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64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What are 2 problems with the comparative method?

Traveling concepts: can be used in different contexts

Control over the cases: expand scope as broad as possible

How does International Relations and Comparative differ?

IR: is the study of the relations of a countries as separate entities

Two primary criteria of most state definitions?

They are territorial (within a given territory), legitimacy, use of force

What scholar gave us the method of difference and method of agreement?


What are the elements of a states strength?

autonomy, capacity

What is a general statement predicting cause and effect?


What are the differences between modernization and survival story?



Early researcher's philosophy preferred which type of government?


What are key institutions that were discussed in class in reference to "Elements of the State"?

Political parties, interest groups, bureaucracy, judiciary, legislatures, military, president

What term is being defined, "The ability of a country's leader and states to resist special interest?


Distinguish between independent and dependent variable...



What researcher set the experimental and statistical methodological approaches are primary ways to conduct comparative research?


Discuss transitions between asset types and democratic transitions or policy making.

Liquid Assets: businesses, private corporations has the power, government has more response to them

Fixed Assets: do NOT have the power to move the money around...Coal mines

Discuss 3 ways to combat or reduce the credible commitment problem...

3rd pard, frequently interactions (frequency), pressure of the government with a promissory note (contracts),

- institutions that alter power

Discuss at least 2 key criteria for scientific theory.

observable, falsifiable, based on evidence

Name/Identify 2 sources of democracy measures.

autonomy, polity

Is the study of political phenomena that occurs predominately within countries.

Comparative Politics

Involves the systematic search for the necessary and sufficient causes of political phenomena; this method comprises the Method of Agreement and the Method of Difference

Comparative Method

1. What are the key steps in the scientific method
* (1) Question (2) Theory or Method (3) Implications (Hypotheses) (4) Observe the World (Test Hypotheses) (5) Evaluation (6) Conclusion

What are the various approaches to research covered by Mill and Lijphart? What are some limitations with Mill’s methods?

* The approaches of the Comparative methods are Cultural explanations, rational choice & Institutionalism (cost outweigh benefits perceived), and Quantitive vs. Qualitative Research.
* The limitations or weakness with J.S. Mills’ methods were that the relationship in his methodologies tended to be “deterministic” (If, then) and “probleministic” (“If, then likely”)
* Is an entity that uses coercion and the threat of force to rule in a given territory.


* the state is a human community that successfully claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force on a given territory.

Max Weber

* states are relatively centralized, differentiated organizations, the officials of which, more or less, successfully claim control over the chief concentrated means of violence within a population inhabiting a large contiguous territory

Charles Tilly

* A state is an organization with a comparative advantage in violence, extending over a geographic area whose boundaries are determined by its power to tax constituents

Douglas North

the states emergence is as a result of a social contract between individuals in the state of nature in which the states provide security in exchange for obedience from the citizen.

contractarian point of view

states emerge as an unintended consequence of strategies employed by actors like lords and kings to seize and maintain their hold on power.

predatory point of view

states ability to implement their own rules

- Could be legitimacy or capacity?

- U.S. has high capacity


the level of influence outside forces have on the government

- U.S. has low autonomy


whether or not a state can do what they want internationally (while being unchecked)


how people in the society will view the laws, and could be bound by nationalism or legitimacy


a nation’s desire or push for national advancement or political independence


What are some key attributes of most modern states?

* located within a given territory
* have the ability to enforce a threat on the state if needed
* handle their economic and social affairs
1. What types of regimes are available other than democracy?
* The other types of regimes listed in Chapter 5 are dictatorships, monarchies, aristocracy, tyranny, oligarchy, and Politeria.

Which scholars discussed, advocated for, or warned against democracy?

* The scholars who were anti-democracy were Plato, Aristotle, Bodin, Hegel, Hobbes, Kant, Locke, and Marx.
1. What is modernization? Which scholars are tied to this theory?

Modernization theory predicts that democracy is more likely to emerge and survive as countries develop and become richer. Also, argues that all societies pass through the same historical stages of economic development.

- The scholars tied with this theory is Martin Lipset.

What is the primary alternative to modernization? Which scholar(s) are tied with this theory?

* The alternative theory to modernization is the survival story. The survival story predicts that democracy is more likely to survive as countries develop and become richer, but it is not more likely to emerge.
* The scholar ties with this theory is Przeworski et al.

- inherent

- fixed

- provides guidelines for political behavior; these certain countries are predisposed to certain political regimes

- Monstequieu


- not fixed

- constructed

- they said that some cultures might have a tendency for a regime type

- they disagree that the regime can change as culture changes


- he emphasizes the empirical and statistical research

- more qualitative

- experimental- survey research (not dependable)

- stressed probabilistic analysis

- deviant cases do not completely undermine theory

- to generalize we must case (inter... and intra... set analysis "why"


- expunged unnecessary wars

- focused on cases that had common thought perhaps different outcome

- Mill's method of difference

parsimonious model

- monopoly

- legitimate use of force

- tacid acceptance of an action

- within a given territory ( in contrast to notion)

- recognized


- control over the chief military of means of violence

- centralized, differentiated, organization, bureaucracy,

- within a given territory



- power to tax

- comparative advantage to violence

- boundaries determined by the power to tax

- geographical area


neocorporate countries

groups inserted in policy making

- historical trends

- preference to oligarchy and monarchy

- changing attitude towards democracy

- classifying regime type

- Dahl, ACL/DD, Polity, Freedom

Conceptualization to Democracy

- procedural

- continous

- inclusion and contestation

- pro simple (too simple)


- procedural

- dichotomous

- must elect a president

- more than one party competing

- uncertain outcomes

- alternation of power

- Pros: cannot consider elections

- Cons: things cannot be black and white

PACL, DD, dictatorship

- used in studies of war

- procedural

- 1-10 continuous

* a) the competitiveness of executive recruitment, (b) the openness of executive recruitment, (c) the constraints that exist on the executive, (d) the regulation of political participation (e). the competitiveness of political participation

- Pros: continues, variations

- Cons: too much focus on the executive, based on IR


- used in comparative studies

- substantial

- continuous

- press freedom

- civil rights

- individual rights

- PROS: More emphasis on the outcome of the institutions

- more categories

- CONS: Freedom does not make democracy

Freedom House

looks and focuses on the institution


focuses on equality, representation, voting


- democracies tend to be more stable after a certain level of wealth

- projects the idea that after you reach a level of wealth, then you become a dictatorship

- economic regression occurs when change occurs

- emphasized trade unions and civil society

Przeworski's theory

- economic development can move a society to a point that politics can change

- as states become more advance, and more complex, the more they call for democracy

- democratic transitions are more likely to have an economy that grows and a society that expands

- democratic transitions become more likely because of the increase in income

Lipset and Rokkan

What is the problem with classic modernization theory?

Whenever you see rich dictatorships, and poor democracies

- Assuming all countries are like the US and Europe

Other factors that affect democracy...

Asset classes; Rentier state; Foreign Aid; Inequality; Dutch Disease

When a country gets most of its money from the exploitation of natural resources. So if there is not a diverse economy, government would care about the say in population

Rentier State

having too many resources

Dutch Disease

makes democracy less likely to occur

- top officials are less worried about the dependence of their citizens

foreign aid

will not in a way over time become more democratic

- people in power will become very oppressive to the minority


a set of logical statements typically in the form of a premise or conclusion


an argument that is thought to be support by a premise


If you accept the premise you are compelled to accept, then you are conclusory basis

valid argument

if you accept the premise, you are free to reject or accept the conclusion

invalid argument

categorical syllogism

has a major premise, minor premise, and a conclusion