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159 Cards in this Set

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Abscess

Localized collection of pus in a cavity formed by the disintegration of tissue

Agar Gel Immunodiffusion Test(AGID)

Agar gel immunodiffusion. Technique that involves evaluation of the precipitin reaction in a clear gel, seen when an antigen placed in a hole in the agarose diffuses evenly into the medium

Anaerobic

Without air

Anorexia

Lack or loss of appetite for food

Antemortem

Before death

Antibiotic

Chemical substance having the capacity, in dilute solution, to kill or inhibit growth of microorganisms

Antioxidant

Preventing or delaying oxidation

Antitoxin

Purified antiserum from animals (usually horses) immunized by injections of a toxin ot toxid, administered as a passive immunizing agent to neutralize a specific bacterial toxin

Ataxia

Failure of muscular coordination

Atrophy

Wasting away; dimiuntion in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or part

Coccoid

Resembling a globe

Direct Contact

Coming into direct contact with a disease

Dyspnea

Labored or difficult breathing

Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)

Biochemical technique used mainly in immunology to detect the presence of an antibody or an antigen in a sample

Fomite

Any inanimate object or substance capable of carrying and hence transferring infectious organisms from one individual to another

Gram-Negative

Characteristic of bacteria that do not retain crystal violet dye in gram staining protocol

Gram-positive

Characteristic of bacteria that stain dark blue or violet by gram staining protocol

Incubation Period

Time elapsed between exposure to a pathogenic organism, a chemical, or radiation and when symptoms and signs are first apparent

Indirect Contact

Disease spread by indirect contact means

Morbidity

Portion of animals that get sick

Mortality

Portion of animals that die

Mucopurulent

Containing both mucus and pus

Myoglobinurea

Oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle, a type of hemoprotein resemblin a single subunit of hemoglobin, composed of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group

Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)

Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug

Paired Serum Samples

Serum sample taken about 1 week or so apart, depending on the disease, and tested for antibody levels

Paralysis

Loss or impairment of motor function in part due to lesion of the neural or muscular mechanism

Petechiae

Minute, pinpoint, nonraised, perfectly round, purplish res spot caused by intradermal or submucous hemorrhage, which later turns blue or yellow

Polydipsia

Excessive fluid intake

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

Amplification of a specific DNA sequence present in a complex mixture by adding two or more shrt oligonucleotides that are specific for the terminal or outer limits of the template sequence

Polyuria

Excessive urine excretion

Postmortem

After death

Pyrexia

Fever

Serology

The uses of serologic reactions to detect antigens

Spirochete

Spiral bacterium

Sporocysts

Protective case or cyst in which sporozoites develop and from which they are transferred to different host

Thrombocytopenia

Decreased in number of platelets

Vaccination

Introduction of vaccine into the body for the purpous of inducing immunity

Viral Antigen

Viral molecule recognized by the immune system

Viral Nucleic Acid Detection

Method of detecting viral mucleic acids

Virus Isolation

Gold standard test used to diagnose virus infections

Warm-Blooded

Group of middle-weight horse types and breeds. primarily origination in Europe, registered with organizations

What causes botulism

Clostridium botulinum
What are the characteristics of clostridium botulinum


Gram neg


Anaerobic bacteria


Survives in soil, fresh and salt water


What does botulism cause

Shaker foal syndrome- prevents Ach release

What are the cs, tx, and prognosis of botulism


Cs: paralysis


Tx: supportive care, gastric lavage


Prognosis: Poor, high mortality due to paralysis

What causes canker

Fusobacterium necrophorum, et al.

What are the cs, tx, and risk factor of canker


Cs: Hypertrophic, moist pododermatitis affecting the frog, lameness


Tx: Debridement, topical antimicrobials


Risk factor: wet environment


What is thrush

Very soft foot

What causes thrush


Many organisms


Mainly Fusobacterium necrophorum


What are the cs and tx of thrush


Cs: Malodorous black discharge along central & lateral sulci of the frog


Tx: Cleaning & topical antiseptics


What causes Lyme disease

Borrellia burgdorferi

What is the host of borrellia burgdorferi

Ixodid ticks (deer)

What are the cs, tx, and prevention of lyme disease


Cs: Fever, depression, joint swelling, lameness


Tx: Iv tetracycline, PO doxycycline


Prevention: Vector control, vx(non-core)


How is lyme disease diagnosis
ELISA or IFA

What causes Potomac Horse Fever

Neorickettsia risticii
What are the cs, tx, and prevention of Potomac Horse Fever


Cs: Depression, diarrhea, fever, toxemia, abortion, occas, laminitis


Tx: Oxytetracycline, fluids, NSAIDs


Prevention: Vx

What is the vector cycle of Potomac Horse Fever

Trematodes infect snails produce larvae which are consumed by larvae of caddis and mayfly which the horse then consumes
How is Potomac Horse Fever diagnosed

PCR
What causes rain rot

Dermatophilus congolensis
What are the cs and tx of rain rot


Cs: Skin lesions with black discharge


tx: antimicrobial therapy, soaking and removing scabs

How is rain rot diagnosed

Culture

What causes salmonella
Salmonella spp.
What are the cs, tx, and diagnosis of salmonella

Cs: pyrexia, anorexia, depression, diarrhea


Tx: IV fluids, electrolyte replacement, NSAIDs, quarantine, antibiotics, and GI protectants

How is salmonella diagnosed

Fecal culture, PCR test
What is strangles also known as

Distemper, Bastard strangles

What causes strangles

Streptococcus equi
What are the cs, tx, and prevention of strangles


Cs: pyrexia, mucopurulent nasal discharge, abscessed submandibular and retropharyngeal l.n.


Tx: antibiotics


Prevention: Vx(non-core)

How is strangles transmitted and diagnosed

Transmitted through direct or indirect contact w nasal discharge


Dx: culture, PCR


What causes tetanus
Clostridium tetani endotoxins

What are the cs, tx, and prevention of tetanus


Cs: Stiffness (leads to saw horse)and dyspnea


Tx: Wound care and supportive care


Prevention: Vx(core)

What are characteristics of Clostridium tetani


Gram pos


Found in soil




What is tetanus also called

Lock Jaw

What are bacterial diseases


Botulism


Canker


Thrush


Lyme Disease


Potomac Horse Fever


Rain Rot


Salmonella


Strangles


Tetanus


Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis


Piroplasmosis


Dermatophytosis


White Line Disease

What causes Equine protozal myeloencephalitis(EPM)


Sarcocystis neurona (most common)


Neospora hughesi

What are the cs and tx of Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis

Cs:Vary depending on location of parasite in CNS


Tx: Anti-protozoal drugs, supportive care, anti-oxidants (vit E)

How is equine protozoal myeloencephalitis diagnosed and transmitted


Dx:No real antemortem method-CSF can be tested


Transmitted: Ingestion of opossum feces containing sporocysts

Who are a host of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis

Opossums (definitive), raccoons, armadillos, and skunks, cats (intermediate)
What is histopath

Testing the brain

What is myelo

Spinal cord

What is enceph

Brain
What causes Piroplasmosis

Protozoal parasites, Babesia equi and Babesia caballi (ixodid tick born)
What does piroplasmosis affect

RBC

What are the cs, tx, and prevention of piroplasmosis

CS: Pyrexia, anemia, depression,thirst, eye problems, mortality


Tx: Imidocarb dipropionate, diminazene, amicarbalide, euflavine, +/ or tetracyclines


Prevention: Vector control, restrict movement of infected horses

What causes Dermatophytosis

Keratinophilic fungi


Trichophyton equinum


Microsporum equinum



How is dermatophytosis transmitted

Direct or indirect contact, vehicles

What are the cs, tx, diagnostic, and prevention of dermatophytosis

cs: alopecia, and scaling


Dx: Wood lamp or DTM culture


Tx: Povidone-iodine, thiobendazole, miconazole, ketoconazole, fluonazole


Prevention: Treat environment w/ diluted bleach/discard tack

What is alopecia

Hair loss

What causes white line disease

Bacteria/fungi/yeast invasion of the inner horn

What are the cs, dx, tx, and prevention of white line disease

Cs: Caseous and melodorous in infected area, lameness, warm sole


Dx: PE findings


Tx: Resection of hoof wall and topical antiseptic


Prevention: good hoof care

What are the viral diseases

Encephalomyelitis


Equine Viral Arteritis


Equine infectious Anemia


Equine Influenza


Rabies


Rhinopneumonitis


Vesicular Stomatitis


West Nile Virus


Cutaneous Papillomas

What causes Encephalomyelitis

Equine alphaviruses

What are the forms of encephalomyelitis

Eastern/wester/venezuelan (EEE, WEE, VEE)

What are the cs, dx, tx, and prevention of encephalomyelitis

Cs: pyrexia, ataxia, anorexia, paralysis, circling, head pressing, hyperexcitability


Dx: Presumptive


Tx: Supportive


Prevention: Vx and vector control

What is the vector of encephalomyelitis

Mosquitoes

What causes Equine viral arteritis

Equine Arteritis virus (EAV)

What are the cs, tx,, dx, and prevention of Equine viral arteritis

Cs: Flu-like, abortions, pneumonia


Dx: Virus isolation, serology


Tx: Supportive care; castrated stallions that are carriers


Prevention: Vx

How is Equine Viral Arteritis transmitted

Aerosolized respiratory partiles


Infected semen

What is Equine infectious anemia also known as

Swamp fever

What are the cs, dx, and tx of equine infectious anemia

Cs: Fever, lethargy, anorexia, anemia, icterus, thrombocytopenia, petechiae


Dx: Coggins test


Tx: Quarantine and supportive care

What is the vector of Equine infectious anemia

Blood-sucking insects

What is icterus

Yellowing of the skin

What causes Equine influenza A

Orthomyxovirus

What are the cs, dx, tx, and prevention of Equine Influenza A

Cs: Hever, mucopurulent nasal discharge, tachypnea, cough, lymphadenopathy


Dx: Presumptive


Tx: Supportive


Prevention: Vx

What causes Rhinopneumonitis

Equine herpsevirus types 1& 4

What are the cs, dx, tx, and prevention of Rhinopneumonitis

cs: Mucopurulent nasal discharge, lymphadenopathy, coughing, abortion, scrotal edema,ataxia, incontinence, recumbancy


Dx: PCR postmortem


Tx: Supportive care


Prevention: Vx

What causes rabies

rhabdovirus

What are the cs, dx, tx, and prevention of rabies

Cs: Lethal polioencephalomyelitis, GI and neuro signs, aggressive, depression (Dumb form)


Dx: histopath of the brain tissue


Tx: none


Prevention: vx

What causes vesicular stomatitis

Virus or the rhabdoviridae family

How is vesicular stomatitis transmitted

Biting insects

What are the cs, dx, and tx of vesicular stomatitis

Cs: fever, ptyalism, fluid-filled vesicles


Dx: Ab detection,viral RNA detection, virus isolation


Tx: Supportive care

What is ptyalism

Excessive salivation

What causes West Nile Virus

Virus of Flaviviridae family

How is west nile virus tramitted

Mosquito transmit from infected birds to horses

What are the cs, dx, tx, and prevention of West Nile Virus

Cs: Fever, inappetance, depression, colic, behavior changes, paralysis, coma, death


Dx: ELISA or CSF


Tx: Supportive


Prevention: Vx

What causes cutaneous papillomas

Equus caballus papilloma virus type 1

What is cutaneous papillomas

warts

What are the cs, dx, tx, and prevention of cutaneous papillomas

Cs: warts aroung lips and muzzle


Dx: PE findings


Tx: Spontaneously resolve, remove w/ cauter or cryosurgery


Prevention: Isolation of infected

How is Cutaneous papillomas transmitted

Direct contact or fomite

What causes choke

Food becoming lodged in the esophagus

What causes choke

Dehydration, large food particles, greedy eating, food that is too dry, inadequate chewing

What is the tx and prevention of choke

Tx: Nasogastric tube w water flushed down


Prevention: Moisten feed, methods to slow eating, dental care, adequate water intake

What is Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease also called

Heaves

What are the cs and tx of heaves

Cs: difficulty breathing, nasal discharge, coughing, lack of stamina, heave line


Tx: management

What is roaring

Whistling/wheezing when respirations are increased

What is the primary cause of roaring

Paralysis of the laryngeal folds

What is the number 1 emergency

Colic

What is ischemia

Decreased blood supply

What are the cs of colic

Lying down, rolling, looking/licking abdomen, pawing, grunting, sweating, abdominal distention, nonproductive straining to urinate/defecate, rapid breathing, flared nostrils, abnormal behavior, lack of appetite


What is the tx for colic

Admi mineral oil, pain med, hand walking, iv fluids, surgery

What is cushings disease

Hyperadrenocorticism and cortisol

What is the dx and tx of cushings

Dx: ACTH, cortisol, insulin and glucose
Tx: Cyproheptadine or pergolide mesylate

What are the cs of cushings

Ployuria, ploydipsea, hirsutism, failure to shed, dull coat, sway back, pot belly, laminitis, fat deposition in the supra orbital fossa, increased appetite, increased sweating, loss of muscle tone

What is ploydipsia

Excessive thirst

What is hirsutism

Long, thick, curly coat

What is wobbler's Syndrome

Instability in the cervical vertebral column that causes compression of the spinal cord


What causes hypothyroidism

Low T3 and T4

What are the cs of hypothyroidism

Slow/absence of shedding, long rough hair, sensitive to cold, depression, weakness, lack of muscle tone, tying up, laminitis, infertility, irregular heat cycles, lack of milk production

What is the dx and tx of hypothyroidism

Dx: CBC, serum chemistry panel, TSH stimulation test


Tx: Supplemental thyroid hormones

What does it mean if a horse is sound

Has a normal gate

What is founder

Laminitis

What does sever cases of laminits cause

Rotation of P3 and can lead to penetration through the sole

What is Navicular syndrome

Degenerative condition of structures in the horse's heel

What is sidebone

Ossification of lateral cartilages of the hoof

What is ringbone

Osteoarthritis of the pastern or coffin joint

What is Stringhalt

Involuntary flexion of the hock when walking

what is equine recurrent uveitis also called

Moon Blindness

What is equine recurrent uveitis

Inflammation of the uveal track

What are the cs of moon blindness

Blepharospasm, conjunctivitis, lacrimation, vascularization, hypopyon, hyphema, swollen dull iris, hypotonia, photophobia, corneal edema, miosis, pthisis bulbi

What is photophobia

Light sensitivity

What is the tx of moon blindness

Topical corticosteroids, prevent secondary bacterial infection

What is the scientific name of bot flies

Gastrophilus spp.

What can bot flies cause and what is the tx

Gastric ulcers or colic


Tx: Dichlorvos, ivermectin, moxidectin

What is the scientific name of roundworms

Parascaris equorum

What can roundworms cause and what is the tx

Colic or damage to the liver and lungs


Tx: Piperazine, pyrantel, ivermectin, moxidectin

What is the scientific name of stomach worms

Habronema spp.

What does stomach worms cause and what is the tx

Summer sores and GI inflammation


Tx: Ivermectin, moxidectin

What is the scientific name of tapeworms

Anoplocephala spp

What is the tx of tapeworms

Albendazole, pyrantel, praziquantel

What are the core vx

Tetanus


E/W equine encephalomyelitis


West Nile Virus


Rabies