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76 Cards in this Set

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Channel

the medium through which the message passes

Co-Culture

Smaller parts of a whole society marked by differentnotions of appropriate behavior

Cognitive Complexity

the ability to construct a variety of frameworks for viewing an issue

Communication Competence

involvesachieving one’s goals in an appropiate manner that effectively maintainsor enhances the relationship in which it occurs

Content Dimension

communication involving the informationbeing explicitly discussed

Decode

the person who makes sense of the message

Disinhibition

the tendency totransmit messages without considering their consequences

Dyad

two interacting people

Encode

to put thoughts into symbols and gestures

Environment

fields of experience that affect how one understands others’ behavior

Impersonal Communication

whenquality of interaction is the criterion, the opposite of interpersonal communication; not group, public, or mass communication.

Instrumental Goals

getting others to behave in ways we want

Interpersonal Communication

a transactional process involvingparticipants who occupy different but overlappingenvironments and create relationships through theexchange of messages, many of which are affectedby external, physiological, and psychological noise

Leanness

describesmessages that are stark from a lack of nonverbal information

Linear Communication Model

depicts communication as something a sender“does to” a receiver

Message

the information being transmitted

Noise

distractions that disrupt transmission

Receiver

the person attending to the message

Relational Dimension

expresses how you feel about the otherperson

Richness

describes the abundanceof nonverbal cues that add clarity to a verbal message

Self-Monitoring

the process of paying closeattention to one’s behavior and using these observations to shape the way one behaves

Sender

the person creating the message

Social Media

describes all thechannels that make remote personal communication possible

Transactional Communication Model

updates and expands the linearmodel to better capture communication as a uniquely human process

Benevolent Lie

a lie that is unmalicious, or even helpful, to the person to whom it is told

Breadth

volunteered—therange of subjects being discussed

Cognitive Conservatism

the tendency to seek and attend to information that conforms to an existing self-concept

Depth

the shiftfrom relatively impersonal messages to more personal ones

Face

a public image—the way wewant others to view us

Identity Management

the communication strategies that people use to influence how others viewthem

Johari Window

a diagram showing four parts of the self, including the open, blind, hidden and unknown areas

Perceived Self

a reflection of the self concept

Personality

characteristic ways that you think and behave across a variety of situations

Presenting Self

a public image—the way wewant others to view us; face

Privacy Management

the choices people make to reveal orconceal information about themselves

Reference Groups

groups against which we compare ourselves; they play animportant role in shaping our view of ourselves

Reflected Appraisal

the fact that each of us developsa self-concept that reflects the way we believe others seeus

Self-Concept

the relatively stable set of perceptions you hold of yourself

Self-Disclosure

the process of deliberatelyrevealing information about oneself that is significant and would not normallybe known by others

Self-Esteem

evaluations of self-worth

Self=Fulfilling Prophecy

when a person’s expectations of an event, andhis or her subsequent behavior based on those expectations, make the event morelikely to occur than would otherwise have been true

Significant Others

people whose opinions we especially value

Social Comparison

evaluating ourselves in terms of how we compare with others

Social Penetration

a means of measuring self-disclosure in terms of depth and breadth

Andrygynous

One of four psychological sex types, combiningmasculine and feminine traits

Attribution

the process of explaining people’s behavior

Empathy

the ability to re-create another person’s perspective, to experience the worldfrom the other’s point of view

Ethnocentricism

the attitude that one’s own culture is superior toothers

Gender Roles

socially approved ways that men and women are expected tobehave

Halo Effect

the tendency to forman overall positive impression of a person on the basis of one positive characteristic

Interpretation

attaching meaning to sense data

Narrative

the stories we use to describe our personal world

Negotiation

occurs between andamong people as they influence one another’s perceptions and try to achievea shared perspective

Organization

arranging information from the environment in some meaningful way

Perception Checking

a tool for helping youunderstand others accurately instead of assuming thatyour first interpretation is correct




- description of the behavior you noticed


- at least two possible interpretations of the behavior


- a request for clarification about how to interpret the behavior

Pillow Method

viewing an issue from four perspectives




- I’m Right, You’re Wrong


- You’re Right, I’m Wrong


- Both right,both wrong


- The issue isn'timportant


- There's truth inall perspectives

Punctuation

the determination of causes and effectsin a series of interactions

Selection

the process of choosing which impressions we will attend to

Self-Serving Bias

the tendency to judge ourselves in the most generous termspossible

Stereotyping

exaggerated generalizationsassociated with a categorizing system

Sympathy

viewing the otherperson’s situation from your own point of view

Debilitative Emotions

feelings that detract from effective functioning

Emotional Contagion

the process by which emotionsare transferred from one person to another

Emotional Intelligence

the ability to understand and manage one’s ownemotions and be sensitive to others’ feelings

Emotion Labor

situations in which managingand even suppressing emotions is both appropriate andnecessary

Facilitative Emotions

Feelings that contribute toeffective functioning

Fallacy of Approval

a fallacy based on the idea that it is notonly desirable but also vital to get the approval of virtually every person

Fallacy of Catastrophic Expectations

the assumptionthat if something bad can possibly happen, it will

Fallacy of Helplessness

the fallacy that suggests that satisfactionin life is determined by forces beyond your control

Fallacy of Causation

the fallacy based on the irrational beliefthat emotions are caused by others rather than by one’s own self-talk

Fallacy of Overgeneralization

a fallacy comprising two types:


- basing a belief on a limited amount ofevidence


- exaggeration of shortcomings

Fallacy of Perfection

The assumption that a worthwhile communicator should be able tohandle every situation with complete confidence and skill

Fallacy of Shoulds

the inability to distinguishbetween what is and what should be

Reappraisal

rethinking the meaningof emotionally charged events in ways that alter their emotional impact

Rumination

dwelling persistently on negative thoughts that,in turn, intensify negative feelings

Self-Talk

it is not events that determine emotionsthat cause peopleto feel bad, but rather the beliefs they hold about these events; what we tell ourselves