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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
evidence-based practice
all interventions in health care that should be based on the best currently available evidence, preferable scientific evidence. Represents the clinical application of particular nursing interventions and documented client and population outcome data
gold standard
randomized clinical trials as the BEST evidence to use to change practice
knowledge managers
a nurse with the responsibility of retrieving and evaluating the best evidence for clinical practice within a community
randomized clinical trials
clincal research
systematic review
a summary of the research evidence that relates to a specif question and to the effects of and intervention.
acquired immunity
the resistance acquired by a shost as a result of previous natural exposure to an infectious agent; may be induced by passive or active immunization
active immunization
administration of all or part of a microorganism to stimulate active response by the host's immunologic system, resulting in complete protection agaist specific disease.
common vehicle
transportation of the infectious agent from an infected host to a susceptible host via water, food, milk, blood, serum, or plasma
communicable disease
a distase of homan or animal origin caused by an infectious agent and resulting from transmission of that agent fron an infected person, animal, or inanimate source to a susceptible host. May be communicalbe or non-communicalbe
emerging infectious disease
disesases in which the incidence has increased in the past two decates or has the potential to increase in the near fugure
the constant presence of an infectious disease wihthin a specific geographical area in greater numbers than would normally be expected
the irreversible termination of all transmisssion of infection by extermination of the infectious agents worldwide
herd immunity
immunity of a group or community
horizontal transmission
person-to-person spread of infection
the measure of the potential ability of an infected host to transmit the infection to other hosts
natural infection
species-determined innate reistance to an infectious agent (ex. possums dont get rabies)
worldwide outbreak of an epidemic disease
passive immunization
immunization by a trasnfer of specific antibody from an immunized person to one who is not immunized
systematic and ongoing observation and collection of data concerning disease occurance to describe phenomena and detect changes in frequency or distribution
nonhuman organism, often an insect, that plays a role in the transmission of an ifectious agent from source to host
vertical transmission
passing the infection from parent to child via sperm, palcenta, milk, or vagina.
analytic epidemiology
a form of epidemiology that investigates cuases and associations btw factors or events and health
attack rate
a type of incidence rate defined as the proportion of persons exposed to an agent who develops the disease, usually a limited time in specific population
case-control study
an epidemiologic study design in which subjects with a specified disease or condition (cases) and a comparable group without the contition (controls) are enrolled and assessed for the presence or history of an exposure or characteristic.
using stats to determine if a relationship exists btw two or more factors or events
cohort study
an epidemiologic study design in which subjects without an outcome of ineterest are classified according to past or persent exposrues or charactersitics and FOLLOWED OVER TIME to observe and compare the rates of some health coutcome in various groups
a bias that results from the relation of both the outcome and study factor(exposure or characteristic) with some third factor not accounted
cross-sectional study
an epidemiologic study in which health outcomes and exposures or characteristics of interest are simultaneously ascertained and examined for association in a population or sample, providing a picture of existing levels of all factors
descriptive epidemiology
a form of epidemiology that describes a disease according to its person, place, ortime
the study of distribution and factors that determine health-related states or events in a population, and the use of this information to contorl health problems
incidence rate
the frequency or rate of NEW CASES of an outcome in a population' provides an estimate of the risk of disease in that popluation over the time of observation
natural history of disease
course or progression of a distease process from onset to resolution
nengative predictive value
the proportion of peorsons with a negative test who are disease-free
prevalence proportion
a measure of EXISTING disease in a polulation at a given time
proportionate mortality ratio
the proportion of all deaths due to a specific cuause
the measure of the frequency of a health event in a defined population during a certin time period
the precision of a measureing instrument, which depends on its consistency from one time of use to another and its accuracy.
the probability of some event or outcome within a specified period
the extent to which a test identifies those individuals who odo not have the disease or condition being examined
the accruasy of a test or measurement
web of causality
complex interrelations of factors interacting with each other to influence the risk for or distribution of health outcomes
bacterial STD which causes infection of cervix and urethra. may be asymptomatic and if untreated may result in severe morbiidy
Directly observed therapy
a system of providing medications for persons with TB, in which the client is monitored for taking the meds to maximize adherence to the treatment
genital herpes
virus that attacks the genitals and sacral nerve. painful lesions
can affect the immune and cns and cuase infections or cancesrs.
genital warts
calliflower-like growths that are caused by human papillomavirus
bacterial STD resulting in inflammed urtethra and cervis. Dysuria or no symtoms
Hep A
trnasmitted fecal/oral route. Onset is usually acute wwith fever, nausea, etc followed by several days of jaundice
Hep B
virus transmitted through expuseure to blood and body fluids.
Hep C
virus transmitted through exposure to blood and body fluids. most common chronic blood-borne infection in US
partner notification
identifying and locating contacts of persons who have been diagnosed with transmissible disease to notify them of exposure and encourage them to seek medical treatment
bacterial STD with the appearance of a painless chancre. Relapses are frequent, and alter the initial chancre and secondary symtoms. May exist with or without symtoms for years
an infectious diesase caused by bacteria, transmitted by droplets, resulting in pulmonary symtoms and wasting. can be latent and asymptomatic, later progressing to active infection.