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84 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
When asking "What are the boundaries of the theory’s explanation?"
we are measuring
When we ask "Do the claims of the theory match its assumptions? Do the principles of the theory contradict each other?"
We are measuring
logical consistency
When the theory contains only the number of concepts necessary to explain the phenomenon under consideration,
the theory is:
When the theory is useful or has practical value
the theory has:
Can the theory be shown to be false?
When we have the ability to investigate a theory's accuracy the theory has:
When more research and new thinking is stimulated by the theory the theory is:
(generats insights)
in this paradigm...
the reality exists outside the individual.
attempts to discover objectively
social scientific/objective/positivistic paradigm
in this paradigm...
the reality is created by the individual
subjective interpretation valued
goal rich in understanding of individual experience
interpretive/humanistic/practical paradigm
"The Reality of Reality"
determines: what we should be studying, nature of human, social interactions

this metatheory is?
"How do we know?"
determines: knowledge gain, how people to come to know what they claim to know, what counts as knowledge
"Role of Values"
determines: how values effect theory and research, degree to which they effect theory and research
In this theory, people attempt to determine causes of behavior, especially negative outcomes
attribution theory
In this theory, people assign causes based on own perceptions and these perceptions guide what we decide
attribution theory
When the judges saw Susan Boyle, her appearance led them to believe she would be a bad singer and not serious. the judges made an
internal attribution
We tend to explain negative outcomes by applying internal attributions to others, and external to ourselves
this bias is called
fundamental attribution error
we associate our own success with internal attribution and failures with external attribution
this bias is called
self-serving bias
"You seem to know your math assignments very well, you must be enjoying reading."
This is a motivation tactic- the teacher has made an internal or external attribution?
the feeling people have when they find themselves doing things that don’t fit with what they know, or having opinions that do not fit with other opinions they hold

this feeling/theory is:
cognitive dissonance
what is measured when determining actions people take and cognitions they may make to reduce dissonance
the magnitude of dissonace
what factors influence magnitude
1- importance, how signficanct the issue is
2- dissonance ratio, the amount of consonant cognitions relative to the dissonant ones (feelings that say its good vs. feelings that say its bad)
3- the reasoning employed to explain why an inconsistency exists )more reasons=more to account for discrepancy)
What is this strategy for minimizing dissonance?

seeking consistent info that is consistent with their attitudes and not already present
selective exposure
What is this strategy for minimizing dissonance?

People attend to info in their environment that conforms to their attitudes and ignore info that is consistent
for instance- ali example, she might read favorable articles on her job to justify why she is working there
selective attention

looking at consistent info once it is there
What is this strategy for minimizing dissonance?

interpreting ambiguous info so that it becomes consistent. Most people interpret close friends’ attitudes as more congruent with their own than is actually true
selective interpretation

ambiguous info--> your own
What is this strategy for minimizing dissonance?

Juan heard a lecture about how important conflict can be in relationships he may well remember that in his current situation of frequent fighting. Ali might focus on stories she heard in the past on how great Cosmo is to reassure her view
selective retention

remembering info
In this theory, our attitudes or judgments remain stable until challenged
The attitude changes depend upon initial orientation (anchor point)
Social Judgment Theory
what is the function that relates to social judgment theory?
i.e- the function that it takes to switch anchor points
name the three ranges of attitudes one can have
1. acceptance
2. rejection
3. noncommittment
ego involvement will (......) lattitude of acceptance and (......) lattitude of rejection
REDUCE lattitude of acceptance
ENLARGE lattitude of rejection
when you have a contrast effect with someone, your position is...
firm, you do not agree.
when you have an assimilation effect with someone, their position
is more like yours
two principles of this theory include:
1) all higher levels of thought depend on language
2) the structure of the language we use influences the way we understand our environment
Sapir Whorf/ Lingusitic Relativity
if language shapes perception, perception shapes behavior, then language can strongly influence one's actual behavior

what theory does this relate?
linguistic relativity
What theory states that:
we build a personal knowledge base from our experiences by transforming them into mental structures?
what are the cognitive templates or stencils we fit over social reality to order our impressions of people?
interpersonal constructs
what does it mean to have "cognitive complexity"
the mental ability to distinguish subtle personality and behavior differences among people
A tailor made message for a specific individual and context; reflects the communicator’s ability to anticipate response and adjust accordingly
person-centered/ strategic centered message
what is the "key" to a strategic centered message
for example: what do we do when we ask one parent something vs. the other
perspective taking
the type of communication when a person-centered message is made that accomplishes multiple goals: audience awareness, self-monitoring, listener adaptation
sophisticated communication
name the 3 step process of message creation
1. goal identification
2. planning
3. action
In my cousin vinny, the judge says "stay til you're told, can you answer the question,"
this as example of what type of design logic?
conventional design logic:
abide by social rules, gain social approval
When the defense attorney creates a trick question for the witness and challenges her to disqualify her, his logic is:
strategic/rhetorical design logic:
structure reality and meet multiple goals
When Marissa Tomay is defensive and doesn't want to answer any of the questions, her dialogue and nonverbal behavior is hostile because she is fighting with her fiance.
Her design logic would be characterized as:
expressive design logic:
emote and verbalize own thoughts, feelings
What theory states that personal identity is shaped by and guides interaction with others trough the use of symbols?
Symbolic Interactionism
What theory states that meanings, including our self-concept, is formed by interacting symbollically with others?
symbolic interactionism
What part of the 3 part communicative force in Symbolic Interactionism deals with behaving impulsively, unorganized, or unpredictable?
The "I"
What part of the 3 part communicative force in Symbolic Interactionism deals with what you imagine another sees of you and requires taking the role of the generalized other
The "Me"
What part of the 3 part communicative force in Symbolic Interactionism deals with how individuals adjust themselves to culture or larger viewpoint?
When I hear that others think I can do something, I will do it. Greater expectation=better performance. This is called
Pygmalion Effect
When the catholic church found it easier to convert pagans to christians by tying in the importance of female holy figures, THIS theory showed its utility
Symbolic Interactionism
when speakers intereact they adjust their speech, their vocal patterns, and their gestures to accommodate others.
What is this theory?
Communication Accommodation Theory
Why do people want to be accommodative? 3 reasons
To get listener's approval
To achieve communication efficiency
*To maintain a positive social identity
in a convo with a 15 year old you might find yourself using teen vocab, with an 85 year old you might slow your speech and use more facial animation
this is an example of
Communication Accommodation Theory
The theory that CAT is based on suggests a person's self concept is compromised of a personal and social identity is...
Social Identity Theory
In CAT, what is this selective process and strategy whereby individuals adapt to each other’s communicative behaviors called?
When we notice or make judgements about behavior that violates our expections we are acting in THIS theory
Expectations Violation Theory
When people hold expectations about behavior and unexpected behavior is arousing and causes judgment, this process is under what theory?
Expectation Violation Theory
the study of person's use of space
name 4 proxemic zones
intimate, personal, social, public
your harddrive on your computer is in your (------) territory,
it is your exclusive domain
primary territory
your cell phone is in your (------) territory, you have a connection to the object
the place you sit in the library has no personal affiliation
this territory is called
Unexpected behavior, on the other hand, captures people's attention and leads to heightened
The positive or negative assessment of an unexpected behavior
Violation Valence
How valuable the person or the communicator is to us. We evaluate the sum of positive and negative attributes of the communictator.
Communicator Reward Valence
when people do not mind when other's stand close to them their threshold is
think "high tolerance" of others
it takes A LOT for them to feel threatened
when others become very uncomfortable around those close, feeling threatened easily
their threshold is
In this theory, comm is the process of ceating and maintaing social reality through shared meaning
life is like an "unpredicted theater"

Humans co create a social reality during conversation
coordinated management of meaning theory
The meanings that a person brings during conversation is called
personal meaning
The meaning that results when the communicators agree on each other's interpretations of an interaction (after convo)
Interpersonal meaning
According to CMM, rules that guide one to compliment, question, or insult are
rules of meaning
According to CMM, rules that are based upon my interpretation and determine what i should do next is?
rules of action
name this hierarchy of context
- raw data
- the first step of connecting data
name this hierarchy of context
Speech Act
name this hierarchy of context
-the relationship or understanding between people
-suggests a future
-relational boundaries
name this hierarchy of context
- comm routines that have beginning, middle, end
- people bring cultural expectations for how this should be executed
name this hierarchy of context
- clusters of past or present episodes that create a system of manageable meanings with others
-individual's sense of self that shapes comm
Life Scripts
name this hierarchy of context

-a person's relationship to the larger culture
-different orientations of various culture present potential obstacles
Cultural Patterns
What theory states that people seek information in order to understand and predict other's behavior
Uncertainty Reduction Theory
Name 3 phases in intitial reaction
-reward, anticipation of future interaction, deviance are motivations for info seeking in THIS theory
uncertainty reduction thoery
name two types of uncertainty
cognitive- beliefs and attitudes
behavioral- predicability of actions
finding someone on facebook is an (-----) strategy for reducing uncertainty
observing someone you think is cute across the classroom is a (-----) strategy for reducing uncertainty
talking to your crush and getting their number is an (-----) strategy for reducing uncertainty