?
chronic skin infection
granulocytic leukemia
what causes decreased eosinophils?
steroids - inhibit release of cells from marrow
what is the eosinophil function?
1. modulate immediate hypersensitivity reactions
2. modulate parasite infection
3. Bacteriocidal
what is in eosinophil granules?
major basic protein
what do basophils increase for?
Myeloproliferative disorders
what is the function of basophils?
as a vasoactivator
as a bronchoinhibitor
what is in the granules of basophils?
what's the difference between a monocyte and macrophage?
monos = in circulation
macro = in tissue
what is the MPS and RES?
-cells capable of phagocytosis - macrophages and monocytes.
-freely circulating or fixed in specific tissues.
What is the function of the RES?
-To remove senescent cells from circulation adn provide phagocytic cells for inflammatory and immune response.
what are four inherited syndromes of neutrophils, and which are autosomal?
1. Chediak Hegashi - autosomal recessive
2. Pelger-Huet - autosomal dominant.
3. May-Hegglin - autosomal dominant
4. Alder-reilly - dominant.
what are 2 other granulocyte disease?
-Chronic granulomatous disease - seen in young boys, no respiratory burst, must form granulomas to contain microbe.
-Lazy Leukocyte: no chemotaxis
What is Chediak-Higashi syndrome?
syndrome where primary and secondary granules fuse - very large and dark. Ineffective.
Succomb to bacterial infection.
What is Pelger-Huet Syndrome?
nucleus of neutrophils does not segment; bilobed, pince-nez.
Normal function, seen in at least 70% of the PMNS.
What is Pelgeroid syndrome?
similar pincenez is seen, but only in a few cells. also hypogranular production.
what is Alder-Reilly?
Syndrome where azurophilic granules are very large, and contain muccopolysaccharide.
What is May-Hegglin syndrome?

what other disorder accompanies?
syndrome where platelets are GIANT; they are blue inclusions that resemble dohle bodies.
Often see thrombocytopenia.