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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Execution Time

The total time required for a computer to complete a task.


CPU execution time

Memory access time

I/O activities

disk access time



The number of tasks completed per unit time.

Data Path

The ability to move data from one part of the CPU to another.

Performance of a machine X is defined as the _______ of the CPU execution time.


If the execution time on a machine Y is n times longer than it is on a machine X, that means...

Machine X is n times faster than Y.

Suppose a computer A runs a program in 10 seconds, and computer B runs the same program in 15 seconds. Which computer is faster and by how much?

Computer A is faster than computer B.

Computer A is 1.5 times faster than computer B.

The average number of clock cycles per instruction is known as...

CPI (Cycles Per Instruction)

What is the Classic CPU Performance Equation?

Also known as T = (I * CPI) / F

How do you obtain SPEC ratio?

Divide the execution time on a reference processor by the execution time on the measured processor for each of the benchmark programs.

How do you obtain the CINT2006 summary measurement?

Take the geometric mean of the twelve SPEC ratios of integer benchmarks.

Mathematical Definition of Geometric Mean

The nth root of the product of n numbers.

Explain Binary Coded Decimal

Each digit in decimal is represented in bits individually.

What is good about excess-n code and how do you represent a number with it?

It allows a range of negative and positive integers to be represented.

To represent x, write x + n in binary.

How do you perform two's compliment on a number?

Flip the bits and add one.

Alternatively, scan the bit pattern from right to left, keeping the bits as they are up to and including the first 1 seen; flip the remaining bits.

What is overflow?

When an integer value falls outside the allowed range.

Alternatively, when you add two positive numbers and get a negative, or when you add two negative numbers and get a positive.

What is IEEE normalized form?

Moving the binary point so that there is a single 1 before the binary point.


00000000.0101 becomes 1.01 * 2^-2

What are the three components of IEEE representation?

The signed bit, the exponent, and the fraction (mantissa).

What is the term for the number after it has been normalized in IEEE format? i.e. 1.10110101

The significand.

Give the number of bits for the exponent in both Single Precision (32 bit) Format and Double Precision (64 bit) Format in IEEE Floating-Point Standard 754.

Single Precision: 8 bits

Double Precision: 11 bits

What is the effect of changing the number of bits for the exponent and fraction?

More bits for exponent will allow a wider range.

More bits for the fraction will allow better precision (less round off error).

How do we handle representing numbers that cannot be expressed exactly?

Round to the closest value that can be expressed.

UTF-8 uses one byte for an ASCII character and up to four bytes for other characters. Thus, UTF-8 is a ______ _______ character encoding.

Variable length

What is the Hexadecimal value of uppercase A and lowercase a in ASCII?

A: 41

a: 61